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INDEX TO VOLUME I.

specting general Sullivan, 140-Report of the com-

mittee appointed to confer with lord Howe, 140-As.
Act of the British Parliament to prohibit and restrain semble at Philadelphia, 141.
American trade, 137.

Cool Thoughts, a pamphlet by Franklin, 78.
Adams. Rutledge, and Franklin meet lord Howe, 137. Copely, sir Godfrey, his gold medal presented to Frank.
Albany, Franklin appointed commissioner to the In.

lin, 63.
dians there, in 1754, 52-Plan of union of the colo Correspondence, social and familiar, of Dr. Franklin,
nies prepared and presented there, 53.

in a series of letters, 233- Private and political, be-
Alerander, William, esq., Franklin's letter to, on the fore the declaration of independence, in a series of
origin of the stamp act, 78.

1 letters, 303. 510.
America asserts her right of exclusively taxing her. Croghan, George, Indian interpreter, 57.
self, 85Gratitude of, 201.

Cushing, Thomas, letters to, 103.
American discontents, cause of, 197.
Americans abused in the house of lords, their courage,

D
religion, and understanding depreciated and treated Dartmouth, lord, made secretary of state for America,
with contempt, 132.

85-Friendly to Franklin, 86–His good wishes to.
Anecdotes of Bradford, 9, 10-of Ralph, 15-of governor wards the colonies, 95.

Clinton, 45-of Beatty, 60-of governor Denny, 63. Daschkoff's, the princess, letter to Franklin, 189.
Arnold, general, his treacherous conduct, 157-How re. Delor introduces Franklin's electrical experiments into
warded by the British government, 157, 158.

France, 83.
Arrest, the ministry design to arrest Franklin, 105. Denham, Mr. an early friend of Franklin, 16-His death:
Articles of belief and acts of religion, 33.

trait in his character, 20.
B

Denny, governor, succeeds Morris, 62- Presents a me.

dal to Franklin, 63-Refuses assent to an appropri.
Barclay, David, interview betwixt Franklin and, 107 - ation, 68.

Conference with. 124–Further conference, 128. De Romas, invention of the electrical kite, falsely at.
Bernard, governor, dispute with lieutenant-governor tributed to, 83.
Hutchinson, 86.

D'Estaing arrives in America with six sail of frigates,
Bond, Dr. Thomas, proposes an hospital in Philadel. 151.
phia, 49,

Dickenson, John, engaged in public affairs, 77.
Boston, resolutions of the town of, 84-Tumult with the Dissensions between England and America, concern
people and the goldiers, 86.

ing the, 223
Braddock, general, arrives in America, 54-Service ren. Dubourg, mons., translates Franklin's philosophical
dered to his army, 55-His character, 56-His defeat, I

papers into French, 80.
57.
Broron, doctor, turns the Bible into doggrel verse, 9.
Burgoyne, general, surrenders with his whole army to Ecton, in Northamptonshire, birth-place of the ances.
the Americans, 146.

tor of Franklin, 1.
Burnet, son of Dr. Burnet, notices Franklin, 13. Education of females, how important, 39-Publishes a

pamphlet on, 47.

Electrical discoveries, general account of Franklin's, 62.
Calumnious speeches in the house of lords, against Electricity, Franklin's experiments in, 48-Renewed,
America, 132.

62--Applied to various purposes by Franklin, 63.
Camden, lord, has interviews with him, 118–Supports Erperiments on canals, and water, by Franklin, 80.
America, 121-Speaks admirably on American af.

- on the Gulf Stream, 133.
fairs, 132.
Canada, Franklin decides the policy of Chatham con-
cerning, 74His pamphlet thereon, 75.

Fayette, a letter to, 157.
Caricature occasioned by the stamp act, 80.

Fire Companies, first established by Franklin, 42.
Carlisle, Eden, and Johnstone, 146.

Fire-place invented, an iron one, 17.
Causes of the American discontents, a pamphlet, 84. Folgers, ancestors of Franklin, 3.
Chancery, Franklin sued in, 92

Fothergill, doctor, character of, 51-Letters to Dr.
Charter, the first royal, granted to Pennsylvania, in Franklin, 108-Meeting with him and Barclay, 128
1681. 72.

Another meeting, 131.
Chatham, lord, consults Franklin, 74-Desires to see Franklin, the family of, 1-Benjamin Franklin burn, 3
him, 106-His motion relative to America, 121-Vi. -Erects a monument to his father and mother, 4-
sits Franklin, 122-His plan for settling the disputes Is apprenticed to his brother, a printer, 5-Method

with the colonies, 123-Rejection of the same, 125. of teaching himself English composition, 6-Proposal
Clapham, colonel, 60.

made him for establishing a new religious sect, 14-
Clarkson's life of Penn, refutation of censurers on Pays his addresses to Miss Read, 15-Embarks for
Franklin in, 73.

London, 16-Writes a dissertation on Liberty and
Clifton, John, first proposes the lighting of the streets Necessity, &c., 17--Becomes acquainted with Dr.
of Philadelphia, 50.

Pemberton, sir Hans Sloane, &c, 17-His moral and
Coleman, William, character of, 25-Liberality to religious principles, 23-Writes under the signature
Franklin, 26.

of Busy-body, 25-Writes on the necessity of paper
Collins, John, some account of, 9. 11. 13.

money, 26-His marriage to Miss Read, 28--Projects
Collinson, publishes Franklin's "New Experiments in the first subscription library in Philadelphia, 32
Electricity," 62

Publishes Poor Richard's Almanac, 38--Begins the
Commissioners in Europe, grant letters of marque, 145. study of languages, 40-Appointed clerk of general
Common Sense, a political publication, 137.

assembly, 41-Made post-master at Philadelphia, 41-
Conductors, blunt opposed to pointed, 151-Epigram on, Founds the Union Fire Company, 42-Proposes esta.
151.

blishing an academy and Philosophical Society at
Congress, assembly of, 103_-Their declaration of rights: Philadelphia, 44-Publishes Plain Truth, 44-Its ef.

their petition to the king, 103. 113–Send their pro fect, 45 Invents an open stove, 47-Renews his
ceedings to lord Chatham, and present a second peti. attempts to establish an academy at Philadelphia. 47
tion, 134-Declare the independence of the colonies, --Devotes his time to philosophical experiments, 48--
137-Appoint a deputation to meet lord Howe and Is elected a member of assembly and justice of peace
Rear his propositions of peace, 137-Resolution re- 48-Is appointed a commissioner to treat with the

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Indians, 43—Plan for cleaning the streets of Phila. Hartley, David, esq., employed to negotiate with Prank-
delphia and paving the same, 50--His improvement lin, 167.
in street lamps, 51-Appointed post-master general, Hemphill, parson, first settles in Philadelphia, 39.
52--Made M. A of Cambridge and Yale Colleges, 52 Henly and Nairne, verify Franklin's electric system,
--Plan for the union of the colonies, 52-- His address 150.
to the counties of Lancaster, &c., 55-Chosen colonel Hereditary legislators and mathematicians, 123.
of a volunteer regiment, 61–Philosophical reputation, Hillsborough, lord, made secretary of state for America,
62-Chosen a member of the Royal Society of Lon. 84-His resignation, 85.
don, and presented with the gold medal of sir Godfrey Hints for negotiation, 100-Arguments on, 109.
Copely, 63-Embarks for England, 65–His connex. on further propositions 127.
ion with the London newspapers, 70-Dedication of Historical Review, opinion of various writers on the, 63.
his "Historical Review," &c., 73-Is consulted by Mr. History, observations on reading, 37.
Pitt, 75-Writes “ England's Interest with respect to Holmes, Mr., brother-in-law to Franklin, 11.
the Colonies,” 75–Visits Scotland, is made L. L. D. Hostilities commence betwixt Great Britain and France,
at St. Andrews, 75-Receives the same honour from 147.
Oxford, 75--Returns to Philadelphia, 76--Loses his House of Commons, Franklin's examination before the,
seat in the Penusylvania assembly, 78-Reinstated,
and revisits Great Britain, 78-Visits Holland, Ger. Howe, Mrs., conference with Franklin, 107–Letters to
many, and Paris, 80-Introduced to Louis XV.: re. Franklin, 119. 128. 131.
peats his electrical experiments in his presence, and Honoe, lord, courts an acquaintance with Franklin, 116
by count de Buffon, &c., 80-Is dismissed from the --Meets him by appointment, 128-Letter to Frank-
office of deputy post-master, 99-Correspondence with lin, 129- Another meeting, 131-Appointed to com.
dean Tucker, 100-Invents an emblematical sign, 103 mand the British fleet in North America, 137-Cor-
--His acquaintance with Mrs. Howe, 107-Hints for respondence with Franklin, 138.
terms of union with Great Britain, 108-Letter to Hutchinson, lieutenant-governor, disputes with, 86—
lord Dartmouth, 127--Experiments on the ocean, 133 His letters, Franklin's account of, 88.
-Arrival in America, 134-Proposes the adoption of Hutton, Mr., the Moravian, account of, 152–Letter to,
paper money, 136-Sent on a mission to Canada, 136- 159.
Writes to Holland for assistance, 136-Correspond. Hyde, lord, his interview with Franklin, 128.
ence with lord Howe, 137-Is appointed minister ple.
nipotentiary to the court of France, 142–Experi.

I
ments during the voyage, 143--Receives a present of Indian method of concealing fires, 60.
Cook's Voyages from the British government, 153- Ingenhausz's, Dr , detection of Wilson's deceptive ex
Private Journal, 153--Requests leave to retire on ac. periments relative to Franklin's lightning conduct.
count of age, 153— l'he congress refuse his resigna. ors, and pretended improvements of his own, 150.
tion, 155-Account of Arnold's treachery in a letter Innis, the messenger, some account of him, 65.
to general la Fayette, 157--Political information with Intelligence from Pennsylvania, political papers, effect
sir William Jones, 160-Negotiates for a peace at Pa. of, 70.
ris, 161-Opens negotiation with the Swedish court,

J
167—Extracts from his private Journal, 169—Is nomi.
nated by the king of France to examine the proper. James, Abel, letter to Franklin, requesting him to con.
ties of animal magnetism, 173-Signs the treaty of tinue his memoirs, 29.
peace with Great Britain, 174-Leaves Passy on his Jay, John, esq., sent minister to the court of Spain, 148
return home, 175-Arrives at Philadelphia, 177-Con. -Arrives at Paris to negotiate for peace, 164.
gratulatory address on his arrival, 178--Chosen a Jones, John Paul, pretended letter from him, 159.
member of the council, 179-Queries and Remarks on sir William, account of an attempt to negotiate
Constitution of government, 180-Speech on Sala. for a peace with Franklin, 160-His supposed trans-
ries, 181-Speech on Representation and Votes, 189- lation of " A Fragment of Polybius," 160–His senti-
Retires from public affairs, 185–Sketch of his ser. ments respecting America, 163,
vices, 186—Writes against the slave trade, 187-Last Judges made independent in Massachusetts, 86.
illness, death, and funeral, 190-Oration occasioned Junto, account of a literary one formed by Franklin,
by his death, 191-His character, 192—Extracts from 24-Its sphere enlarged, 40.
his will and codicil, 193-Epitaph written by himself,
196-Examined before the house of commons respect-

K
ing the Stamp Act, 203–Before the privy council, 217. Keimer first employs Franklin as a printer, 11—Pro.
Franklin, William, (Dr. Franklin's son,) appointed go- poses to Franklin to establish a new religious sect, 14
vernor of New Jersey, 75.

-Quarrels with him and parts, 22.
Franklin, W. Temple, baron de Staël's letter relative Keith, sir William, proposes to establish Franklin as a
to him, 167.

printer, 12-Practises the grossest fraud on Frank.
French, colonel, attention to Franklin, 11.

lin, 14.
French government first take interest in the dispute Kippis, Dr., a calumny of his respecting Franklin cor.
betwixt Great Britain and America, 84.

rected, 151.

L
Galloway, Joseph, engaged in politics, 77-His speech Lamps, improvement thereof, 51.
published with a preface by Franklin, 77.

Languages, began to study, 40.
Gates, general, defeats the British troops, 146.

Law of Nations, proposed improvement thereof, 170.
Georgia, Massachusetts, and New Jersey appoint Frank. Lee, Arthur, petition of, with Bollan and Franklin, 126.
lin agent in England, 80.

Legal tender of paper money, he orposes, 69.
Gerard, monsieur, goes as envoy to America, 146. Library, the first established in Philadelphiu, 32.
Germany and Holland, Franklin travels into, F0. Lighting and Paving of Philadelphia sel on foot by
Gnadenhutten, Franklin sent in military command to, Franklin, 51

58-Indians burn that place, 58-Constructs military | Lightning drawn from the clouds, 63— Theory of con-
works there 59-His military police, 60-Apopthegm ductors, 63.
scour the anchor,-Grog before prayers, incentive to Logan, Mr., account of, 46.
piety, 60.

Loudon, lord, arrives in Philadelphia, 64-His mode of
Godfrey, Thomas, inventor of Hadley's quadrant, 24. despatching business, 64-His ideas of public service,

- Mrs., projects a marriage for Franklin, 27. 66-Cause of his removal, 66.
Government, Franklin's system of, eulogized by the Loughborough, lord. his abuse of Franklin before the
duke de la Rochefoucault, 184.

privy council, 87.
Grace's, Robert, liberality to Franklin, 26.

Lutwich, captain, account of his fast-sailing packet, 66.
Guerchy, the French ambassador, attentive to Frank Lyons, Dr., encourages Franklin to write on religious
lin, 84

subjects, 18.
Gunpowder, as grain,comprehended with wheat, &c., 46.

M
H

Magnetism, animal, 169.
Hall, Mr. David, a partner in business with Franklin, Mandeville's, Dr., friendship for Franklin, 18.
48.

Marbois, Barbs, his secret letter on American affairs,
Hamilton, Mr. Andrew, account of, 16. 27.

Note, 165
Harry, David, history of, 27.

Massachusetts appoints Franklin agent in England, 80

N

R

-The colony of, a sketch of the importance of, 86- Priestly's, Dr., testimony of the merits of Franklin's
Their judges inade independent, 86-Dispute with discoveries in electricity, 20-Gis account of Frank.
Lovernors Bernard and Hutchinson, 86-Report of lin's demeanour before the privy council, 87.
their house of representatives on Hutchinson's let. Privateering, proposes to put an end to, 170.
ters, 87.

Pridy council discuss the Massachusetts petition. M
Meeting house, how to obtain a subscription for, 50. 1 Wedderburn's abuse of Franklin. 87.
Meredith, enters into partnership with Franklin, 23. Project, an extensive one, 37.
Method, importance of, 36.

Proposcd vindication and offer from congress in 1775,
Meyrick, au army agent, his letters to general Arnold, 88.

151-an account of the 50001. paid him for his trea. Proprietary, refuse to tax their estates for public de.
chery, 155.

fence, 68-Remonstrance against, 69-The disputes
Mickle, anecdote of Mr. Samuel, 24.

with, had great influence on forming the character
Military spirit excited by Franklin, 44.

of Franklin, and on the revolution, 70—disputes
Militia, writes in favour of, 59-His magnanimity on with, 77.
the occasion, 45.

Protest, an eloquent one by Franklin, 132.
Militia Bills, governor refuses to ratify, 77.

Prussian edict, 225.
Mirabeau, proposes to the national assembly of France Purchase of Dr Franklin's writings by British minis.
a public mourning for Franklin, 191.

ter confuted, iv. vi.
Moravians, account of the, 59--61.

Public affairs, Franklin first turns attention to, 41.
Morris, James, anecdote of, 54–Returns from Eng.
land, 62.

Quakers' meeting, the first house Franklin entered at

Philadelphia after his arrival, 10- Anecdote of the,
Neate, Mr. W., letter to Franklin, 115.

45-Take an active part in opposing the rioters de.
New England Courant begun by the Franklins, 8.

nominated Paxton Boys, 76.
New Jersey, William Franklin, the doctor's son, ap.

pointed governor of, 75--Appoints Franklin agent in
England. 80.

Ralph, the historian, curious anecdote of, 13-Becomes
Nerospaper, mode of conducting, 39-Newspapers,

a schoolmaster, 18-obtains a pension for politicai
lish, he writes in, 71-Effects of, 71.

writing, 64.
Noailles, marquis, quits London, 146.

Read, Mr., father of Franklin's wife. 11.
Nollet, the abbé, opposes Franklin's system of electri. | Rcligion, a new one proposed to be established, 11.

city, 62-Claims the discovery of the theory of light. Religious creed of Franklin, 29.
ning, 63.

Remarks, on propositions for reconciliation, 127.
North's, lord, motion in the house of commons re. Remonstrance, drawn up against the selfishness of pro-
specting America, 129.

prietary, 69.
Notes, for discourse with ford Chatham. 122

Richard's. poor, almanac, 38.
Richmann, professor, introduces Franklin's electrical

discoveries into Russia, 83.
Office, public, Franklin's maxim concerning, 45.

Right of British parliament to tax America, 85.
Onsloro, Arthur, esq., Franklin's Historical Review de. Rights, privileges, &c., to Ainerica, equal conimunica-
dicated to him, 7i.

tion of, by Great Britain, 202.
Orme, captain, anecdote of, 57.

Roy, Mons. Le, refutes the abbe Nollet, 62.
Oswald, Mr., is succeeded by David Hartley, esq., as Royal Society of London, Franklin chosen a member
ininister from Great Britain, 163,

thereof, 63.
Orford University confers the degree of L. L. D. on Rules for reducing a great empire to a small one, 227.
Franklin. 75.

Rum, Indian orator's apology for drinking, 49.

Rutledge, Franklin, and Adams, meet lord Howe, 137.
P

S
Paine's pamphlet, “Common Sense,” effects of, in
America, 137.

Salaries, Franklin's speech thereon, 177.
Paper currency proposed by, 27-Legal tender opposed, Sandwich, lord, attributes lord Chatham's motion to

Franklin, 123.
Parliament, British, arguments against its right to tax Scotland, Franklin visits, 75.
the American colonies 85.

Shelburn, American business taken from lord, 84.
Partnership, advice in, 44.

Shirley, general, anecdote of, 66.
Parton murders, account of, 76.

Slare Trade, 187.
Peace with Great Britain, Journal of negotiation for, Sloane's, sir Hans, visit to Franklin, 17.
in a series of letters, 476.

Smith, Dr., pronounces a funeral oration for Franklin,
Pemberton, Dr., an early friend of Franklin, 17.

190.
Pern, William, anecdote of, 46-Exacts quit rents, 46 | Spangenberg, bishop, some account of, 59.

-Character of, 74-Attaches himself to James the Species, the animosity of the English lords leads them
Second, 74–Deprived of his authority in Pennsylva- to say Americans are of different species from Eng.
nia, 74-ls reinstated, 74.

lishmen, 132.
Pennsylvania, state of the province of, in 1757, 68-First Spotswood, colonel, governor of Virginia, 41.

royal charter granted to the colony, 72-First cause Stall, the Baron de, letter on the peace with Sweden
of dispute with the colony of, 76-Petition from, lo and requesting Mr. Temple Franklin to be employed
the king, 77.

at the Swedish court, 163.
Petition of W. Bollan, B. Franklin, and Arthur Lee, Stamp Act, origin of, 78_Caricature occasioned there.

by, 80-Disturbance in America, occasioned by pass.
Petition to the king from congress, in 1774, 103. 112- ing the, 80—First objects of, 102– Its repeal, 104.
The last to the king, 134.

Stanhope, lord, Franklin writes to, 121.
Philosophical Society of Philadelphia, proposed by Strahan, king's printer, fac simile of a letter tc, 136.
Franklin. 44.

Swimming, great fault in the art of, 20.
Piquet, M. La Mothe, captures twenty-two sail of Bri-

T
tish merchant vessels, 155.
Pitt, Wm., earl of Chatham, consults Franklin re. Tea tax, of the, 223.
specting Canada, 74.

Temperance, importance of, 36.
Plain Truth published, 44.

Temple, Mr. John, his duel with Mr. Whately 88.
Plan of Union at Albany, 1754, 52—Adopted by assem Tennent, Rev. Gilbert, account of, 50.
bly, rejected by the British government, 54.

Thomson, Charles, secretary to first congress, 1774, 104.
Plan of permanent union, 125.

Treaty of alliance between France and America, 146.
Polybius, supposed translation of a Fragment of, by sir Tucker, dean, controversy with Franklin, 101-Reflec.
William Jones, 157.

tions thereon, 102.
Poor Richard's Almanac first published, 38.

Tumult at Boston, 86.
Postmaster, he is appointed in 1753, 52.

Tyron on vegetable diet. Influence of, 44.
Pounall, governor, anecdote of, 54.
Prayers, Franklin's motion for, 179.
Preaching, anecdotes of, 40.

Union of the colonies, plan of, proposed at Albany, 52
Preface by W. T. Franklin, iv.

-fire company founded, 42.

126.

University, of Cambridge, Massachusetts, confers the Watson, Dr., draws up an account of Franklin's djs.

degree of, M. A. 52--Yale, Connecticut, do., 52.-St. coveries, which is read before the Royal Society of
Andrews, Scotland, confers the degree of L.L. D., London, 63.
75-Edinburg, Scotland, do., 75–Oxford, England, do., Webb, George, anecdote of, 22—Another, 25.
75.

Wedderburn, (afterwards lord Loughborough) his abuse

of Franklin before the privy council, 87.

Whately's duel with Mr. Temple of Boston, 96—Their
Virtue, art of, 37.

dispute stated, 96.
Vaughan's Benjamin, letter to Franklin, requesting Whitfield, Rev. George, arrives at Philadelphia, 42-De.
him to continue his memoirs, 29.

parts for Georgia, builds an orphan house there, 43—
Vergernes, the count de, receives the American com.

His character vindicated, 43—Traits of character, 44.
missioners, 144.

Wilson's, Mr., objections to Franklin's lightning con.
Vernon's confidence in Franklin, 12.

ductors, 149–His objections overthrown by Messrs.

Henley and Nairne, 149.
W

Woolaston's religion of nature, writes a dissertation

on, 17.
Walpolo, hon. Thomas, advises Franklin not to present Wright, Dr., introduces Franklin's discoveries in phi-

his protest, 132—Letter to Franklin, 132—Interview losophy to the Royal Society of London, 63.
with, 133.

Wyndham, sir William, is introduced to, 20.
Washington, general, letter of congratulation to Frank
lin on his return to America, 175.

Y
Watch, the city, established by Franklin, 41.

Yale college, confers degree of M. A., 52.

A POSTLIMINIOUS PREFACE.

This edition of the Memoirs and Writings of Dr. Franklin appears under circumstances favourable to a more general distribution in society than any former edition. Its bulk is reduced to two volumes, the price to that of two volumes of the latest preceding edition of 1818; and the additional matter is augmented equal to the contents of a volume more than was contained in that edition.

In the arrangement of the subjects, this varies a little from any of the former editions, and it becomes requisite to explain the present distribution.

Something appears to be necessary, also, in elucidation of other circumstances which appertain to the writings to the history of the author—and to the matter now added, as well as to some part of the Memoirs, which it is now too evident have been withheld or suppressed. In proportion as those who were his contemporaries retire, the interests and the enmities signally which characterized his career, lose something of their freshness and their asperity. The world generally has assumed new aspects; but, above all, this new world, in whose political creation the author had so large, so early, so long, and so successful a share. He had :requently expressed a wish, that it were possible for him to revisit this life at the é, ad of a century; but were that possible, the world he so effectually aided in creating, would already far exceed in its success the most sanguine calculations of his proverbial sagacity. The editor of the edition published in London, in 1779, in his preface said—“ The times appear not ripe enough for the editor to give expression to the affection, gratitude, and veneration he bears to a writer whom he has so intimately studied : nor is it wanting, as history lies in wait for him, and the judgment of mankind already balances in his favour. Yet he may be exçused for stating one opinion; he conceives no man ever made larger or bolder guesses than Dr. Franklin, from the like materials, in politics and philosophy, which, after the scrutiny of events, and the zeal of open hostility, have been more completely verified.”

Though the period at which this edition appears approaches to nearly half a century since his demise, the sentiment of the London editor as to the ripeness of public affection, gratitude, and veneration, is not even yet entirely complete. The jealousies of rivals and competitors have ceased; the animosity of partisans of different descriptions has abated; the principles of policy and philosophy which he taught pervade the civilized world ; in the ininds of those who are interested in human subjection and ignorance, his views and efforts to promote human happiness, and in America particularly, as leading to that universality, was his sinand the enmities so founded survived him many years, and have descended along with prejudices engendered in political and unsocial causes, which the prosperity and success of free governments have not yet entirely neutralized.

History, in its strictest sense, has not yet done justice to Franklin. The editions of his writings which have been hitherto appeared, were not published for his own benefit; several appeared without his privity or consent; and this fact, though at the present time of light moment, has been the source of many misrepresentations and mistakes, and furnished, with other incentives, food for various manifesta :

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