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the law, and could not be neglected with thanksgiving for the harvest. The last impunity. The violation of them was harvest of the year was the vintage, strictly and severely punished. But the and it is with this that the feast of Israelites might, besides these, also ob- tabernacles had to do. In Exod. xxiii. serve other sacred times and seasons of 16, it is called 'the feast of ingathering, their own choice, or of human appoint which is in the end of the year." It ment. Thus in later times festivals may, therefore, be considered the real grew up which were observed as gene- barvest festival of the year, occurring rally as those commanded in the law. in the most delightful season of the year, Such, for instance, was the feast of after the heat of summer was over and dedication mentioned in John x. 22, before the cool weather of the rainy and also the feast mentioned in John season had set in, wben the labors of the vi. which is supposed to be that of year were ended, and all its products Purim, a festival instituted in memory were gathered in. The boughs (literally of the great deliverance of the Jews in fruit) of goodly trees. In later times the time of Mordecai and Esther. But the apples of the citron were understood individuals might at any time, being here; and these, together with branches prompted by gratitude for some partic- of palm trees, etc., were carried about ular favor, or moved by some special in the hand during the continuance of desire, determine to offer peace-offer- the festival. In this way the people ings, and thus observe a sacred feast expressed their rejoicing and thanksunto the Lord. The festivals of the giving for the fruits of the land. The Christian Church, which are generally custom of decorating churches for harobserved by all denominations, such as vest and Christmas festivals may find Advent, Christmas, Good Friday, some support here, and is certainly not Easter, Ascension day, and Whitsun- wrong. tide, rest upon no positive command of VERS. 42-44.— Ye shall dwell in the New Testament, but have originated booths. In tents or sheds made of the spontaneously, in commemoration of the branches and leaves of trees. These great facts of divine revelation in the were erected on the flat roofs and in person and history of Christ. The ob- the open courts of the houses, in the servance of them is, therefore, eminent- streets and open places of the city, and ly right and proper. If it be objected even in the courts of the temple. See that the observance of them is not ex- Neh. viii. 16. This must have been a pressly commanded in the Scriptures, delightful way of spending a week durwe have only to remember that we now ing the pleasant weather in October, live under the dispensation of the Gos. after the labors of the year were ended. pel, not under that of the law, and that That your generations may know, etc. Christ Himself by His presence and Here we have an expression of the participation honored festivals which design of this ordinance, namely, to resied upon no divine command. commemorate the mercies shown to the

VERS. 38-41.- When ye have gathered fathers during their sojourn of forty in the fruit of the land. Each of the years in the wilderness. Israel must three great festivals bad some reference never forget the works which Jebovah to the products of the earth. The wrought in the time of their fathersbarley harvest, the first of the year, co- their deliverance from Egypt, their incided in time with the passover ; journey through the wilderness, their and on the second day of that feast, miraculous preservation, their settle“the morrow after the Sabbath" (verse ment in Canaan. So we ought never 11) “the wave sheaf” was offered in to forget our past deliverances and connection with other appropriate sacri- mercies; and festivals, and days of fices, previous to which ceremony no thanksgiving, designed to keep alive a one was allowed to eat of the new fruits grateful sense of these deliverances and of the season. Pentecost, or the feast mercies, are highly appropriate. of weeks, had more particular reference We see then that the feast of taberto the wheat harvest, and the service nacles had a two-fold meaning and deconnected with it was a service of sign. In the first place it was designed to be a harvest festival, when by thanks-eight at night. His parents were very giving and prayer all the products of poor, and he well knew that his must the earth were to be sanctified. (1 Tim. be a boyhood of very hard labor. But iv. 4-5). This was probably its primi- then and there, in that buzzing factory, tive significance. But in the second he resolved that he would obtain an place it was designed also to be a education, and would become an intelmemorial feast or celebration of the ligent and useful man. With his very miraculous preservation of Israel in the first week's wages he purchased Ruddiwilderness. In the historical books of man's Rudiments of Latin. He then the Old Testament the feat of taber-entered an evening school, which met nacles is mentioned only twice, the first between the hours of eight and ten. He time in connection with the dedication paid the expenses of his instruction out of Solomon's temple, which occurred of his own hard earnings. At the age during the time of this feast (1 Kings of sixteen, he could read Virgil and viii. 2), and the second time in an ac- Horace as readily as the pupils of the count of iis celebration in the time of Eoglish grammar schools. Nehemiah (Neh. viii. 16-18), where it He next began a course of self-inis declared that the feast had never be-struction. He had been advanced in the fore, since the time of Joshua, been ob- factory from a “piecer” to the spinningserved. That this is not to be under- jenny. He brought his books to the stood literally is plain from the refer- factory, and placing one of them on the ence in 1 Kings viii. 2. The meaning “jenny," with the lessson open before probably is that the dwelling in booths, him, he divided his attention between was a new feature which had not before the running of the spindles and the rudibeen observed, while as a harvest or ments of knowledge. He now began to vintage festival the feast may always aspire to become a preacher and a mishave been in honor. In the times of sionary, and to devote his life in some the New Testament the feast of taber- self-sacrificing way to the good of mannacles was celebrated with great pomp, kind. He entered Glasgow University. and several ceremonies were observed He knew that he must work his way; which are not mentioned in the Old but he also knew the power of resolution, Testament. The events in the life of and he was willing to make almost any our Lord recordea in John vii.-viii. oc sacrifice to gain the end. He worked at curred at this feast. The exclamation cotton-spinning in the summer, lived of Christ (John vii. 37-38), “If any frugally, and applied his savings to his man thirst, let him come unto me, and college studies in the winter. He comdrink,” is supposed to have been oc- pleted the allotted course, and at the casioned by the custom of every morn- close was able to say, with praiseworthy ing of the feast, drawing water in a pride, “I never had a farthing that I golden vessel from the fountain of did not earn." Siloam, and pouring it upon the altar. That boy was Dr. David Livingas a drink-offering; while the declara- stone. -Chatterbox. tion (John viii, 12), “ I am the light of the world.” is accounted for by the Out of 1000 published books 600 custom of every evening illuminating never pay the cost of printing ; 200 just the temple by means of two great lamps. pay expenses ; 100 return a slight profit: wbich spread their light over a great

and fewer still show a substantial gain, part of the city and afforded occasions

Of these 1000 books, 650 are forgotten of much rejoicing to the people.

by the end of the yiar, and 150 more at the end of three years; only 50 sur

vive seven years' publicity. Men have A Glasgow Factory Boy.— Just been writing books these three thousand above the wharves of Glasgow, on the years, and there are scarcely 500 that banks of the Clyde, there once lived a have survived the forgetfulness of man; factory-boy, whom I will call Davie. and not 50 of the 500 are kuown to the At the age of ten, he entered a cotton mass of ordinarily intelligent readers in factory as “ piecer.” He was employed any one country of the globe. “But the from six o'clock in the morning till Word of God liveth and abideth forever.”


1881. Sunday before Advent. KEY-NOTE: "But according to his promise, we look for a new heavens and a new

earth, wherein dwelleth righteousness." 26t.sirs



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8. And thou shalt number seven Sabbaths of you : ye shall eat the increase thereot out of the years unto thee, seven times seven years; and field. the space of the seven Sabbaths of years shall 13. In the year of jubilee ye shall return be unto thee forty and nine years.

every man unto his possession. 9. Then shalt thou cause the trumpet of the 1 14. And if thou sell aught upto thy neighbor, jubilee to sound on the tenth day of the seventh or buyest aughi of thy neighbor's hand, ye shall month, in the day of atonement shall ye make not oppress one another : the trumpet sound throughout all your land. 15. According to the number of years after

10. And ye shall ballow the fiftieth year, and the jubilee shalt thou buy of thy neighbor, and proclaim liberty throughout all the land unto according to the number of the years of the all the inhabitants thereof: it shall be a jubilee fruits he shall sell unto thee: unto you; and ye shall return every man unto 16. According to the multitude of years thou his possession, and ye shall return every man shalt increase the price thereof, and according unto his family.

to the fewness of years thou shalt diminish the 11. A jubilee shall that fiftieth year be unto price thereof: for according to the number of the you: ye shall not sow, neither reap that which years of the fruits doth he sell unto tbee. groweth of itself in it, nor gather the grapes in 17. Ye shall not therefore oppress one another ; it of thy vine undressed.

but thou shalt fear thy God : for I am the Lord 12. For it is a jubilee ; it shall be holy unto your God.


What is the key-note of this day? When , between Hebrew and foreign slaves ? What will this transformation take place ? How is should this differenoe teach us ? the Gospel related to this theme?

VERSES 11-13. Were the Israelites allowed What is the subject of to-day's lesson? What to cultivate the earth during this year? Were other sacred vear is prescribed in the law? they allowed to reap what grew spontaneously? Verses 1-7. How often did the Sabbath year | But might they eat of it? Were the same reoccur? How was it to be observed ? What was strictions put upon thein during the year prethe design of this? What is the meaning of the ceding the jubilee? Could this ever lead to want? word jubilee What was the character of the Verses 20-22. Does the increase of the earth year of jubilee? What was the object of its depend as much upon the divine blessing as appointment?

upon human cultivation ? What is it that VERSES 8-9. At what intervals of time did makes constant and hard labor necessary ? Of the jubilee year occur? How many Sabbath what then was the year of jubilee a type ?

ed within a jubilee period? VERSES 14-16. On what conditions could the How was the year of jubilee to be introduced ? Israelites buy and sell land ? Could this ever When was it to b gin? Why on the day of lead to fraud ? How was the price of land or atonement ? Is it likely that the Sabbath year real estate regulated ? Was this a wise law in a began at the same season ?

political point of view ? Did it tend to prevent VERSE 10. Was the year of jubilee a holy the accumulation of great wealth by a few ? Did year? To whom was liberty proclaimed in this it tend also to prevent poverty? How did it year? Did all debtors obtain release from influence the contraction of debt ? debt? If persons had lost their land in any VERSE 17. How were the Israelites to deal way, was it restored to them in the year of jubi. | with one another? Why? How should Chris. lee? Who was the real owner of the land? tians deal with one another? Is this ideal ever How was it originally divided among the Israel. | realized ? What do we know of the actual obites? Is God the absolute owner of all land ? servence of the year of jubilea ia Israel? What Did slaves also regain their liberty in the year then was the siguification of the institution ? Isa. of jubilee? What exception was there to this Ixi. 1-3. Luke iv. 18-19. When will the state law? How long only could Hebrew slaves be of things which it typifies, be realized ? See retained ? Why was this differenc: mide key-note.

Jerusalem the golden!

With milk and honey blest;
Beneath Tny contemplation

Sink heart and voice opprest.

I know not, Oh! I know not

What joys await us there,
What radiancy of glory,

What bliss beyond compare !

lesson in the chaptacred year the year

NOTES.—This is the last Sunday of ginal condition. The object of its the Christian year. It has been called appointment was, therefore, probably, the Sunday of heaven and hell, because to prevent the evils which result from these are the subjects which claim the a too unequal distribution of wealth, to Christian's special attention on this day. promote sentiments of equality, kindThe leading thought of the Epistle, ex-ness and charity, and to awaken longpressed in the key-note, is the trans- ings and hopes of a future total formation of the present world, and the deliverance from the power and curse introduction of a new heavenly order of of sin. existence (new heaven and new earth), VERSES 8-9. Seven sabbaths of years, which will be brought to pass at the i. e., seven times seven, or forty-nine end of time. The Gospel for the day years. The year of jubilee, however, teaches both the sudden and unex- was not the forty ninth, but the fiftieth pected approach of these things, and year, as the 10th verse expressly states. the unbroken blessedness of the saints The jubilee period, therefore, embraced in the heavenly state, as well as the seven sabbaih years, the last of which hopeless despair of those who have immediately preceded the year of jufailed to enter into that state.

bilee. There were, accordingly, two The year of jubilee. Besides the year jubilee years in a century. Cause the of jubilee, another sacred year is men- trumpet of the jubilee to sound. Literally: tioned in the chapter from which our Cause a sounding trumpet to pass through lesson is taken, namely, the Sabbath (the land). The year was, accordingly, year. This occurred every seventh ushered in by the loud and joyful sound year, as the Sabbath occurs every of the trumpet. On the tenth day of the seventh day, whence its name. During seventh month. The seventh month this year the earh was not to be culti- of the sacred year, called Tishri. corvated, and that which it brought forth respouding to our October, was the first spor taneously was not to be barvested. month of the natural or civil year. The labors of the husbandman were to the day of atonement. Probably at cease entirely. The fruits of the earth 1 close of this day, when all the were to be eaten by all alike, rich and lemn services were ended. The year poor, and were therefore to be left in of liberty and restoration could approthe field, so that the poor might be priately begin only on this day, after able to help themselves freely. See full atonement was made for all past verse 12, and Exod. xxiii. 11. The de- sins. It is likely that the sabbath year sign of this was to protect the poor, to commenced at the same time. From a teach the people their dependence upon natural point of view, no other time God for earthly blessings, to pre- was so appropriate as this, when the vent them from becoming too worldly harvests of the one year were all gaand eager in the pursuit of earthly thered in, and the seeding for the next treasures, and to cultivate the spirit of had not yet commenced. religion and piety, and the idea and VERSE 10. Ye shall hallow the fiftihope of a blessed rest beyond this eth year. To hallow something is to life. The year of jubilee is a further regard and treat it as holy. The year development of the idea and meaning of jubilee, being sanctified by Jehovah, involved in the institution of the Sab- is iherefore a holy year, and it is to be bath year. The word jubilee (He- regarded and treated as such. Proclaim brew yobel) signifies a cry or shout of liberty throughout all the land, i. e., all joy. The year of jubilee accordingly Hebrews, who in any way whatever, had was a year of rejoicing and of glad- lost their freedom of life or property, reness. In it, as in the Sabbath year, gained that freedom in the year of jubithe earth remained untilled, all debts lee. All debts were cancelled, and the were cancelled, slaves gained their lib- unhappy debtor had nothing more to erty, and lands were restored to their fear from the rapacity of hungry credioriginal owners. It was, therefore, a tors. Lands which had been for feited or year of restoration, when the effects of sold, reverted to the original owners. Ye human sin, imprudence, greed and ava- shall return every man unto his possession, rice were wiped out, and all things, etc. The theory in regard to The tepure restored or brought back into their ori- of real estate in Israel was that Jehovah is the real owner of all. This is ex- this, the Lord promises His special pressed in verse 23. He has given it to blessing in the sixth year; so that the Israel to hold and to occupy on certain produce of this year, when carefully conditious, one of these being that it husbanded, might be sufficient for the shall not be alienated. When Canaan two succeeding years. Besides, the was conquered under Joshua, the land spontaneous productions of the earth was divided among the different tribes were allowed to be eaten at all times ; and families by lot, and these were to and these might, in consequecce of a hold it afterwards in perpetuity. An special divine blessing, be very large. Israelite, therefore, couid neither abso- It is the curse of sterility and barrenlutely forfeit. or sell his land, but only ness, which has come up n the earth in the use thereof for a term of years, and consequence of the fall, (Gen. iii. 17-19) in the year of jubilee it reverted to that causes the ground to be unfruitful, him. This law could work no hardship and causes hard and constant labor to to creditors, because its provisions were be necessary. Hence the increase of well understood. Under the operations the earth depends as much upon divine of the law, no debtor would have been blessing as upon human cultivation and likely to obtain credit for more than labor. In a world free from the curse the lease of his land was worth for the of sin the spontaneous productions of term of years which remained till the nature, with but very little exertion on next jubilee. One of the happiest pro- the part of man, would be sufficient to visions of the year of jubilee was that it maintain him. The increased fertility brought liberty to the slave and re- of the earth in the year preceding the stored him to his family and friends. sabbath year, and the easy sabbatic life Indeed, no Hebrew man could be en- during this and the year of jubilee, may slaved longer than seven years, and at therefore remind us of the pristine vigor the end of this period he became free. of the earth in its Paradisaic state, and See Exod. xxi. 1-6. But the arrival of serve as a type and prophecy also of the year of jubilee cut short all terris the character of that new earth wherein of service, and brought liberty to ni. dwelleth righteousness. This law, however, applied only to I- VERSES 14-16. According to the nnm. brews, who, in consequence of debt, og ber of years after the jubilee thou shalt for some other cause, were brought into buy, etc. According to the law here bondage, while fureign slaves, who had under consideration, the Isralite could either been captured in war or pur- vever sell his land absolutely or in fee chased with money, were excepted from simple. Whether it was sold fur debt, its provisions. These, however, were at or whether it was sold by the owner liberty to accept the religion of their voluntarily, it revert d to that owner in Israelitish masters, and might then the year of jubilee. The provisions of claim the benefits of Israelitish law. this law being well understood, it conld This difference should teach us that the scarcely ever lead to fraud. If a man blessings of redemption belong only to bought a piece of land, he knew that he the people of God. Those who refuse to could retain the use thereof only until identify themselves with the people of the year of jubilee; and the price God, have no claims to those blessings. thereof would, therefore, be dttermined

VERSES 11-13. Ye shall not sow, by the number of years intervening beneither reap that which groweth of itself. tween the time of sale and the next The same as in the sabbath year. Ye year of jubilee. The only wrong that shall cat the increase thereof out of the could be perpetrated, then, would be in field. The spontaneous productions of determination of the price; ard to this the earth, which are sometimes and in refers the injunction : ye shall not oppress some regions very large, must remain one another. In a political point of where they have grown until they view this was a wise law. It tended to ere consumed. This provision was in- prevent the accumulation of property tended for the special benefit of the in the hands of a few persons, and the poor. Thus the earth remained untilled extension of poverty among the masses for two years in succession. To prevent of the people. It limited the contracapprehensions of want in consequence of tion of debt on the part of the extrava

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