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to Calmet) contains less thar^jo French Pints, which are not so much, as fix Gallons of our Measure; but Lamy sets it still lower, and makes it hold very little more than 20 French Pints, i. e. under four Gallons of our Measure. Nay, Le Clerks and others mentioned by Calmet, fay, that the ju.t1prrrig held about twenty-five French Pounds of Water, which falls ihort of three Gallons of our Measure; and the Learned Bisliop Cumberland (supposing the /ut,i1prrr)is of Syria to be here intended) computes it to have held left than one English Gallon, so that, according to this reckoning, the wholes* Water-Tots might not contain more than about fourteen or fifteen Gallons of English Measure.
But not to reduce the Measure so low, jf WW) -lt we will suppose, at present, that the was no Quantity of Wine, made by our Saviour Jf^n®" at this Feast, was as large as our Translation represents it; yet, whoever considers the Nature of Jewish Marriages, 10 how they were celebrated with Feasting and Rejoycings, not only on the Day of Solemnity (as it is with us) but for six or severj Days after; and that, at these Feasts, not only all their Relations, Neighbours, and Acquaintance Were invited, but that it was well taken
likewise; 2 Dr. team's Vind, Part 3. p. sS,
likewise if any others (tho* not invited) would come to partake of the Entertainment, and bear a share in the Joy: Whoever considers this, I fay, cannot but imagine, that a very large Quantity of Wine must needs be requisite, at such a time, and that, if the resort of a greaterCompany, than was expected (as it is not improbable that many more, than were expected, would come, on purpose to see Christ and his Disciples) had occasioned a Deficiency herein, the Wine, which our Saviour miraculously produced, was to be a Supply, not for that Day only, but for all the succeeding Days, until the Time of the Feasting was expir'd. kn ra- Nay, even supposing that our Lord, ther Cm- upon this Occasion, did not confine himSfiSr self t0 a Precise Quantity, proportionate to the Company, or Period of the festivals and (what is more) n that some of the Company might abuse his Liberality by their Intemperance (which is a Concession, that cannot be gathered from the 'text) yet can't he therefore be charg'd with ministringto that Excess, by making such an ample Provision, any more, than we can charge the Providence of God with being instrumental to all the Qhttony, and Drunkenness, which is
J JYlitly in John ii« io«
committed in the World, merely because it affords that Meat and Drink, which Men of inordinate Appetites abuse to Excels. The Truth is, as it is an high Commendation of Providence, that it crowns us with Plenty (whatever use we make of it) and bestows upon us all Things richly to enjoy; so was it not unbecoming a Person, invested with a divine Commission, to give, on this Occasion, an eminent Instance of his flowing Liberality, and, by his generous Provision for the Family, to leave a grateful Memorial'of his benevolent Regard to two Persons, that were his Relations, and had just enter'd into the honourable State of Matrimony.
But there is a farther Consideration, that might possibly induce our Lord, when he was turning the Water into Wine, to make more than what was immediately wanted, and that is, the clearer Proof and Demonstration of the Miracle. ° The Wits of Cana might fancy that the Wedding-Guests were all intoxicated, that they had lost their Taste, and cou'd not distinguish between Wine and Punch: But when these Scepticks heard, that some of this wonderful Wine was left, and might perhaps taste of it themselves, and be forced to ac-*
know? S Stevenson'$ Conference vipon the Miracles, p, 6}*
knowledge that it was really good Wine, as the Guests reported it to be ; this must have put an End to all their Cavils, and given them full conviction of Christ's Divine Power, as indeed the Evangelist tells us, that the Effect of this Miracle was Pthe Manifestation of his Glory. Why he It is to be observed, however, that • £au-*a worfc'ng tnis Miracle our Saviour iy work (contrary to his usual Practice) stood !hlLMi" upon the Reserve, and did not immediately gratify his Mother's Defire. In the following part of his Ministry, we find him frequently complying with the Peoples first Requests; but his Circumstances then and now were different. 9 When his Fame had been spread abroad through all the Regions round about, and every Tongue set forth his noble Acts, it better became him, as Occasions offer'd, readily to exert his Power: but, at present, he was not known to the World; his Disciples were but sew and fresh comers, and even his most intimate Acquaintance had not any due Apprehensions concerning him. Now he, who made the Glory of God, and the Good of Souls his principal Aim, was oblig'd to set out warily, and to stop, as much as might be, the Mouth
T John ii. 11. * Stanhopes Epist. & Gosp. vol. 1, p.$<J.
of Prejudice and Cavil: And nothing could go farther towards fixing him a general Reputation, than Modesty. To put himself forward of his own Accord, or to yield to a Mother's first Motions, might look like an Eagerness 'to catch at Admiration and Applause,- to fall in with an intemperate Zeal for advancing his own Honour, and a shewing what he could do, rather than discerning what was fit for him to do. And therefore when his Mother came, and acquainted him, that her Friends were in danger of wanting Wine for the Company, he return'd her an Answer, in Terms so seemingly rough, that Interpreters have been at some trouble about their Meaning; Woman, what have I to do with thee? my Hour is not yet come.
We mistake the Matter much how- His Anever, if we think, that the Word ywh, fi?" to which we render Woman, was anv Title h,!s Mo" of Disrespect or Indifference; (as it seems piasn'd. to be in our Translation) 'for it is frequently us'd by the best Authors, when the highest Marks of Esteem are intended. The polite Xenophon himself puts it in the Mouth of one of the Persian Chiefs, when he was addressing himself to a Captive Lady, and comforting her under her unfortunate Circumstances:
And * Dt.Peam'i Vind. Part 3. p. 32.