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I.

THE AUTHORS OF THE HYMNS.

ABELARD, PETER (1079-1142), was a priest, who was twice

condemned for heresy. His poems and hymns were unknown till the discovery of some in the Vatican in 1838, and others in the Royal Library of Brussels in 1849. He is best known by his romantic marriage

to Heloïse, which largely coloured his life. ADAM OF ST. VICTOR, twelfth century, was one of the

greatest mediaeval hymn writers. When quite young, about 1130, he became a monk in the Abbey of St. Victor in Paris, where he passed the rest of his life. Over one hundred of his hymns and sequences are

extant. ADAMS, SARAH (1805-1848). ADDISON, JOSEPH (1672–1719), politician and man of letters,

was a member of Magdalen College, Oxford, where his literary powers were at once recognized. A Whig by politics, he intended to become a diplomatist, and spent four years (1699-1703) abroad to qualify himself for this career; but the death of William III and the expulsion of the Whigs from office left him for a time without employment. When the Government inclined to the Whigs again, Addison was given a small post ; and after his famous poem upon Blenheim, The Campaign, he became an Under Secretary of State, and in 1709 Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. But his duties did not keep him from literature: in 1709 he joined Steele in the Tatler, and when it ended, Addison, being released from politics by the fall of the Whigs, started the Spectator (March 1, 1711), which had a great and immediate success. On the death of Queen Anne and the triumph of the Whigs, Addison came back to office, and in 1717 became Secretary of State with Sunderland ; but retired in 1718, owing to the illness which in the next year caused his death. The six hymns attributed to him appeared in the Spectator in 1712, some anonymously, others over his usual signatures, C. or 0.; and though doubts have been cast upon their authenticity, they are now

generally admitted to be Addison's work. ALBINUS, JOHANN GEORG (1624-1679), was rector of the

Cathedral School at Naumburg, and afterwards

pastor of a church there. ALDERSON, ELIZA SIBBALD (b. 1818). ALEXANDER, CECIL FRANCES (1823-1895), wife of the Bishop

of Derry, published some four hundred hymns and

poems, mainly for children. ALFORD, HENRY (1810-1871), was Dean of Canterbury and

editor of the Greek Testament. AMBROSE, Sr. (340-397), was son of Ambrosius, Prefect of

the Gauls. Beginning life as a lawyer, he was appointed Consular of Liguria and Aemilia in 374, living at Milan. A few months after, on the death of the Bishop of Milan, the excitement at the election of his successor was so intense that Ambrose had to interfere to keep the peace; and while he was exhorting the people to peace and order in the crowded church, where the election was being held, a voice suddenly cried, 'Ambrose is bishop.' He was at once baptized and, in a week more, consecrated. Here he showed himself great as scholar, statesman, and theologian. He received St. Augustine into the Church in 387: almost alone, he fought against the Arian heretics in his diocese : and in 390 he put the Emperor Theodosius to penance for a massacre he had ordered at Thessalonica. Ambrose introduced antiphonal chanting from the East, and began the work of setting in order the music of the Church. Many hymns are attributed to him, but only about twelve can

with any certainty be said to be his work. AnatoliUS (eighth century probably) was a Greek hymn

writer of whose life nothing is known. ANSTICE, JOSEPH (1808–1836), was classical professor at

King's College, London. AUBER, HARRIET (1773-1862). Austin, John (1613-1669), a Roman Catholic, was author of

Devotions, in the Antient way of Offices, for every day in the week and every holiday in the year. BAKER, REV. Sır HENRY WILLIAMS (1821–1877), Vicar of

Monkland, Herefordshire, was promoter and first editor

of Hymns Ancient and Modern. BALL, WILLIAM, a member of the Society of Friends, was

author of many hymns published between 1825 and

1875. BARing-GOULD, Rev. SABINE (b. 1837), Rector of Lew

Trenchard, Devon, and author of The Lives of the
Saints, Origin and Development of Religious Belief, and

many hymns. BENSON, ARTHUR CHRISTOPHER, son of Archbishop Benson, BERNARD, Sr., OF CLAIRVAUX (1093-1153), saint, abbot, and

doctor,' was a man of high birth and great personal beauty, who chose the life of a monk, and in 1115 went out from the first Cistercian monastery to found the Abbey of Clairvaux. In 1130 he was chosen by the French bishops to decide to which of the rival Popes, Innocent II or Anacletus II, their allegiance was due ; he decided for Innocent, and was mainly instrumental in securing his general acceptance as Pope. In 1146 he preached the second crusade throughout France and Germany with such power that the whole population seemed to rise and follow him. Its failure, though in

no way due to him, was laid at his door, and in 1153,

in weariness with the world, he died. BERNARD OF MORLAIX OR Cluny(twelfth century), an English

man by parentage, was born at Morlaix in Brittany, and entered the Abbey of Cluny, the most famous of all monasteries, then at the height of its splendour and magnificence. In these surroundings he wrote a long poem, in rhyming hexameters, against the vices and follies of the age, which is the original of some of the best known English hymns among them, “Jerusalem

the golden.' BEsnault, the Abbé, was a contributor to the Paris Breviary

of 1736. BICKERSTETH, EDWARD HENRY (b. 1825), Dean of Gloucester

(1885) and Bishop of Exeter (1885-1900), is editor of the Hymnal Companion (1870), and of the Hymnal Companion revised and enlarged (1878), and author of many original

hymns. Blew, Rev. William John (b. 1808), published in 1852 The

Church Hymn and Tune Book, to which he contributed many translations and original hymns, mainly written

between 1845 and 1852 for the use of his own congregation. Bode, Rev. John ERNEST (1816-1874), was Bampton Lecturer,

1855. Bonar, Horatius (1808-1889), was a minister of the Free

Church of Scotland, and Moderator of the General Assembly of the Free Church in 1883. He published many hymns and poems, beginning with Songs from the Wilderness, in 1843, the latest being Communion Hymns,

in 1881. BRADY, NICHOLAS (1659-1726), an Irishman, was joint author

with Nahum Tate of the New Version of the Psalms. He was a Prebendary of Cork, and in the Irish War actively supported William III, who appointed him chaplain to the King. From 1702 to 1705 he was Incumbent of Stratford-on-Avon.

Bright, William (1824-1901), was Canon of Christ Church,

and Professor of Ecclesiastical History at Oxford. BROWNE, Simon (1680-1732), was an Independent minister

and pastor of the Independent Chapel in Old Jewry, London. His Hymns and Spiritual Songs were published

in 1720. BRUCE, MICHAEL (1746-1767), of Kinnesswood, on Lochleven,

was author of several hymns which appeared in the Scottish Paraphrases of 1781. Their authorship was claimed, after Bruce's death, by John Logan, to whom they had been entrusted in manuscript by Bruce's father, and who published them in 1781 as his own. A long controversy ensued, but it is now generally

admitted that Logan's claim was unfounded. BUCKOLL, REV. HENRY JAMES (1803-1871), was an assistant

master at Rugby, and probably the editor of the first

edition of the Rugby School Collection of Hymns. BULLOCK, WILLIAM (d. 1874), was Dean of Halifax, Nova

Scotia. Bunyan, John (1628–1688), was a whitesmith or tinker by

trade, having his forge and shop at Elstow in Bedfordshire. In 1644 he enlisted as a soldier, probably in the Parliamentarian army; after his service he returned to Elstow, and about 1648 married. This was the first turning point in his life. Hitherto he had been just an ordinary country youth, taking part in the usual sports and pastimes, and (his only real fault) much given to profane swearing. Under the influence of his wife and her pious books he gave up all his old practices and became 'in outward things a strict Pharisee’; but the insufficiency of mere outward change was borne in upon him, and for some four years he passed through a fierce spiritual conflict of doubt, fear, temptation, illusions, and despair, described in his Grace abounding to the Chief of Sinners. In 1653 the close of this struggle

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