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hand, led the soldiers against the English army,
which was then besieging the town of Orleans, and
completely drove them away. This poor girl was,
however, some time afterwards taken in battle by
the English, and was burned alive as a witch. I.
don't know, which to wonder at most, the ignorance
of the people in those days, who believed in witches,
or the cruelty, of burning a poor woman alive. The
French, however, continued their successes, till the
English had scarcely a place left in France. is .

Things were going on very badly, too, all this ; time, in England. The king bad pot abilities enough. to govern such a nation, and there was dissatisfaction, and a disposition to rebellion, all over the kingdom. I think I told you before, that Henry the Fourth (the grandfather of this king) had no just right to the throne, but that he got it by force. He was the 'sone of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, the third'sou of Edward the Third ; but the crown properly belonged to the family of the second son on the failure of the first.) Now the Duke of York was des scended from this elder branch, and therefore was the right person to be king; and the people, dissatisfied with their present king, began to turn their thoughts to the House of York... .! : In this state of things, a fellow named John Cade pretended that he belonged to the York family, and that he was the proper king; and he persuaded many people to believe him, and to follow him.. He had as many as twenty thousand followers, he en: camped at Blackheath, and then marched to Lon. don. He was soon, however, driven back againi, and he ran away as far as. Rochester; anil, there, many of his friends forsook him. A reward was offered to any one who would bring his head, and he was soon seized, and put to death, and his head was set upon London Bridge. ';

} .,!" I suppose the Duke of York was glad of all these disturbances, as they gave him a better chance of dethroping the king, and being made king himself.

He soon began to shew his intention of claiming the crown. The king was seized with an illness, and the Duke of York was appointed to govern in his place. And, having once acted as king, he did not choose to give up his power, even when the king was well again. But, though the king's gentle disposi. tion might have given way, the Queen Margaret was a very different sort of person, and she proceeded to open war against the Duke and his friends. And this was the beginning of the war between the Houses of York and Lancaster, which raged for many years, and was the cause of so many dreadful battles, and such bloodshed, and savage contentions. War, at all times, is dreadful, but a civil war, where those of the same country, and many relations perhaps, and neighbours are fighting one against another, is perbaps the most dreadful of all kinds of war. I shall not attempt to describe to you the different places where these battles were fought, but sometimes one side gained the victory, and sometimes the other. There was a battle at Blore-heath, and another at Wakefield, and one or two at St. Albans, and I don't know how many places besides.

At the battle of Wakefield, the Duke of York's army was beaten, and himself killed. However, his party soon recovered themselves, and in a battle at. Tewksbury, were victorious, and the son of the Duke of York was proclaimed king, by the title of Edward the Fourth, in the year 1461. i . - Poor King Henry, it is said, was, afterwards inurdered in his chamber by King Edward's brother; the Duke of Gloucester, who was afterwards crooked-back King Ricbard the Third, of whose cruelty we read such terrible accounts :--and the son of Henry was likewise stabbed by this same Gloucester and the Duke of Clarence, after the battle of Tewkesbury. Thus I have given you an account of this reign in which we read of little else besides battles and cruel murders. I thipk you will now understand what is meant by the wars between the Houses of York and Lancaster. These are sometimes called the wars of the Roses, because the Lancaster party wore red roses in their hats, and the York party wore white ones. At this time of year, they might have got roses enough, but the writer of a pretty little book that I have by me, wonders where they got them in the winter, and supposes that they wore roses of red and white, rib bons instead of real roses.

You see we have had three kings together of the House of Lancaster, and now we get into the House of York. I am very glad, to hear that you attend to your book, and that you try to remember what you read, and to improve by it. Your master tells me, too, that your reading, instead of making you neglect your business, makes you more steady and thoughtful, and therefore more desirous of doing every thing well. He tells me that you are the best workman of all his apprentices. You may be sure that it always gives me great pleasure to hear good accounts of you. ,!!" Sorrio i

in I am your affectionate Father, *** May 4, 1823. : ""; "oj 2411h T18:02

1. C..!' ,...11 :10 9112011

HINTS TO THOSE WHO KEEP BEES. We ought to have inserted the following Letter earlier in the season; but a press of matter has prevented us. To the Editor of the Cottager's Monthly Visitor. : ; SIR,

If you should approve of the following observa: tions on Bees, they are at your service. :?" .10 Bees differ much from each other, not only in size, but dispositions--some being vicious and lazy

others gentle and active. An attentive observer telts us, that he had some bees requiring 200 to weigh an ounce, which were , extremely vicious, and so very lazy, that he changed them for others which were smaller, requiring 2961 to weigh an ouncē, and these were active and good tempered.jur V -37 · The Hivės should be formed of Straw. These are foundi to be cool in suinier, and warm in winter, and far preferable to any other material, They should correspond as nearly as possible with the size of the swarm : inattention to this destroys most of those stocks that perish every year. . Bees endeavour to fill, with combs, whatever hive they are put into, before they begin to gather honey. Consequently, when the hive is too large for the swarm, the time fori collecting their winter store is spent ip unprofitable labour, and they die., Hives with empty combs are bigbly valuable for second swarms,' t us 10 The situation for Hires. They should stand at some distance from walls and bedges : and should receive the earliest rays of the sun, that they may lose no time in going to work in the morning is in

Covering thei Hives: The hives which are best coyered during the winter, are found to prosper most the following summer. About the end of harvest, add a thick covering of straw to that which was put on at the time of swarming; and shut up the entrance, so that only one, bee can enter at a time ; and, during very severe frosts, shut it up en. tirely. During the winter frequently remove by a crooked wire, the dead bodies and filth of any kind, which may be seen near the entrance, and which the live bees are unable in cold weather to perform!

Of Swarming.-The first swarm, according to the season, is sent forth from about the beginning of May to the second week in July. This is so long preceded by the appearance of drones, and hanging out of working bees that, if they fly off-ithmust be owing to wantrofi carez o Tbesigns of the second are

more doubtful : the most certain sign is that of the queen, a day or two before, making a noise much like a cricket. Frequently, the swarm will leave the old hive, and return again several times, which is always owing to the queen not having accompanied them, or from having dropped on the ground, being too young to fly to a distance. In such case, if found, and placed in a new hive, the swarm will instantly settle. When a'hive yields more than two swarms, they should be joined to the others that are weak, as from the lateness of the season, and small number they must perish if left to themselves. They may easily be united to the others, by turning up at night the hive in which they are, and placing over it the one they are intended to enter! They soon ascend, and apparently with no 'opposition from the others, as they are never observed to fighti At the time of swarming much attention is necessary, in a point that is seldom thought of, namely, if the weather is wet, to feed them. People are often astonished, at this season, when their bees had for a week before, put on the most promising appearance, after a few days of rain, to see them become so weak and sickly as to be unable to leave the live, and continue declining until they at last die. The young bees, for a short time before leaving their cells, and some time afterwards, require to be led by the old ones; and, if the store in the hive be exhausted, and the weather such as pot to admit the working bees going abroad to collect food sufficient, they starve each other. Make a rule, therefore, if it rains for two days together at this time, to feed the bees, whether they may require it or not...sa

Of feeding Bees.-Feed them either with "pure honey or else with good moist sugar boiled with water into a syrup. - In feeding those which are light, to enable them to live through the winter, let this be the rule-if a large hive does not weigh thirty pounds, allow half a pound of honey, or of the

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