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to the signification of some of the Hebrew words standing in these titles. We think that MASCHIL always siga nifies that the psalm is designed for instruction, Psalms xxxii. xlii. xliii. xlv. lii. liii. liv. lv. lxxiv. lxxviii. ixxxviii. Ixxxix. MICH TAM denotes the precious or golden niture of the psalm, as xvi. Ivi. -x. ALTASCHITH that the scope of the psalm is to deprecate destruction, lvii. lix. MUTHLABEEN, that the psalm was composed on the occasion of the death of his son, or of Goliath, the durllist. Psalm is. AIJELETH SHAHAR, that its subject is Jesus Christ, the hind of the morning, Psalin xxij. JONA TIIELIM-RECHOKIM, that David is therein represented as a mute dove among foreign rs, Psalm Ivi. SHOSANNIM ; SHOSHANNIME DUTH ; or SHUS AN-EDUTA: may either signify that Christ and his people who are lilies, or lilies of the congregation or testimony, are the subject of it; or that it was sung on an instrument of six strings,
Psalm xlv. lx. lxix. lxxx. as shEMINITA denotes an in· strument of eight strings, Psalms vi. xii. MAHAL ATH
may either signify the disease, and MAHALATH LEANOTH the afflicting disease, or MAHAL ATH inay. Signify a wind instrument of music, Psalms liii. lxxxviü. NEGINATH and NEGINOTH denote stringed instruments of music, Psalms iv. Ixi. &c. NenILOTH wind-ones, Psalm y. GITTIYH, a musical instrument or tune invent. ed at Gath, Psalms viii. lxxxi. Ixxxiv. ALAMOTH the virginals, or a song to be sung by the virgins, Psalm xlvi. SHIGGAION, or SHIGIONOTH, may denote the diversified matter or tune of the psalm, Psalm vii. The cxxth, and fourteen next following, are called Songs of DEGREES, perhaps because they were sung on the difc ferent steps of the temple stairs ; or were sung at certain halts made by David and the Iraelites, when they brought up the ark of God from Kirjath-jearim to Jerusalem ; or were sung by the Hebrews at their different
rests, when they came up from the country to their three · solemn feasts ; or were partly sung by the Jews at their * different halts, in their return from Babylon.
The Hebrews divided this book into five, ending with Psalms xli. lxxii. lxxxix. cvi. and cl. the first four of which are concluded with Amen. Interpreters have attempted to arrange or class the Psalms into a variety of different forms: To me it appears not improper, to dis
tinguish them into I. INSTRUCTIVE, which are either (1) HISTORICAL, relating what God had done for the psalm. ist or for the Jewish nation, &c. as psalms xviii. lxviii. Ixxviii. civ. cv. cvi. cxiv. cxxxv. cxxxvi. most of which are also EUCHARISTIC. Or (2) DOCTRINAL, declaring and explaining the principles and duties of religion, as Psalms i. xiv. xv. xix. xxxvi. xxxvii. xlix. l. liii. Ixiv. Ixxvi. lxxvii. lxxviii. lxxxi. Ixxxii. xc. ci. cxii. cxix. cxxvii. cxxxi. cxxxiii. cxxxix. II. PROPHETIC, foretelling events relative to Christ or his church, as Psalms ii. viii. xvi. xxi. xxii. xxiv. xxix. xl. xlv. xlvii. xlviii. Ixvii. Ixviii. Ixix. lxxii. lxxxvii. lxxxix. xciii. xcv. xcvi. xcvii. xcviii. c. cx. cxvii. cxxxii. cxlix. not a few of which are also EUCHARISTIC. III. CONSOLATORY, in which the psalmist comforts himself and others in the promises, perfections, or works of God, as Psalms iv. xi. xxiii. xxvii. rrri. xxxvii. xlvi. lviii. lxxiii. xci, ctxi. cxxv. cxxviii. cxxix. IV. PETITORY, in which he bewails his own, or the churches condition, and supplicates deliverance, as Psalms iii. v. vi. vii. x. xii. xiii. xvii. xx. xxv. xxvi. xxvii. xxviii. xxxv. xxxviii. xli. xlii. xliii. xliv. li. liv. lv. lvii. lix. lx. Ixi. Ixiii.lviv. Ixx. lxxi. lxxiv. lxxix. lx x x. lxxxiii. Ixxxv. lxxxvi. lxx xviii. cii. cix. cxx. cxxiii cxxx. cxxxih. cxxxvii. cxl. cxli, cxlii. cxliii. Seven of these, in which the psalmist makes confession of his sin, viz. Psalms wi. xxxii. xx xviii. li. cii. cxxx. cxliii. are called PENITENTIAL. V. EUCHARISTIc, in which he stirs up him. self and others to praise and thank the Lord, for his favours. As Psalms ix. xviii. xxx. xxxiii. xxxiv. lx.lxv. Ixviii. xcix. ciii. civ.cv.cvi. cvii. cviii. c xi. cxiii. cxv. c Xvi cxvii cxviii. c xxii. cxxiv. cxxxi. cxxxiv CXXXV. CXXXV. cxxxviii. cxliv. cxlv. cxlvi. cxlvii. cxlviii. cxlix. cl. But indeed historical narratives, doctrinal instructions, prophecies, consolations, supplications, praises, and thanksgivings, are often so pleasantly and profitably connected, in the same psalm, that it is difficult to assign it to one class, rather than to another. And what is his TORICAL, as it relates to David and the Jewish church, is often TrPICAL, and so PROPHETIC as it relates to Je. sus Christ and the gospel-church or heavenly state, Many too, of the suPPLICATIONS respecting deliverançes from, or the destruction of enemies, are to be con
sidered as real PREDICTIONS of the events; they being dictated by the inspiration of him who can dcciare the end from the beginning.
Extract from Bishop HORNE's Preface to his Commen"
tary on the PSALMS. '
A WORK of the utmost importance still remains, which is the business of Theology to undertake and exeoute ; since, with respect to the Old Testament, and the Psalter more, especially, a person may attain a critical and grammatical knowledge of them, and yet.continue a Jew, with a veil upon his heart; an utter strauger to that sense of the holy books, evidently intended, h such a yariety of instances, to bear testimony to the Saviolur of the world ; that sense, which is stiled, by the divines, the PROPHETICAL, EYANGELICAL, MYSTICAL, or sPIRITUAL sense.
It may not be amiss, therefore, to run through the Psalter, and point out some of the more remarkable pas. sages, which are cited from thence by our Lord and his apostles, and applied to matters evangelical.
- No sooner have we opened the book, but the second Psalm presenteth itself, to all appearance, as an inaugu. ration hymn, composed by David, the anointed of Jeho. yah, when by him crowned with victory, and placed trium, phant on the sacred bill of Sion. But let us turn to Acts iv. 25. and there we find the apostles, with one voice, declaring the psalm to be descriptive of the exaltation of Jesus Christ, and of the opposition raised against his gospel, both by Jew and Gentile.
In the eighth Psalı we imagine the writer to be setting forth the pre-eminence of man in general, above the rest of the creation ; but by Heb.ji. 6. we are informed thai the supremacy conferred on the second Allum, the man Christ Jesus, over all things in heaven and earth, is the “subject there treated of.
St. Peter stands up, Acts ii, 25. and preaches the resurrection of Jesus from the latter part of the sixteenth Psaim; and lo, three thousand souls are converted by ine şerinon.
Of the eighteenth Psalm we are told, in the course of the sacred history, 2 Sam. 22. that “ David spake before the Lord the words of that song, in the day that the Lord delivered him out of the hand of all his enemies, and out of the hand of Saul.” Yet in Rom. 15, 9. the 50th verse of that Psalm is adduced as a proof, that, " the Gentiles should glorify God for his mercy in Jesus « Christ, as it is written, for this cause will I confess to “ thee among the Gentiles and sing unto thy name.”
In the nineteenth Psalm, David seems to be speaking of the material heavens and their operations only, when he says, “ Their sound is gone out into all the earth, and " their words unto the ends of the world.” But St. Paul, Rom. 10, 18. quotes the passage to shew, that the gospel had been universally published by the apostles.
The twenty-second Psalm Christ appropriated to himself, by beginning it in the midst of his suffering on the 'cross, “ My God, my God," &c. Three other verses of it are in the New Testament, applied to him; and the words of the 8th verse were actually used by the chief priests when they reviled him ; “ He trusted in God,” &c. Matt. 27. 43.
When David saith in the fortieth Psalm, “ Sacrifice ci and offering thou didst not desire-Lo I come to do 6 thy will :" we might suppose him only to declare, in his own person that obedience is better than sacrifice. But from Heb. 10. 5. we learn, that Messiah, in that place, speaketh of his advent in the flesh, to abolish the legal sacrifices, and to do away sin, by the oblation of himself, once for all.
That tender and pathetic complaint, in the forty-first Psalm, “ Mine own familiar friend in whom I trusted, * which did eat of my bread, hath lift up his heel against “ me,” undoubtedly might be, and probably was, origi. nally uttered by David, upon the revolt of his old friend and counsellor, Ahitophel, to the party of his rebellious son, Absalom. But we are certain, from John 13. 18. that this scripture was fulfilled, when Christ was betrayed by his apostate disciple" I speak not of you all; I know whom I have chosen ; but that the scriptures may be fulfilled, he that eateth bread with me, hath lift up his heel against me."
The forty-fourth Psalm we must suppose to have been
written on occasion of a persecution under which the „church at that time laboured; but a verse of it is cited, Rom. 8. 36. as expressive of what Christians were to suffer, on their blessed master's account; “ as it is writ. o ten, for thy sakė are we killed all the day long ; we 26 are counted as sheep appointed to be slain.”
A quotation from the forty-fifth Psalm in Heb. 1. 8. Certifies us, that the whole is addressed to the Son of God, and therefore celebrates his spiritual union with the church, and the happy fruits of it.
The sixty-eighth Psalm, though apparently conversant about Israelitish victories, the translation of the ark to Zion, and the services of the tabernacle, yet does, under those figures, treat of Christ's resurrection, his going up on high, leading captivity captive, pouring out the gifts of the Spirit, erecting his church in the world, and enlarging it by the accession of the nations to the faith ; as will be evident to any one who considers the force and consequence of the apostles citation from it, Eph. 4. 7, 8. “ Unto every one of us is given grace, according to « the measure of the gift of Christ. Wherefore he saith, 6 when he ascended up on high, he led captivity captive, « and gave gifts unto men.”
The sixty-ninth Psalm is five times referred to in the gospels, as being uttered by the prophet, in the person of Messiah. The imprecations or rather predictions, at the latter end of it, are applied, Rom. 11. 9, 10. to the Jews, and to Judas, Acts I. 20. where the 109 Psalm is also cited as prophetical of the sore judgments which should befal that arch traitor, and the wretched nation, of which he was an epitome.
St. Matthew, inforining us, chap. 13. 34. that Jesus spake to the multitude in parables, gives it as one reason why he did so, “that it migat be fulfilled which was spo6 ken by the prophet ; Psalm '78. 2. I will open my « mouth in a parable : I will utter things which have been (kept secret from the foundation of the world.”
The ninety-first Psalm was applied, by the tempter, to Messiahı : fior did our Lord object to the application, but only to the folse inference, which his adversary suggested from it, Matt. 4. 6, 7.
The ninety-fifth Psalm is explained at large in Heb. 3. 4. as relative to the state and trial of Christians in the World, and to their attainment of the heavenly resto