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account of the corruption of our poli- in order to appear the fairer yourself tics! It is not so. Many evils neces- by the false contrast. Be true, and fair, sarily go along with free government, and honest, in your denunciation of corbut we have no vile oppression here, for ruption and wrong, and you will still instance, in Pennsylvania. But do not have enough of that work to do. corrupt political bosses rule the people, III. And now a third thought ocand does not the political machine grind curs: the way to correct political corthem down into the very dust? Is it ruption, allowing as we do that it exists, pot admitted that any of the parties lies not so much in party mechanical when in power oppress the people, and organizations and external management bribe, and lie, and steal? Is it not all and method, as in the cultivation of a grab-game for office, and a frantic private virtue. We do not undervalue rush for the spoils? Que would, indeed, the power of “machinery" for good or think that our politics are a very pande-evil. When the “political machine” monium, and expect to see a veritable comes to be used for corruption, another smoking Tophet, and the people roast- machine may have some power to correct ing in it, to listen to the exaggerations the evil. Such machinery is undoubtthat are indulged in when this subject edly necessary in order to carry on our is spoken of. And yet, visit our well-political life. So, at least, it seems. to-do farmers and observe their happy There is much of it introduced even infamilies, their quiet, serene, life, or go to our education pow-a-days, under the into our towns and cities and observe head of " methods of teaching," &c. the prosperous business, and the good We do not undervalue methods and living of the laboring man, compare all plans and schemes. But the hard work these with the coudition of things in the of reforming the evils of society falls monarchies of the old world, and then back at last upon the virtuous formation say whether we are suffering so terribly of individual character. The two exert from the awful corruption of our a mutual influence, we know, but the politics.
Jasting moulding power comes from inThere is corruption in all the walks dividual character. A few bad individof life, in business and trade, in the ual characters will leaven a whole social circle, everywhere, but balance organization, and if they do not entirely against this the honesty and integrity of corrupt it they at least give it bad iepthe majority of our business men, and tation. And so also strong good inthe purity of the majority of our homes. dividual characters will operate to inWhy not do the same in ref-rence to our spire virtue into the mass. governmental affairs? Why speak of Where, then, are we to form individour happy social life, and of our pros- ual good character? In the family, in perous business life, and then find only the school, and above all under the corruption so soon as we come into the moulding power of the religion of sphere of political life?
Christ. It may be said that they have But, it is said, eternal vigilance is the been tried and still they do not suffice. price of liberty, and we must exaggerate But for whatever good we find in our the evil in order to prevent corruption. modern civilization over the degradation We do not believe it. Exaggeration, I of heatbenism, we are indebted to even in the pulpit, where it is often Christianity, and, as factors in its bosom, found, does not lessen, it rather pro- to faithful family training and good motes the evil. Faith in men is essential schools. These are the common beneto the maintenance of the social fabric. ficent powers that, like the air we Let that once be lost, and the founda- breathe, are not indeed so much obtions are gone.
served and noted as great boasting plans Some men exaggerate the pre- of reformation, but they are, after all, vailing corruption in order to pub- the reliable powers to mould our civili
sh and exalt their own immaculate zation. virtue. But instead of justifying exag- I Let a pure Christianity be reverenced geration, such egotism, vanity, hypo- and honored, let family goverpment and crisy and selfishness, only damns it discipline be encouraged and mainDo not seek to blacken your antagonist tained, and let our good schools go on
doing their daily work, and we will not BEGINNINGS OF THE REFORMED fail of good citizens, and through them
CHURCH. our political life will at least be preserved from utter corruption. The lesson is
BY THE EDITOR. not far-fetched nor startling, it appears even commonplace, but it is none the
No. V. less true, that the promotion of private virtue and the formation of good in
The Defence of the Catechism. dividual character, are the true supporters of public virtue and political integ- The Heidelberg Catechism is so mild rity. And so we close our remarks on and pacific in its general character that our political degeneracy—AND ITS we can hardly realize how its publication ANTIDOTE.
could have given the signal for one of the most violent conflicts in the history of the church. No doubt its authors did
not expect their work to be received THE SILENT SEARCHERS.
without question, but the fierceness of
the attacks which it invoked must bave When the darkness of night has fallen,
far exceeded their anticipations. The And the birds are fast asleep,
Roman Catholics were of course its bitter An army of silent searchers
enemies. The Council of Trent, which From the dusky shadows creep;
had been in session for many years, was And over the quiet meadows Or amid the waving treees,
just coming to a close. Though ostenThey wander about with their tiny lamps sibly called to restore peace to the church That flash in the evening breeze.
it had but served to intensify the existing
bitterness. It had been entirely under And this army of silent searchers,
Jesuit influence; the Protestants had Each with his flickering light,
not been heard, and the apathemas by Wanders about till the morning
which they were condemned were unexHas driven away the night. What treasures they may be seeking
ampled in their violence. It has been No man upon earth can know;
said that "nobody can curse like the Perhaps 'tis the home of the fairies pope," and the council certainly adeWho lived in the long ago.
quately expressed the papal sentiments.
It is not impossible that the publicaFor an ancient legend tells us
tion of these anathemas may have That once, when the fairy king
some influence on the elector Frederick, Had summoned his merry minstrels in inducing him to insist on the insertion, At the royal feast to sing,
in the second edition of the catechism, of The moon, high over the tree-tops, With the stars refused to shine,
the celebrated 80th question, in which And an army with tiny torches
the mass is declared to be “ an accursed Was called from the oak and pine. idolatry.” Compared with the decrees
of the council this was a moderate stateAnd when, by the imps of darkness, ment. It did not curse individual opThe fairies were chased away,
ponents, as the Roman Catholics bad The army began its searching
done, but was at most a very emphatic At the close of a dreary day;
assertion of the grounds which had inThrough all the years that have followed The seekers have searched the night,
duced Protestants to reject the mass. Piercing the gloom of the hours
The Roman church had to some extent With the flash of the magic light. recovered from the first shock caused by
the attacks of the Reformers, and the Would you see the magical army ?
leaders were now ready to renew the Then come to the porch with me! conflict. They had, however, been held Yonder among the hedges
back to some extent, by the treaty of And near the maple tree, Over the fields of clover
Augsburg which recognized the existen And down in the river-damp,
of Protestantism in the German Empire. The fire-flies search till the morning, If now it could be made to appear that Each with his flickering lamp.
the Reformed church did not hold to the - Henry Ripley Dorr. Augsburg confession, and was thus ex.
cluded from the terms of the peace, it would kindly inform you that we have might be crushed without hesitation, and never been greatly troubled to know Protestantism would be made to suffer what Zwingli and Calvin wrote, and greatly without being afforded an op- have not read their books. ... If it is portunity for retaliation. The fact that Zwinglianism and Calvinism to suppose the Heidelberg catechism had, in unmis- that the elements in the Lord's Supper takable language declared the universal | are mere signs, and that the body and sentiment of Protestants with reference blood of Christ are not present, or reto the mass, was enough to exasperate ceived, we beg to inform you that this is the Romanists to employ all possible not our view of the subject and that we means for its suppression.
are unjustly suspected of holding it, The extreme Lutheran party way bardly | inasmuch as the true and living presence less violent. Hesshusius, the contro- of the body and blood of Christ in versialist whom Frederick had expelled the Lord's Supper is in our churches from Heidelberg, saw his opportunity, preached, taught, and believed. That and at his instigation the pulpits of you may not suppose that our words and northern Germany rang with denuncia- deeds do not agree we would inform you, tions. The catechism was charged with that we require of our ministers and teaching doctrines contrary to the Augs- theologians to offer the following testiburg confession, especially with refer- mony concerning the Lord's Supper, ence to the person of Christ and the namely: Lord's Supper, and the emperor and That we do not therein receive bread princes were adjured to employ and wine alone, as holy, divine signs and the sword of secular power for the de- seals (as the Holy Scriptures as well as struction of heresy. Several princes the Augsburg confession and the Apology united in an address to the elector Frede- call them); nor that we receive only rick, in which they not only accused him the merits of Jesus Christ alone nor His of having renounced the Augsburg Divinity alone, but the Lord Christ confession, but warned him that “Zwin- | wholly and completely, true God and glianism and Calvinism is a seditious man, His real body and real blood which spirit (spiritus seditiosus) which wherever was broken and shed for us upon the it breaks out seeks to control the govern cross—also all His merits, benefits, heavment, and causes disturbances not only eply treasures, blessings, and eternal life with foreign powers but among the sub-1-truly, without all deception and not ject people. "
in me e fancy, but substantially, re ipsa, : In describing a storm it is in vain to by the power and effect of the Holy attempt to speak of every single blast. Spirit; and all this is given and presented The elector's troubles rapidly accumu- to us by the Lord Himself, through faith, lated. Even his household was divided, as the meat and drink of our souls ; and and his eldest son Louis, who ruled the also that we thereby have complete comUpper Palatinate as his father's repre- munion with Christ, becoming true sentative, took sides with the extreme members of His blessed body, so that He Lutheran party. All this opposition how- lives and remains in us and we in Him ever only served to fortify Frederick in | forever.” his position ; he proceeded to remove It might seem to the modern reader pictures and crucifixes from the churches, as though this strong confession ougbt to and introduced the Calvinistic form of have satisfied Frederick's opponents that church government, which many of the he believed in the doctrine of the real German princes regarded as treason to presence, but it was far from having this the privileges of their order. In reply effect. “What is it after all,” they into the accusations brought agaiost him, quired, “but a Calvinistic confession ? he calmly asserted his faithful adher- Does it not represent the humanity of ence to the Augsburg confession. With Christ as conveyed by the Holy Spirit, regard to the question of the real pres-through faith, as the meat and drink of ence, his declarations were clear and our souls ?” The confession was objecdecided. Tbus he says in his reply to tionable to the extremists because it did
the princes ; who had accused him of explicitly declare tbat Christ's humanity · Zwinglianism and Calvinism: “Wel is present in the sacrament “under the form of bread and wine," being thus meeting of the diet, and Frederick was orally received by unbelievers as well as cited to appear. believers. On the other hand there was This citation was a very serious matter. a more moderate Lutheran party which It was well known that the majority of was willing to accept Frederick’s con- the princes proposed to exclude the elecfession as substantially in accordance tor from the terms of the treaty of Augs. with the Augsburg confession, and it was burg, which would have deprived him owing in great measure to their silent of his government, and perhaps even influence and support that the elector | | bave cost his lite. His brother, Richard was able to sustain bimself during these of Simmern, warned him of the danger of dark and trying hours.
attending the diet, but he exclaimed:
“I believe that God who has brought THE SECOND HELVETIC CONFESSION. | me to a knowledge of His Gospel still
reigns, and if it should cost my blood, I Immediately after the publication of
| would regard martyrdom as an honor for the Heid-lberg Catechism Olevianus had
| which I could not sufficiently thank Him sent a copy of the book to Bullinger, ac
in time or eternity.” companied by a letter in which he said :
The diet met in Augsburg on the 230 • If there is any good in this book we
of March 1566. The emperor and emowe a great part of it to you and to other
press appeared with a magnificent renoble spirits in Switzerland.” In reply
eply tinue, and were welcomed with extraorBullinger said: “I regard this as the dina,
| dinary festivities. At the beginning of best catechism that has ever been written.
the meeting the Protestant delegates held May God crown it with His blessing.” These intimate relations between Switzer
what might now be called a “caucus,"
in which they determined to prepare an land and the Palatinate continued, and
address to the emperor, demanding when Frederick found himself in trouble
greater religious liberty; but they at the he wrote to Bullinger, requesting him to
same time resolved not to allow Frederick prepare a full confession of the doctrines of the R-formed church.
to sign the petition unless he should first
This confes- satisfactorily explain his views concern. sion, which was published by Frederick
ing the Lord's Supper. Several princes in 1566, was primarily intended to serve
even insisted that he must sign what was as a defense against those who said that
designed to be an “iron clad "confession, the Reformed churches were at variance
to the effect that "the real body and among themselves; but it actually ben
c blood are actually present in the sacracabe a bond which united the church of ment under the form of bread and wine, the Palatinate with those of Switzerland
and are offered and received with the and France. In this way Henry Bul
visible elements; that the aforesaid true linger was not only instrumental in
body and blood are not only spiritually uniting the followers of Calvin with those
but corporeally presented and received, of Zwingli, but succeeded in bringing the
so that through the communion of His church of Frederick III into the same
flesh and blood Christ dwells in us corcommunion.
poreally; and also that Christ is not only
in us spiritually through His love but THE DIET OF AUGSBURG.
also by natural commuoion."* The emperor Maximilian II, who had | A few days after these proceedings ascended the throne in 1564, was a man Frederick arrived, and it soon became of extraordinary ability. Though a evident that his presence was producing Catholic he was more liberal than any of a reaction. Those who had never before his predecessors, and he was even sup- seen him were impressed by his evident posed to be secretly inclined to Protest- sincerity, and this favorable impression antism. He had addressed a friendly was heightened by several eloquent serwarning to the elector Frederick imme- mons preached by his chaplain. diately after the publication of the The elector quietly but firmly declined Heidelberg Catechism, but seemed disin- / to sign any new confessions, insisting clined to carry matters further. The importunity of the German princes, * Heppe's History of German Protestantism, however, finally induced him to call a 2, p. 120.
that he had done as much as could justly resolved " that he was in full accordance be expected by declaring his adherence with the confession in the article of to the coofession of Augsburg. He also justification by faith, which had caused entered a formal protest against being the schism in the church, and in many tried for his faith until the Saxon the other articles, but that he did not fully ologians and those of Würtemberg bad accept the article concerning the Lord's come to an agreement among themselves. Supper. As, however, he had indicated His danger was, however, by no means his willingness to yield to proofs taken at an end ; and at one time it was cur- from the word of God, they would in rently reported in Heidelberg that the due time seek to convince him of his elector had been arrested and executed. error. In the mean time the princes
On the 14th of May the emperor pro- had no desire to oppress the Elector of posed a decree commanding Frederick the Palatinate, or others, in Germany or to abstain from introducing “Calvinistic in foreign lands, who might vary from novelties,” and requiring him to restore the confession in one or more articles, to the Roman church the property of and thus to increase the sufferiogs of the certain convents which had been alien-conf ssors of Christ.” ated by the civil power. During the This action of the diet had been endiscussion of this measure the elector tirely unexpected. Frederick returned was required to absent himself from the to Heidelberg and was received with assembly; but after its adoption he re- great rejoicing, and was now permitted entered the ball followed by his favorite to proceed unmolested in his work of son Jobn Casimir, whom he called his Reformation. The sacramental contro“spiritual armor-bearer," the latter car-versy was, however, by no means conrying the Bible and the Augsburg con- cluded. In the Lutheran church, fession. On this occasion he offered his especially, it continued to rage with memorable defense of which the follow- great violence, until finally a number ing is a brief extract : “I am still of the of German princes followed the example opinion that in matters of faith I have of Frederick and with many of their but a single master who is the King of people furmally passed over to the Rekings and Lord of lords ; therefore I am formed church. not troubled about my head, but about my soul which is in the hands of God who
FREDERICK'S LATER YEARS. created it. .. I have never read Calvin's The Elector of the Palatinate was now works, and therefore do not kvow whetber known as Frederick the Pious, and he you are right in calling me a Calvinist, well deserved bis honorable title. In but I confess that my catechism contains bis efforts for the upbuilding of the the substance of my faith ; it is so forti-church he was indefatigable. The fied with proofs from the Scriptures that University of Heidelberg flourished as it cannot be refuted. Finally, I am it had never done before, and was withal comforted by the a-surance that my Lord pervaded by an earnest Christian spirit. and Saviour Jesus Christ has given un'o | The oppressed and persecuted Protestants me and all believers this blessed promise, of foreign countries found in bim a friend that all we lose here for His name's sake and protector. When the Reformed will be restored to us a hundred fold in people of the Netherlands Aed from the the world to come.”
inurderous tyranny of the Duke of Alva, The effect was the elector's defense and settled by thousands in the lower was very great. At its conclusion Au. Rbine provinces of Germany, Frederick gustus of Saxony put his hand on his not only relieved their necessities but shoulder and said: “Fritz, thou art sent his court-preacher Dathenus to or. more pious than the whole of us !” The ganize them into churches. After the margrave of Baden also said to the dreadful massacre of St. Bartholomew princes at the close of the session : “ Why he sent an army, under the command trouble ye the elector? He has more of his favorite son John Casimir, to aid piety than all of us together.” When the persecuted Huguenots. Another of the emperor finally inquired whether bis eons lost his life in battle in the NeFrederick was to be regarded as stand therlands, but the father consoled him. ing under the Augsburg confession it was leelt with the thought that he had died