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scoff on, I thank my Maker, we lived before these holy wars were thought on, in the thriving profession of brewing, and could, of my vails of grain and yest, wear my silk gown, and gold and silver lace too, as well as the proudest minx of them all. I am not ashamed of my profession, madam.

Qu. Fair. Pray, Mrs. Cromwell, tell not me of gowns or lace, nor no such toys! tell me of crowns, scepters, kingdoms, royal robes; and, if my Tom but recovers, and thrives in his enterprise, I will not say, pish, to be queen of England. I misdoubt nothing, if we can but keep the wicked from fetching Nebuchadnezzar home from grass in the Isle of Wight; well, well, my Tom is worth a thousand of him, and has a more kingly countenance; he has such an innocent face, and a harm. less look, as it he were born to be emperor over the saints.

Mrs. Crom. And is not Noll Cromwell's wife as likely a woman to be Queen of England, as you? yes, I warrant you, is she; and hat you

shall know, if my husband were but once come out of Wales. It is he that has done the work, the conquest belongs to him; besides, your

husband is counted a fool, and wants uit to reign; every boy scoffs at him; my Noll has a head-piece, a face of brass, full of majesty, and a nose will light the whole kingdom to walk after him; I say he will grace a crown, being naturally adorned with diamonds and rubies already; and, for myself, though I say it, I have a person as fit for a Queen as another.

Qu. Fair. Thou a Queen? Thou a Queen? uds'foot, minion, hold your clack from prating treason against me, or I will make Mrs. Parliament lay ber ten commandments upon thee! Thou a Queen! a brewer's wife a Queen? That kingdom must needs be full of drunkards, when the king is a brewer! My Tom is nobly descended, and no base mechanick.

Mrs. Crom. Mechanick? Mechanick in thy face; thou art a whore to call me mechanick ; I am no more a mechanick than thyself; marry come up, Mother Damnable, Joan Ugly; must you be Queen ? Yes, you shall; Queen of Puddle-dock, or Billingsgate, that is fittest for thee: my Noll has won the kingdom, and he shall wear it, in despight of such a trollop as thou art: marry, come up here, Mrs. Wagtail ?

Enter a Servant, running. Scro. O, madam, cease your contention, and provide for your safeties; both your husbands are killed, and all their forces put to the sword; all the people crying like mad, long live King Charles !. Omn. We hope 'tis false; O whither shall we fly,

Lest vengeance overtake our treachery?

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Mr. SAMUEL HARTLIB, For the advancement of some particular parts of learning. London, printed anno dom. 1648. Quarto, containing thirty-four pages. THERE is invented an instrument of small bulk and price, easily made,

and very durable, whereby any man, even at the first sight and handling, may write two resembling copies of the same thing at once, as serviceably and as fast, allowing two lines upon each page for setting the instruments, as by the ordinary way: Of what nature, or in what character, or what matter soever, as paper, parchment, a book, &c.

the said writing ought to be made upon. The use hereof will be very great to lawyers and scriveners, for

making of indentures and all kinds of counter-parts; to merchants, intelligencers, registers, secretaries, clerks, &c. for copying of letters, accompts, invoices, entering of warrants, and other records; to scholars for transcribing of rare manuscripts, and preserving originals from falsification, and other injuries of time. It lesseneth the labour of examination, serveth to discover forgeries and surreptitious copies, and to the transacting of all businesses of writing, as with ease and speed, so with much privacy also.

To his honoured friend, Master Samuel Hartlib. SIR, I HAVE had many flying thoughts concerning the advancement of real

learning in general, but particularly of the education of youth, mathe-. maticks, mechanicks, physick, and concerning the history of art and nalure, with some more serious ones concerning your own most excellent advices for an office of publick address. And, indeed, they were but iying thoughts, for, seeing what vast sums were requisite to carry on those designs, and how unwilling or unable men generally were to contribute towards them, I thought it but labour lost to fix my mind much upon them.

But it having pleased God unexpectedly to make me the inventor of the art of double writing, daily and hourly useful to all sorts of persons in all places of the world, and that to perpetuity, I conceived that if there were understanding enough in men to be sensible of their own good, and thankfulness or honesty enough to reward the contrivers of it, such means might be raised out of this art as might at least set the aforementioned designs on float, and make them ready to set sail towards the haven of perfection upon every opportunity of


• Afterwards Sir William Petty.

stronger gales. And thereupon I re-assumed my meditations, which I here give you, desiring you and your ingenious friends to remeditate upon them and correct them, but withal to think of the best course how to improve my invention to such advantage, as may, if possible, make us capable of enjoying more than bare ideas of that happiness, which the atchievement of our designs promiseth. I shall desire you to shew them unto no more than needs you must, since they can please only those few that are real friends to the design of realities, not those who are tickled only with rhetorical prefaces, transitions, and epilogues, and charmed with fine allusions and metaphors (all which I do not condemn) wherewith, as I had no abilities to adorn my discourse, so I wanted all other requisites thereunto, having written it (as yourself must bear me witness) at your own importunity in the midst of my cares and endeavours to perfect my invention; and, which is worse, in the midst of my hard and perhaps unprofitable labour, to prevent the ingratitude and backwardness of men to reward him, who shall earnestly labour to express himself

Yours, and your designs
Most affectionate servant,

W. P.
London, Jan. 3, 1647-8

To give an exact definition, or nice division of learning, or of the

advancement thereof, we shall not undertake (it being already so accurately done by the great Lord Verulam) intending only to shew where our own shoe pincheth us, or to point at some pieces of knowledge, the improvement whereof (as we at least conceive) would make much to the general good and comfort of all mankind; and, withal, to deliver our own opinion, by what means they may be raised some one degree nearer to perfection.

But, before we can meddle with this great work, we must first think of getting labourers, by appointing some general rendezvous, where all men, either able, or willing to take up arms against the many difficulties thereof, may find entertainment; that is to say, we must recommend the institution of an office of common address, according to the projection of Mr. Hartlib, that painful and great instrument of this design; whereby the wants and desires of all may be made known unto all; where men may know what is already done in the business of learning, what is at present in doing, and what is intended to be done ; to the end that, by such a general communication of designs, and mutual assistance, the wits and endeavours of the world may no longer be as so many scattered coals, or firebrands, which for want of union are soon quenched, whereas, being but laid together, they would have yielded a comfortable light and heat. For, methinks, the present condition of men is like a field, where a battle hath been lately fought, where we may see many legs, and arms, and eyes lying here and there, which, for want of an union, and a soul to quicken and enliven them, are good for nothing, but to feed ravens, and infect the air: So we see many

wits and ingenuities lying scattered up and down the world; whereof some are now labouring to do what is already done, and puzzling themselves to re-invent what is already invented; others we see quite stuck fast in difficulties, for want of a few directions, which some other man, might he be met withal, both could and would most easily give them. Again, one man wants a small sum of money, to carry on some design that requires it; and there is, perhaps, another, who hath twice as much ready to bestow on the same design; but these two having no means ever to hear one of the other, the good work, intended and desired by both parties, doth utterly perish and come tr nothing. But this we pass over slightly, though very fundamental to our business, because the mas. ter-builder thereof himself hath done it so sulidly. Having by this means procured workmen, and what else is necessary to the work, that, which we would have them to labour in, is, How to find out such-arts as are yet undiscovered; How to learn what is already known by more compendious and facile ways, and to apply it to more, and those more noble uses: How to work in men an higher esteem of learning, so as to give occasion, encouragement, and opportunity to more men to apply themselves to its advancement.

The next thing then to be done will be, first, to see what is well and sufficiently done already, exploding whatsoever is nice, contentious, and merely fantastical; all which must in some measure be suppressed, and brought into disgrace and contempt with all men.

2. This survey may be made by perusing all books, and taking notice of all mechanical inventions.

3. In this perusal, all the real or experimental learning may be sifted and collected out of the said books.

4. There must be appointed able readers of all such books, with certain and well-limited directions what to collect out of them.

5. Every book must be so read by two several persons a-part, to pre. vent mistakes and failings from the said directions.

6. The directions for reading must be such, that the readers, observing them, may exactly agree in their collections.

7. Out of all these books, one book, or great work, may be made, though consisting of many volumes.

8. The most artificial indices, tables, or other helps for the ready finding, remembering, and well understanding all things contained in these books, must be contrived and put in practice.

Having thus taken the height, or pitch, whereunto all arts and sciences whatsoever are already come, and observed where they now stick, the ablest men in every respective faculty must be set a-part' to drive them on further, with sufficient maintenance and encouragement for the same. Whereunto it is requisite that two or three, one under another, be employed about each faculty, to the end that, some of them dying, or any otherwise failing, there may never want men acquainted with the whole design, and able to carry it on, with the help of others to be admitted under them; and that, at least, yearly accounts be taken of those men's endeavours, and rewards be proportioned to them accordingly.

And now we shall think of whetting our tools, and preparing sharp instruments for this hard work, by delivering our thoughts concerning education; which are:

1. That there be instituted ergastula literaria, literary work-houses, where children may be taught as well to do soinething towards their living, as to read and write.

That the business of education be not, as now committed to the worst and unworthiest of men, but that it be seriously studied and practised by the best and ablest persons.

That all children of above seven years old may be presented to this kind of education, none being to be excluded by reason of the poverty and inability of their parents; for hereby it hath come to pass, that many are now holding the plough, which might have been made fit to steer the state. Wherefore let such poor children be employed on works whereby they may earn their living, equal to their strength and understanding, and such as they may perform, as well as elder and abler persons, viz. attending engines, &c. and, if they cannot get their whole living, and their parents can contribute nothing at all to make it up, let them stay somewhat the longer in the work-house.

That, since few children have need of reading, before they know, or can be acquainted with the things they read of; or of writing, before their thoughts are worth the recording, or they are able to put them into any form (which we call inditing) much less of learning languages, when there are books enough for their present use in their own mothertongue, our opinion is, that those things, being withal somewhat above their capacity (as being to be attained by judgment, which is weakest in children) be deferred a while, and others more needful for them (such as are in the order of nature before those afore-mentioned, and are attainable by the help of memory, which is either most strong, or unpreoccupied in children) be studied before them. We wish, therefore, that the educands be taught to observe and remember all sensible objects and actions, whether they be natural, or artificial, which the educators must, upon all occasions, expound unto them.

That they use such exercises, whether in work, or for recreation, as tend to the health, agility, and strength of their bodies.

That they be taught to read by much more compendious means than are in common use; which is a thing certainly very easy and seasible.

That they be not only taught to write according to our common way, but also to write swiftly and in real characters; as likewise the dexterous use of the instruments for writing many copies of the same thing at once.

That the artificial memory be thought upon; and, if the precepts thereof be not too far above children's capacities, we conceive it not improper for them to learn that also.

That in no case the art of drawing and designing be omitted, to what course of life soever those children are to be applied, since the use thereof, for expressing the conceptions of the mind, seems, at least to us, to be little inferior to that of writing, and, in many cases, performeth what by words is impossible,

That the elements of arithmetick and geometry be by all studied,being not only of great and frequent use in all human affair, but also

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