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this fact, in any manner you judge best, to other Cottagers, it may perhaps outweigh a prejudice, and spare many tears.

di Yours, truly,

.. . . Twickenham, Aug. 1823.

N. N. R.

This is one instance of the effect of vaccination in preventing small-pox infection. Thousands of others might be found. There are some instances, it is true, of failure, but, if these were put by the side of the successful cases, their number would appear, very small indeed. We are constantly receiving communications in proof of the good effect of vaccination, but our limits prevent us from inserting them all, or even saying as much as might be useful on the subject. We are not indeed surprised that many persons should be doubtful as to the good effect of vaccination, for they have, perhaps, seen some cases of failure ; and these make a stronger impression on the mind than is made by a regular course of success. The prejudice is, however, in many places, wearing away. The fact that small. pox does not make its appearance in places where vaccination has been regularly practised, is so convincing, that this has changed the opinions of many who required some such strong proof of its efficacy before they would be persuaded to venture upon a , doubtful experiment.



NATION. To the Editor of the Cottager's Monthly Visitor. .. SIR, . . ; . I AM not one of those old-fashioned people who reject every thing that is new, peither am I one of


424 The Cottager's Monthly Visitor. those new-fashioned people who despise every thing that is old.. When I hear of any modern discovery, I am anxious to see a proof of its efficacy before I pretend to judge whether it is really a useful discovery or not. Thus, when, some twenty years ago, I first heard of the discovery of vaccination, and was told that it would answer as well as the old method of inoculation, in preventing small-pox; and that it did not, (like inoculation) spread any infecs tion, it seemed to me to be a most valuable discovery ; but, before I recommended it, I resolved to wait a little, that I might see its effect, and judge for myself. After several years of observation, I felt that I could confidently recommend the practice of it. All my neighbours in this parish adopted it; and the consequence has been, that, for a dozen years, we have had no small-pox at all amongst us. This has made our neigbbours almost forget that there was such a thing as small-pox; and they, there. fore, have neglected to have their children vaccinated, and thus they left them still liable to smallpox infection. The consequence has been, that a young girl who went a few weeks ago to a fair (where every thing bad is generally got, and nothing good) caught the small-pox from a show-man's child, and brought it home to this village, and those people who had not been vaccinated took the disorder, and several of them have died. Let me, therefore, beg to advise those who know the advantage of vaccination, to get the operation performed on their children, whether small-pox is in the neighbourhood or not.

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Extract from the Footman's Directory ;" or, Butler's Remembrancer.By a real Footman.

: ON CLEANING KNIVES, IN our last number, we promised to give, occasionally, some extracts from the above work, for the benefit of those servants who were not in possession of the book itself. The following instruction will shew the nature of the work, and will supply some useful hints. .:"To elean knives, properly, you must have a

smooth board, free from knots, or, wbat is much better, covered with leather, as that both polishes. the knives, and keeps them from notches, which entirely spoil the cutting, and the look of knives, and cannot be prevented if the board be worn rough and úneven at the edge. Every servant ought to see that he has proper utensils and tools to do his work with; and not to spoil and ruin good things, for want of asking for what is proper. The cost of a convenient knife-board is a mere trifle; but the cost of a good set of knives and forks is a subject of serious expense. Some families are unwilling to allow their servants proper things, when asked for ; but some servants on the other hand, are so careless, or so lazy, that, rather than ask for what they ought to have, they will go on making any shift, and spoiling as many things as would pay for what they want, ten times over; which is a great injustice to their employers, as they cannot always know what is wanting or worn out, unless told by the servant, under whose notice such things come every day, and often many times in the day. Let me exhort you then, my young friends, to treat the property of your master and mistress with as much care as if it were your own, and to inform them immediately, on all occa. sions, of any thing that may be likely to injure or endanger it. If your knife-board be covered with leather, melt a sufficient quantity of mutton suet, and put it hot upon the leather, with a piece of flannel ; then take two pieces of soft Bath brick, and rub them, one against the other, over the leather, till it is covered with the powder, which rab in, until no grease comes through when a knife is passed over the leather, which you will easily know, by the

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knife keeping its polish bright and clean. If you : have only a plain board, it will be enough to rub

the Bath brick two or three times over it; for if you put on too much at once, it will make the blades of your knives look rough and scratched. Let your board be peither too high, nor too low, but of a proper height, so that you may move your hands and arms backwards and forwards with ease to your self; it should also be so set, as that you may be a little on the stoop whilst cleaning your knives. Take a knife in each hand, holding them back to back; stand opposite the middle of the board, lay your knives flat upon it, and do not bear too hard upon them when you 'spread out your arms, only just enough to feel the board; bear rather harder in drawing your hands together, taking care, however, to keep the knives flat on the board; by this means, you will find it easier to clean two knives at a time, than only one, and you will be less liable to break them, as good knives, being made of the best steel, will snap when pressed on hardly ; and it is, of course, much more easily done. Be particular in keeping a good edge on your knives. It is very disagreeable to see a lady or a gentleman carving with a knife so blunt that it will scarcely cut; it is provoking to them, and disgraceful to the servant, whose duty it is to have his knives in proper order, and who has the mortification to see the dissatisfaction which his neglect occasions. Carving knives, in particular, ought to be kept sharp, which may be done by taking one in each hand, back to back, when cleaning, scarcely letting them touch the board when you expand your arms ; but, when drawing your hands together again, bearing a little hard on the edges of the knives ; this will give them both a good edge and a fine polish, and is much better than sharpening them, as some do with a steel or blue whet-stone, which gives them a scratched ap. pearance. Servants are often blamed because the

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points of the knives are worn out before the other part; but this is not their fault ; for the points being most used, will, of course, require the most cleaning, which causes them to grow thin, both at the back part and at the edge; nor is it always a servant's fault, that the knives are knotched; the carver is often the occasion of it, by not hitting the joints well, bụt wrenching them apart with the knife, and trying to do that by force, which ought to be done only by skill. . A good set of knives is, however, soon spoiled, if neglected by a servant; and, as they are not only very expensive, but likewise things that are always narrowly looked at upon table, they ought always to be particularly attended to. When you have done one side of a pair of knives, change them; that is, put that which you had in your right hand into your left, still taking care to keep them back to back; by this means there will be no danger of striking the edges against each other. After they are cleaned, you must have a dry linen cloth to take the dust off the blade, and a damp one to take it off the handle, as it often sticks hard upon them if they have been greased or wetted. The trouble of two clothes is very trifling; spread the dry cloth open in your left hand, take hold of the knife with the damp cloth in your right, then draw it lightly through the left; and. then, again, holding it by the blade in the left, wipe it with the right. Always turn the back of the knives towards the palm of the hand in wiping them; this will prevent you from cutting either yourself or the knife-cloths, both of which often happen through inattention and awkwardness. If there should be silver ferules on the knives and forks, or silver handles, they must be rubbed with a piece of leather and plate-powder, keeping the blades covered while the handles are cleaning, that they may not get soiled by the damp of your hands. If the handles be fluted, let them bé brushed clean. You

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