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God hath endued the will of man with that natural liberty, that is neither forced, nor by anj absolute necessity of nature determined to do good or evil.a
II. Man, in his state of innocency, bad freedom and power to will and to do that which is good and well pleasing to God ;b but yet mutably, so that he might fall from it.c
III. Man, by his fall into a state of sin, hath wholly lost all ability of will to any spiritual good accompanying salvation :d so as a natural man, being altogether averse from that good,0 and dead in sin/is not able, by his own
I. a Mat. xvii. 12. But I say unto you, that Elias is come already, arid they knew him not, but have done unto him whatsoever they listed: likewise shall also the Son of man surfer of them. James i. -14. But every man is tempted, when he is drawn away of his own lust, and enticed. Deut. xxx. 19. I call heaven and earth to record this day against you, that I have set before yon life and death, blessing and cursing: therefore choose life, that both thou and thy seed may live.
If. b Eccl. vii. 29. Lo, this only have I found, that God hath made man upright; but they have sought out many inventions. Gen. i. 26. And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the^air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every Creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.
c Gen. ii. 16, 17. And the Lord God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree in the garden thou mayest freely eat. But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not cat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof, thou shalt surely die. Gen. iii. 6. And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise ; she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also unto her husband with her, and he did eat.
III. d Rom. v. 6. For when we were yet without strength, in duo time Christ died for the ungodly. Rom. viii. 7. Because the carnal mind is enmity against God: for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be. John xv. 5. I am the vine, ye are the branches: he that abideth in me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much Fruit: for without me ye can do nothing.
e Rom. iii. 10,12. As it is written, There is none righteous, no not one. They are all gone out of the way; they are together become unprofitable ; there is none that doeth good, no not one.
/ Eph. ii. 1, 5. And you hath he quickened who were dead in toes' passes and sins. Even when we were dead in sins hath quickene-' together with Christ; (by grace ye are saved.) Col. ii. 13. Anr1 hemg dead in your sins, and the uncircumcision of your flesh toe quickened together with him, having forgiven you all tresp:
strength, to convert himself, or to prepare himself thereunto. B
IV. When God converts a sinner, and translates him into the state of grace, he freeth him from his natural bondage under sin,'1 and by his grace alone enables him freely to will and to do that which is spiritually good ;" yet so as that, by reason of his remaining corruption, he doth not perfectly nor only will that which is good, but doth also will that which is evil.*
s John vi. 44, 65. No man can come to me, except the Father Which hath sent me, draw him: and 1 will raise him up at the last day. And he said, Therefore said I unto you, that no man can come unto me, except it were given unto him of my Father. Eph. ii. 2 to 5. Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience. Among whom also we alt iad our conversation in times past, in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh, and of the mind; and were by nature the cliildren of wrath, even as others. But God, who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us: even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ; (by grace ye aro saved.) 1 Cor. ii. 14. But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God; for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned. Tit. iii. 3,4, 5. For we ourselves also were sometimes foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving divers lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful, and hating one another. But after that the kindness and love of God our Saviour toward man appeared; not by works of -righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost.
IV. h Col. i. 13. Who hath delivered us from the power of darkness, and hath translated us into the kingdom of his dear Son. John viii. 34, 3t5. Jesus answered them, Verily, verily I say unto you, whosoever committeth sin, is the servant of sin. If the Son therefore shall make you free, ye shall be free indeed.
i Phil. ii. 13. For it is God which worketh in you, both to will and to do, of his good pleasure. Rom. vi. 18, 22. Being then made free from sin, ye oecame the servants of righteousness. But now being made free from sin, and become servants to God, ye have your fruit unto holiness, and the end everlasting life.
k Gal. v. 17. For the flesh lusteth against the spirit, and the spirit against the flesh: and these are contrary the one to the other; so that ye cannot do the things that ye would. Rom. vii. If), 18,19,21, 23. For that which I do, I allow not: for what I would, that do I not; but what I hate, that do I. For I know, that in me (that is, in my flesh) dwelleth no good thing: for to will is present with me, but how to perform that which is good, I find not. For the good that t would, I do not: but the evil which I would not, that 1 do. I find then a law, that when I would do good, evil is present with me. But I see another law in my members, warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin, which is in my members.
« V. The will of man is made perfectly. and immutably free to do good alone, in the state of glory only.1
OF EFFECTUAL CALLING.
All those whom God hath predestinated unto life, and those only, he is pleased, in his appointed and accepted time, effectually to call,a by his word and Spirit,b out of that state of sin and death in which they are by nature, to grace and salvation by Jesus Christ;0 enlightening their minds spiritually and savingly to understand the things of
V. I Eph. iv. 13. Till we all come in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, onto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ. Heb. xii. 23. To the general assembly and church of the first-born, which are written in heaven; and to God the judge of all; and to the spirits of just men made perfect. 1 John iii. 2. Beloved, now are we the sons of God, and it doth not yet appear what we shall be: but we know, that when he shall appear, we shall be like him; for we shall see him as he is. Jude 24. Now unto him that is able to keep you from falling, and to present you faultless, before the presence of his glory with exceedmg joy.
1. a Rom. viii. 30. Moreover, whom he did predestinate, them he also called: and whom he called, them he also justified: and whom he justified, them he also glorified. Rom. xi. 7. What then? Israel hath not obtained that which he seeketh for: but the election hath obtained it, and the rest were blinded. Eph. i. 10,11. That in the dispensation of the fulness of times, he might gather together in one, all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are on earth, even in him. In whom also we have obtained an inheritance, being predestinated according to the purpose of him who worketh all things after the counsel of his own will.
b 2 Thess. ii. 13,14. But we are bound to give thanks alway to God for you, brethren, beloved of the Lord, because God hath from the beginning chosen you to salvation, through sanctification of the Spirit, and belief of the truth. Whereunto he called you by our gospel, to the obtaining of the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ. 2 Cor. in. 3, 6. Forasmuch as ye are manifestly declared to be the epistle of Christ ministered by us, written not with ink, but with the Spirit of the living God: not in tables of stone, but in fleshy tables of the heart. Who also hath made us able ministers of the new testament, not of the letter, but of the Spirit: for the letter killeth, but the Spirit giveth life.
c Rom. viii. 2. For the law of the Spirit of life, in Christ Jesus, hath made me free from the law of sin and death. Eph. ii. 1 ", And you hath he quickened who were dead in trespasses Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of
God ;* taking away their heart of stone, and giving unfa them an heart of flesh ;e renewing their wills, and by his ahnighty power deteimining them to that which is good';1' and effectually drawing them to Jesus Christ ;S yet so as they come most freely, being made willing by his grace.*l
according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience. Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past, in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh, and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others. But God, who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us. Even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ, (by grace ye are saved.) 2 Tim. i. 9,10. Who hath saved us, and called us with an holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace which was given us in Christ Jesus, before the world began. But is now made manifest by the appearing of our Saviour Jesus Christ, who hath abolished death, and hath drought life and immortality to light, through the gospel.
d Acts xxvi. 18. To open their eyes, and to turn them from dark' ness to light, and from the power of Satan unto God, that they may receive forgiveness of sins, and inheritance among them which are sanctified by faith that is in me. 1 Cor. ii. 10,12. But God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God. Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit which is of God ; that we might know tho things that are freely given to us of God. Eph. i. 17, 18. That the God of our Lord Jesus' Christ, the Father of glory, may give unto you the Spirit of wisdom and revelation, in the knowledge of him. The eyes of your understanding being enlightened; that ye may know what is the hope of his calling, and what the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints.
e Ezek. xxxvi. 211. A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit, will I put within you, and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you an heart of flesh.
f Ezek. xi. iS. And I will give them one heart, and Iwil! put ane\v spirit within you; and I will take the stony heart out of their flesh, and will give them an heart of flesh. Phil. ii. 13. For it is God which worketh in you, both to will and to do, of his good pleasure. Deut, xxx. 6. And the Lord, thy God, will circumcise thine heart, and the heart of thy seed, to love the Lord, thy God, with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, that thou mayest live. Ezek. xxxvi. 27. And I will put my Spirit within you, and cause you to walk in my statutes, and ye shall keep my judgments, and do them.
g Eph. i. 19. And what is the exceeding greatness of his power to us-ward, who believe, according to the working of his mighty power. John vi. 44, 45. No man can come to me, except the Father, which hath sent me, draw him; and I will raise him up at the last day. It is written in the prophets, And they shall be all taught of God. Every man, therefore, that hath heard, and hath learned of the Father, cometh unto me.
h Cant. i. 4. Draw me, we will run after thee. Psal. ex. 3. Thy people shall be willing in the day of thy power, in the beauties of holiness frop' the womb of the morning: thou bast tho dew of thy
II. This effectual calling is of God's free and special grace alone, not from any thing at all foreseen in man,' who is altogether passive therein, until, being quickened and renewed by the Holy Spirit,11 he is thereby enabled to answer this call, and to embrace the grace offered and conveyed in it.1
III. Elect infants, dying in infancy, are regenerated and saved by Christ, through the Spirit,TM who worketh when,
youth. John vi. 37. All that the Father giveth me, shall come to me; and him that cometh to me, I will in no wise cast out. Rom. vi. 16 to 18. Know ye not, that to whom ye yield yourselves servants to obey, his servants ye are to whom ye obey; whether of sin unto death, or of obedience unto righteousness? But God be thanked, that ye were the servants of sin; but ye have obeyed from the heart that form of doctrine which was delivered you. Being, then, made free from sin, ye became the servants of righteousness.
II. i 2 Tim. i. 9. Who hath saved us, and called us with an holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose arid grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus, before the world began. Tit. itl. 4, 5. But after that the kindness and love of Godj our Saviour, toward man, appeared, not by works of righteousness, which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost. Eph. ii. 4, 5, 8, 9. But God, who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us; even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ, (by grace ye are saved.) For by grace are ye. saved, through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God. Not of works, lest any man should boast. Rom. ix. 11. For the children being not yet born, neither having done any good or evil, that the purpose of God, according to election, might stand, not of works, but of him that calleth.
k 1 Cor. ii. 14. But the natural man raceiveth not the things of the Spirit of God; for thoy are fooli-hness unto him: neither can ho know them, because they are spiritually discerned. Rom. viii. 7. Because the carnal mind is enmity against God: for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be. Eph. ii. 5. Even wheu wo were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ, (by grace ye are saved.)
I John vi. 37. All that the Father giveth me, shall come to me; and him that cometh to me, I will in no wise cast out. Ezek. xxxvi, 27. And I will put my Spirit within you, and cause you to walk in my statutes, and ye shall keep my judgments, and do them. John v. 25. Verily, verily I say unto you, f he hour is coming, and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God: and they that hear shall live.
III. To Luke xviii. 15,18. And they brought unto him als• infants, that he would touch them; but when his disciples saw it, they rebuked them. But Jesus called them unto him, and said, Suffer little children to come unto me, and forbid them not: for of such is the kingdom of God. And Acts ii. 38, 39. Then Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized, every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ, for the remission of sins, and ye shaE receive the gift of tfc*