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The action of the hands and arms, at Nos. 15 and 20, is the same, but the general effect is different, in consequence of the difference in the positions of the feet. In the preparation for these gestures, the palms of both hands are raised so as almost to touch the forehead; then they descend gradually, and when the arms are a little below the horizontal elevation, the wrists make that particular motion called noting, on the respective words, stores and cheat.
(26.) Left foot first position extended. To make this position extended, the left foot is advanced, the body at the same time is thrown back, and sinks a little, bending the right knee.
(28.) This gesture, Bvhf rj, both vertical horizontal forwards rejecting, is thus made: both hands are drawn backwards, nearly to the mouth, in the vertical position; the eyes at this time, are directed forwards, the hands are then pushed forwards, while the face is averted, and the feet retire, to a greater or less extent, in proportion to the degree of disgust or abhorrence to be expressed.
In order to render every circumstance perfectly intelligible, I have marked with the notation letters the gestures in the preceding example more minutely than is necessary for general
For general use, it is sufficient to note the most important circumstances, leaving the filling up to the judgment of the speaker.
In the recitation of descriptions of any kind, the speaker must, in imagination, have the picture before his eyes, and each object must be disposed in the same order as if actually painted. If this imaginary picture be faulty in the composition, confused, or ill-grouped, the gesture will perplex, rather than enlighten; but, if well conceived, and well disposed in its parts, the speaker will seem to give it the interest of life by his skilful gesture and recitation ; and the auditor will almost imagine that he actually contemplates all that the speaker describes.
Impassioned compositions, delivered with proper feeling and expression, open, in like manner, to the view of the hearer, the internal operations of the speaker's mind—a contemplation still more interesting than any scenes of external nature which can be presented in description.
As in writing, even an appropriate term must not be used too frequently, so in this art the same gesture, however expressive, must not be too often repeated. Variety is graceful, and requires that similar gestures, as well as similar words, should be separated by those which are diverse.
In oratorical action, it is a general rule that each new idea requires a new gesture, But important ideas, only, require distinguished gesture. For these last, therefore, should be reserved the species of gestures named emphatic; for the former (which are the most numerous), the discriminating will be sufficient. As to frequency, the propriety of gesture will be found to depend on the deliberation and expression of the speaker. If the feelings are not alive, and if the lines are not pronounced with due deliberation, the gestures will appear to be too numerous. In the preceding examples they may seem to have this fault, from the circumstance that it is my object to exhibit at large the greater part of their minute connections and transitions. A little attention, however, will show that much still has been left to be supplied by the judgment of the reader.
The notation and the analytical observations on the foregoing piece will, it is conceived, afford sufficient information to such as may desire to assist their rhetorical studies by this system. I would not recommend that the young speaker, in using this notation, should mark every possible passage in his discourse, in the manner of these examples ; for such minuteness would lead to embarrassment, unless preceded by much labour. The utmost advisable notation should not exceed a few marks on particular passages, and those separated from each other, the filling up of which should be trusted to the feelings of the moment. But the best method, in all respects, for acquiring a finished rhetorical delivery, is the private practice of declamation, which is supported on the authority of the great masters and models of oratory, Demosthenes and Cicero. The aspiring rhetorical student should select one or more celebrated orations, couched in the style that he wishes to adopt; these he should carefully subject to all the rules of notation; he should study them, and commit them to memory; he will exercise on them all the powers of his voice, his countenance and gesture; and, like Demosthenes, consult his mirror, and obtain the opinion of judicious friend on his performances. The knowledge and facility which, by repeated exercises of this kind, he will acquire in rhetorical delivery, may be transferred, with advantage, to his own compositions which are to be delivered in public; and without hazarding the inconveniences of particular notation, he will find himself possessed of such a store of various, forcible, and expressive action, that, whatever his feelings shall suggest at the moment, he will be able to execute in a satisfactory manner.
OF THE CHARACTERS USED IN THE EXERCISES IN
READING AND DECLAMATION.
(1) A vertical bar, employed to divide each paragraph into sections of a convenient length for concert reading. [See the PREFACE.]
(1) A separation mark. It signifies that the words between which it is placed should not coalesce.
(11) A rest. Where this character is employed there should be a slight suspension of the voice.
(-) Å hold. The vowels over which this character is placed, should have an unusual prolongation.
Ins"") Acute and grave accents. They are employed to represent the rising and falling inflections, and also the emphasis in melodies. [See page 77, etc.).
(^) Acuto-grave accent, or acuto-grave circumflex. [See p. 101.]
i Gravo-acute accent, or gravo-acute circumflex. [See pp. 87, 98.]
(ir) Irony. The passage to which these letters are prefixed is ironical.
(rp) Reproach. When these letters are prefixed to a passage it contains the language of reproach,
(wh) Whisper. The passage to which these letters are prefixed should be whispered.
(1, 2, 3, 4) These numbers represent the degrees of modulation.
The italic letters represent sounds which are liable to be omitted, or imperfectly articulated. When all the letters in a word are italic, the word is emphatic. The emphatic words, however, are seldom, in this work, marked by italic letters.
In designating the pronunciation of words, in the foot-notes, I have used the letters which, on pages 11-13, represent the elements of the English language. No superfluous letters are employed, as is done by lexicographers. The pronunciation of each word is determined by the letters which represent the sounds of which it is composed, and by the situation of the accent.
EXERCISES IN READING AND
FOR JUNIOR STUDENTS.
SPEECH OF SATAN TO HIS LEGIONS.
Narrative. He scarce had ceas'd, when the superior fiend Was moving tow'rd the shores;| his pond'rous shield, | Ethereal temper, mas,sy, large', and round', Behind him cast, ; | the broad circumferencea Hung on his shoulders like the moon | whose orb Through optic glass the Tuscan artisth views At evening from the top of Fes'o-le, | Or in Valdarno, to descry new lands', | Riv'ers, or mountains, d | in her spotty globe. I His spear' | (to equal which the tallest pine, Hewn on Norwegian hills, | to be the mast Of some great amiral, | were but a wand')| He walk'd with, to support uneasy steps Over the burning marl, 1 (not like those steps On heaven's a'zure !?) and the torrid clime Smote on him sore besides, | vaulted with fire, :/ Nathlesss he so endur'd, | till on the beach Of that inflamed sea he stood, and callid His legions, | angel-forms who lay entranc'd|
à Sér-kům'fè-rens. b Galileo. He was born at Florence, the capital of Tuscany, in Italy. - Valdarno, Vállé' di Arno (Italian), the vale of the Arno, a delightful valley in Tuscany. d Moun'tỉnz. e Am'i-ral (French), admiral. f A'Žur. 8 Nåth'lės.
Thick as autumnala leaves that strow the brooks
Princes, | po'tentates, Warriors, the flow'r of heavı'n, once yours; now lost, If such astonishment as this can seize | Eternalm spirits : | ir or have ye chosen this place, After the toil of battle, to repose Your wearied vîrtue, | for the ease you find To slum ber here, | as in the vales of heav'n? | rp Or, in this abject posture, I have ye sworn To adore the Conqıror? | who now beholds Cherub, and seraph, rolling in the flood With scatter'd arms, and en signs ; | till anon| His swift pursuers, from heav'n-gates | discerno The advan'tage, | and descending, I tread us down, Thus drooping; or, with linked thun derbolts, Transfix' us to the bottom of this gulf. I "Awake: ! ! 'arise' ! | or be for evier fallen, !|
a A-tům'nål. b Vallombrosa (válle, a vale; ombróso, shady), a shady valley in the Apennines, fifteen miles east of Florence. c Orton, a constellation, in the southern hemisphere. d Busi'ris, Pharaoh. Memphian, from Memphis, ancient capital of Egypt. | Shiv'al-ré. 8 Pêr-fid'iủs. h Sodžurn-úrž.
. i Hid'é-ús. k Wary65. As-tỏn/zsh-mỏnt. m E-têr'nal. Bèhöldž, not burholds. o Diz-zérn'.