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were published. But in 1796 the death of Mrs. Unwin brought about a fixed despair, and four years later he died. He contributed sixty seven hymns to the Olney Collection, many well known and of great excellence; but in almost all there is a note of gloom and

despondency rather than of gladness. Cox, FRANCES ELIZABETH, published in 1841 Sacred Hymns

from the German, containing about fifty translations. Crossman, SAMUEL (1623 – 168?), was ejected from his

living in 1662 for nonconformity, but conforming again became chaplain to the King, and prebend, and afterwards dean, of Bristol. His hymns are contained in

a pamphlet called The Young Man's Meditation. CUMMINS, John JAMES (1795-1867), a banker, was author of

Lyra Evangelica.

Dix, William CHATTERTON (b. 1837), author of a considerable

number of hymns, of which about forty are in common

use. DOANE, GEORGE WASHINGTON (1799-1859), Bishop of New

Jersey, was author of many hymns published in his

Songs by the Way, and in the Lyra Sacra Americana. DOPDRIDGE, Philip (1702-1751), a Nonconformist minister,

was appointed in 1729 pastor of the Independent congregation at Castle Hill, Northampton. Here he won fame both as a divine and a teacher. He was a man of great learning. His hymns, from 350 to 400 in number, were published four years after his death,

and won great popularity. Dowxton, Rev. Henry (1818-1885), English chaplain at

Geneva, 1857, and Rector of Hopton, 1873. DRYDEN, John (1631-1701), the poet, was of Puritan descent,

but became a Royalist at the Restoration, which he celebrated in his Astraea Redux. He was Poet Laureate from 1670 to the accession of William III in

1688. During the first ten years of his laureateship his chief works were his comedies and his 'heroic tragedies,' but in 1681 his satires began with Absalom and Achitophel, and brought him to the height of his reputation. In 1685 he joined the Church of Rome. Till quite recently Dryden was known as the author of only three hymns; but the discovery of these three in the Primer of 1706 has led critics to think that the 120 translations of Latin hymns in that book are also by him; and a minute investigation has resulted in a practical certainty that the bulk of these translations

are the work of one author, and that author, Dryden. EDMESTON, JAMES (1791-1867), was an Independent by

descent, but joined the Church of England at an early age. By profession he was an architect, and

Sir G. Gilbert Scott was one of his pupils. ELLERTON, REV. John (b. 1826), well known as composer,

translator and editor of numerous hymns. ELLIOTT, CHARLOTTE (1789-1871), was for the last fifty years

of her life a permanent invalid. Her hymns have had a great popularity, and one, ‘Just as I am,' has been

translated into almost every living language. EVEREST, CHARLES William (1814–1877), was Rector at

Hamden, Connecticut, U.S.A., 1842–1873.

FABER, FREDERICK WILLIAM (1814-1863), was originally

a clergyman of the Church of England, and had taken an active part in the Oxford Movement of 1833 ; but in 1845 he joined the Church of Rome, and in 1849 he founded the brotherhood which is now established at the Brompton Oratory. All his hymns were published after he joined the Church of Rome; and he was led to undertake them from a feeling of the want of English Catholic hymns. Many are in common use in the Church of England.

Farrar, FREDERICK WILLIAM (b. 1831), Master of Marl.

borough College, 1871-1876; Canon of Westminster, 1876; Archdeacon of Westminster, 1883; and Dean of Canterbury, 1895. He is a prolific writer upon biblical,

theological and historical subjects. FORTUNATUS, VENANTIUS HONORIUS CLEMENTIANUS (5302-609),

was converted to Christianity at an early age. While a student at Ravenna he became nearly blind, and on recovering his sight, as he believed by a miracle, he went in 565 on a pilgrimage to the shrine of St. Martin at Tours, and spent the rest of his life in Gaul. Under the influence of Queen Rhadegunda he was ordained at Poitiers; and became Bishop of Poitiers shortly before his death in 609. He was the author of a great number of poetical works, of no great merit; but most of his hymns are lost. Not more than nine or ten survive, but among them is · Vexilla Regis prodeunt,' one of the

greatest of all Latin hymns. FULBERT, Sr., OF CHARTRES (d. 1028), was consecrated

Bishop of Chartres in 1007. His works are little known, with the exception of one hymn, Chorus novae Hierusalem.'

GASCOIGNE, GEORGE, poet (d. 1577), was in early life a

student of the Middle Temple, and afterwards of Gray's Inn, but led an extravagant life, and was disinherited by his father. In spite of this he was twice elected to Parliament; but on his election again in 1572, objections being made to his character, he went abroad to the Low Countries, and taking service under William of Orange, redeemed himself by his gallant conduct in the field ; but was taken prisoner by the Spaniards and sent back to England. He was one of the earliest English dramatists, and the first English satirist.


fessor of Philosophy at Leipzig, where Goethe and

Lessing were among his pupils. GERHARDT, Paulus (1607–1676), was a Lutheran minister in

and near Berlin from 1651 to 1666, when he was deposed owing to the part he took in the contest between the Elector Frederick William and the Lutheran clergy of Berlin. He ranks next to Luther, as the most gifted

and popular hymn writer of the Lutheran Church.' Grant, Sir ROBERT (1779–1838), held a seat in Parliament

from 1818 to 1834, when he was appointed Governor of

Bombay. GREGOR, CHRISTIAN (1723-1801), was successively diaconus,

presbyter, and bishop of the Moravian Brethren's Church at Herrnhut; and editor of, and a large contributor to, their hymn book and its accompanying

book of tunes. GURNEY, JOHN HAMPDEN (1802-1862), Prebendary of St. Paul's.

He was the editor of two collections of hymns for the use of his parishes of Lutterworth and St. Mary, Marylebone.

Hankinson, Rev. Thomas EDWARDS (1804-1843).
Hart, JOSEPH (1712–1768), an Independent minister, was

the author of a considerable number of hymns, largely

composed between 1757 and 1759. HAWEIS, REV. THOMAS (1734-1820), Rector of Aldwincle,

Northamptonshire, and author of Carmina Christi. HEATHCOTE, REV. William BEADON (d. 1862), Precentor of

Salisbury Cathedral. HEBER, REGINALD (1783-1826), was Vicar of Hodnet from

1807 to 1823, when he became Bishop of Calcutta. At Hodnet he found time for much literary work; he was on the original staff of the Quarterly Review, and was well known in the world of letters. His hymns were all composed in this period, and were meant as a collection for Hodnet Church ; but the majority were not published till after his death. His episcopate lasted only three years, but they were three years of ceaseless travel, splendid administration, and saintly enthusiasm.'

HENSLEY, LEWIS (b. 1827), Vicar of Hitchin, Hertfordshire.

HERBERT, GEORGE (1593–1633), began life at the court of

James I, where he was the friend of the King and of Lord Bacon, and had hopes of court preferment. These disappearing at the death of the King and his other patrons, he retired from court, and becoming finally absorbed in a religious life, took Holy Orders, and in 1630 was presented by Charles I to the living of Bemerton in Wiltshire. A man of saintly life, he is probably best known by his collection of devotional poems called The Temple : these were entrusted by him just before his death to his friend Nicholas Ferrar (of the Little Gidding community) to be published if he thought fit, and they appeared in the year after his death. They were not intended for congregational use, and their quaintness has in most cases prevented it.

Hinds, SAMUEL (1793-1872), Principal of Codrington College,

Barbados ; Dean of Carlisle, 1848 ; and Bishop of Norwich, 1849-1857.

Hopkins, John, was the largest individual contributor to

the Old Version of the Psalms, sixty Psalms in all being by his hand-seven appeared in 1551, thirteen in 1561, and the remainder in 1562. His versions differ from those of the other main contributor to the Old Version, Thomas Sternhold, in that they all have four rhymes

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