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was marked by his joining a Baptist society, of which, after his removal to Bedford in 1655, he became deacon and, in 1657, preacher. About the same time he began to write, and his fame as preacher and author soon spread. At the Restoration the Acts against Nonconformists were revived, and Bunyan, refusing obedience, was arrested (November, 1660) and imprisoned at Bedford. He remained in prison till 1672, with a brief release in 1666, after which he was rearrested for refusing to cease preaching. During these twelve years he wrote much, his chief work being Grace abounding. In 1672, on the suspension of the penal statutes, he was released and resumed his ministry, with Bedford as its centre; but in 1673 the Test Act was passed, and in 1675 the laws against Nonconformists were enforced ; and Bunyan's preaching, though not actively molested, was much hampered. He found time to write as freely as in prison : in 1678 appeared the Pilgrim's Progress, in 1682 the Holy War, and in 1684 the second part of the Pilgrim's Progress. He refused all temptations to leave his ministry at Bedford, and died in London, upon one

of his journeys, just before the Revolution of 1688. Burns, JAMES DRUMMOND (1823-1864), was Free Church

minister first at Dunblane, and then in Madeira, where he had gone for his health ; and afterwards minister of

the Presbyterian Church at Hampstead (1855-1864). BUTLER, HENRY Montagu, was Head Master of Harrow

School (1859-1885), and Dean of Gloucester (1885-1886). In 1886 he became Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, and in 1890 a Governor of Wellington College His hymns were published in Hymns for the Chapel of Harrow School.

CAMERON, WILLIAM (1751-1811), was parish minister of Kirk

newton, Midlothian, from 1786 to his death. Much of the work in connexion with the 1775-1781 revision of


Scottish Hymns and Paraphrases seems to have fallen upon him; and in the 1781 edition two of his hymns

appear. CAMPBELL, ROBERT (1814-1868), originally a Presbyterian, at

an early age joined the Episcopal Church of Scotland. In 1848 he began a series of translations from Latin hymns, which, with a few of his own composition, were published in the St. Andrews' Hymnal in 1850. In 1854 he joined the Church of Rome, and for the rest of his life largely devoted himself to the cause of children and

of the poor. CARLYLE, THOMAS (1795-1881), historian, essayist, and critic,

is known as a hymn writer only by his translation of

Luther's hymn, 'Ein' feste Burg.' CASWALL, EDWARD (1814–1878), was born at Yately. He took

orders in 1838, but in 1850 joined the Church of Rome, and henceforth devoted his life to children and to the sick and poor. He is best known by his translations of Latin hymns, largely from the Roman Breviary; the first were published in his Lyra Catholica in 1849. They are better known than those of any other trans

lator, with the one exception of Dr. Neale. CENNICK, John (1718-1755), was of Quaker descent, but

brought up in the Church of England. Originally a land surveyor in Reading, in 1739 he met the Wesleys, and became first a teacher in a school for colliers' children and then a lay preacher. He parted from John Wesley on grounds of doctrine, and joined in 1745 the Moravian Church, of which he became a

minister. Chandler, John (1806-1876), Vicar of Witley, was one of

the best translators of Latin hymns. He began with the Paris Breviary, and in 1837 published his translations as Hymns of the Primitive Church.

CHORLEY, HENRY FOTHERGILL (1808-1872), was best known as

a musical and literary critic. CLARK, John HALDENBY (b. 1839), Vicar of West Dereham,

Norfolk COFFIN, CHARLES (1676–1749), was first principal of the Col

lege at Beauvais, and in 1718 became Rector of the University of Paris. He was the author of about 100 Latin hymns, most of which first appeared in the

Paris Breviary of 1736. COLES, REV. VINCENT STUCKEY STRATTON (b. 1845), Librarian

of the Pusey House, Oxford, 1884, and Principal, 1897. COLLYER, William BENGO (1782-1854), was from 1801 to his

death minister of a Congregational Chapel at Peckham, He was an eloquent preacher, and the author of many hymns and a long series of lectures on Divine Revelation,

CONDER, JOSIAH (1789-1855), editor of the Eclectic Review and

of the Patriot newspaper, was the author of many hymns, and editor of the Congregational Hymn Book, 1836, one of the most popular collections of hymns

which has ever been compiled. COOPER, REV. EDWARD (1770-1833), Fellow of All Souls

College, Oxford, was editor of a small collection of hymns for the use of his own congregations in Stafford

shire. COPELAND, Rev. WILLIAM JOHN (1804-1885), Fellow of Trinity

College, Oxford ; Rural Dean of Newport. He translated a number of Latin hymns, mainly from the Roman Breviary, which he published as Hymns for the

Week and Hymns for the Seasons (1848). Cosin, John (1594-1672), Bishop of Durham, began his

connexion with that diocese as chaplain to the bishop (Neile), and became in succession Canon of Durham, 1624, Archdeacon of the East Riding, and Rector of Brancepeth. As a personal friend of Laud he soon came into collision with the Puritans, and their hostility was increased by the appearance of his Collection of Private Devotions (1627), and the steps he took to beautify the Cathedral at Durham and to introduce a more ornate ritual. In 1634 he became Master of Peterhouse, Cambridge, where he pursued the same line in Church matters; and in 1640, Dean of Peterborough. He was chaplain to Charles I, and on the outbreak of the Civil War was deprived of all his benefices by Parliament, and retired to France, acting as chaplain to those of Queen Henrietta Maria's suite who belonged to the English Church. Here the Romanists made great efforts to win him over ; but Cosin was further from Rome than from Puritanism, and both wrote and used his influence against the Roman Church. He returned to England at the Restoration and was at once appointed Bishop of Durham. The rest of his life is remarkable for his share in the last revision of the Prayer Book, and his diligence and munificence as bishop. As a member of the Savoy Conference of 1661 (which revised the Prayer Book), he took a leading part: his proposals were all towards the revival of ancient ritual; he possessed a great power of composing prayers after the ancient models, and the Prayer Book owes to him several beautiful collects. After the Conference he devoted the rest of his life to his diocese; his one object was to carry out fully the system of the Church with the greatest order and beauty of ritual in the services. His munificence is attested by the amount he spent on the Castle and Cathedral of Durham and the Chapel at Auckland, on alms and charity, on lavish hospitality, and works

of benevolence of every kind. COTTERILL, JANE (1790-1825).

COTTERILL, THOMAS (1779-1823), Perpetual Curate of St.

Paul's, Sheffield, was compiler of the Selection of Psalms and Hymns for Public and Private use, adapted to the Festivals of the Church of England (1810), a book which had great influence in shaping the hymn books of the next thirty or forty years. In its original form it had to be withdrawn, among other reasons because of Cotterill's attempt to force it on his congregation; but appearing under a new title in 1820, it remained in

wide use in the north of England for forty years. Cotton, GEORGE EDWARD Lyncu (1813–1866), Master of

Marlborough College, 1852, and Bishop of Calcutta, 1858. He was drowned while disembarking from a

steamer at Koshtea, Oct. 6, 1866. CowPER, William (1731–1800), the poet, was intended for

the Bar, and was called in 1754. He had from childhood been subject to fits of melancholy, and in 1763 these culminated in three successive attempts upon his own life. Added to this came a delusion that God had forsaken him, and for some two years he was really a monomaniac. After his recovery he went, in 1768, to live at Olney in Buckinghamshire, where he came under the influence of John Newton, then Curate of Olney, with whom he formed a lifelong friendship . Here in 1771 the two friends formed the project of the Olney Hymns, published in 1779, to be used in the church or at the prayer meetings at the Great House at Olney. Before they appeared, however, the excitement of the prayer meetings and the extreme despondency of Newton brought on a recurrence of Cowper's madness. Again he attempted his life, and again he suffered from the deepest religious despair for some sixteen months. After his slow recovery another lifelong friend, Mrs. Unwin, suggested to him, in 1780, some serious poetical work, and in 1782 his first poems

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