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by William Whittingham, Calvin's brother-in-law, who was pastor of the English congregation at Geneva and a large contributor to the translation of the Geneva Bible. This is known as the Anglo-Genevan Psalter. In 1561 there was another edition of this book, which contained thirty six new versions (making eighty seven in all), viz. nine by Whittingham, two by John Pullain, one of the original Students of Christ Church, Oxford, twenty four by William Kethe, and the Old Hundredth,' In 1562 The Complete Psalter was published; it contained thirty nine new versions by Hopkins, twenty six by Thomas Norton, nine by Kethe, and four by John Marckant, while seven of the previous versions were omitted. In 1565 the full edition appeared, in which four of the omitted versions were brought back, and some alternative versions added. In all there were nine contributors to the Old Version, of whom Sternhold and Hopkins were so far the most important (contributing forty and sixty metrical psalms respectively) that the version is often called by their name.

b. The New Version was practically the outcome of long dissatisfaction with the version of Sternhold and Hopkins. It was the work of two Irishmen, both more or less poets-Nahum Tate, who wrote the second part of Absalom and Achitophel under Dryden's supervision, and succeeded Shadwell as poet laureate; and Nicholas Brady, chaplain to William III, who published a verse translation of the Aeneid. There is nothing to show what is the work of Tate and what of Brady; the artificial style of the version is the style of the period. Two instalments were published (one in 1695 and one earlier) as a specimen, and the entire Psalter appeared in 1696. Two new editions appeared in 1698, the latter of which was the New Version of the future. In 1702 appeared a third edition, with a supplement containing (i) metrical versions of the Te Deum, Benedictus, Magnificat, Nunc Dimittis, Creed, Lord's Prayer, and Ten Commandments; (ii) a few hymns, one

being 'While shepherds watched'; and 'Select Psalms done in particular measures.' In 1708 was added 'O Lord, turn not Thy face from me'; in 1782 the New Version was first printed at the University Presses, and 'Hark! the herald angels sing,' 'My God, and is Thy table spread,' and " Awake, my soul, and with the sun,' were added ; while some time after 1807 were added also “Jesus Christ is risen to day' and 'Glory to thee, my God, this night.' 2. The Scottish Versions and Scottish Paraphrases.

a. The first Scottish Psalter appeared in 1564, and was really a completion of the Anglo-Genevan Psalter of 1561 ; William Kethe, John Craig, and Robert Pont, all of them Scotchmen, were considerable contributors to it. It was ordered by the General Assembly of 1561, when the Geneva book was imported into Scotland ; and on December 26, 1564, the General Assembly ordered that every minister, reader, and exhorter should have and use a copy. It was reprinted several times, and continued in use till the present version of 1650.

b. The Scottish Psalter of 1650. Desire for uniformity of worship between England and Scotland led to the calling of the Westminster Assembly in 1643, part of the work recommended to them by Parliament being the preparation of a Psalter. The Lords recommended that of William Barton, and the Commons that of Francis Rous, which was ultimately ordered by the Commons to be printed. But the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland were dissatisfied with it, and suspicious of the religious views of Rous himself; they therefore appointed a Committee to revise this version, and use others in amending it. As a result of this, in 1650 was published and authorized the present Scottish Psalter, which has survived all proposals to modernize it, and remains to this day the only version of the Psalms used by Presbyterian Scotland.'

c. The Scottish Translations and Paraphrases. In con

sequence of a desire to find a wider range of subjects in praise' than was provided by the Psalter, the General Assembly in 1742 appointed a Committee to 'make a collection of Translations into English verse or metre of passages of the Holy Scriptures. After some delay, in 1745 the Committee produced a Draft called Translations and Paraphrases of several passages of Holy Scripture; it contained forty five paraphrases, twenty three being by Dr. Watts, and others by Doddridge and Tate. This was reprinted in 1749, but never sanctioned for public use. This book is known as the Draft Scottish Paraphrases. Another revision was ordered in 1775, and in 1781 another edition appeared, which added twenty two new paraphrases, and five hymns (three being by Addison). This is known as the Scottish Paraphrases. The Paraphrases never received formal sanction, but have always been freely used by Scottish Presbyterians.

3. There have been many metrical versions of the Psalms made by individuals, of which the following have been mainly drawn upon for this book :

a. Version of Sir Philip Sidney and his sister Mary Sidney, Countess of Pembroke. This was commenced by Sir P. Sidney, who wrote the version of Psalms i-xliii, and was finished by his sister. It only existed in manuscript till 1823, when it was printed and published for the first time,

b. Dr. Watts' Version, entitled The Psalms of David imitated in the language of the New Testament, and published in 1719. It is not really complete, Watts having realized that some parts of the Psalms are incapable of treatment as hymns. Its great characteristic is that it treats the Psalms in the light of our Lord's life, and expands type and prophecy into their fulfilment.”

c. Keble's Psalter, published in 1839 under the title of The Psalter or Psalms of David in English Verse by a Member of the University of Oxford,

Axtirnox. An Antiphon is a short sentence or versicle, often taken from or based on a passage of Scripture, formerly sung before and after Psalms and Canticles in the services of the Church. See note on p. 43.

Missal. The service book of the Latin Church, containing all that is said or sung at the Service of the Mass. The chief is the Roman Missal, based on the revision carried out in 1570 by Pope Pius V, as directed by the Council of Trent.

PRIMERS. A Primer is a book of devotions for the laity, in which three periods may be noted :

1. The first Primer was the Sarum Primer, the earliest copy being of the fourteenth century: this represents the pre-Reformation stage.

2. The Reformation produced another series, comprising :

a. The unauthorized Primers of the Gospellers, the earliest being in 1535.

b. The Primers of Henry VIII, 1545; of Edward VI in 1553 (in which are the Latin originals of the hymns on pp. 12 and 96); and their revision under Elizabeth in 1559.

3. Primers for the use of English Roman Catholics, issued by the Church of Rome after the Reformation and based on the Roman Breviary. These date from 1599 to 1706.

SEQUENCES. Between the Epistle and the Gospel there used to be sung an anthem called the Gradual. On festal days this ended with Aleluia, and the last syllable was prolonged to a number of musical notes (without words) called Sequentia, as following the Alleluia. In the ninth century the custom arose of putting words to these notes, and these in their turn came to be known as Sequentia or Sequences. The first writer of Sequences

was Notker Balbulus. They were originally unrhymed, and were also known as Proses; but in the twelfth century they were largely developed by Adam of St. Victor; rhyme was introduced, and an entirely new system of rhythm and versification, while there was greater freedom in subject and treatment. There were proper Sequences for nearly every Sunday and holy day, except from Septuagesima to Easter, when the use of Alleluia was forbidden.

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