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I. ARTICULATION. ARTICULATION is the art of uttering accurately, and distinctly, the various vocal sounds represented by letters, syllables, and words.

Correct articulation is the basis of good reading and speaking. It implies an exact knowledge of the vocal sounds, and their use in words as determined by the best speakers.

ELEMENTARY VOCAL SOUNDS. The elementary vocal sounds may be divided into three classes: eighteen Tonics, or pure tones, represented by the vowels a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes y; fifteen Subtonics, or modified tones, represented by the consonants b, d, g hard, j, l, m, n, ng, r, th soft, v, w, y, z, zh; and ten Atonics, or mere breathings modified by the organs of speech, and represented by the Aspirates f, h, k, p, s, t, th sharp, ch, sh, and wh.

EXERCISE I.-Tonic Sounds. In the following table let the pupil give, first, the name by which the sound is designated, then the example, and, lastly, the element. After this, let him give the elements only. Name. Example. Element.

Example. Element.
A long

Fāte ā A before r Fâre â
A short Făt ă A as in Låst
A Italian Fär ä

Mēte ē
A broad Fall

a E short Mět ě



E long

* By many considcred the same as short a (ă); by others as intermediate between a in fát, and a in fär.

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EXERCISE II.— Tonic Sounds, continued. Let the pupil pronounce the following words accurately and distinctly, giving to the letters in Italics the sound denoted by the vowel at the head of the paragraph.

A long, as in fāte: fame, ale, ape, date, slate, gate, tame, same, flame, wave, save, whale; sail, hail, gauge, say, great, freight, deign, they, com-plain', con-vey', in-veigh', neigh'-bor.

A short, as in fåt: bat, fat, lad, hat, man, pan, can, began', fan'-cy, mar'-ry, com-pan'-ion; plaid, guar'-an-ty.

A Italian, as in fär: barn, farm, mart, fa'-ther, star, car, har'-py, mar'-tyr, a-larm', balm, parch'-ment; heart, hearth, guard, haunt, daunt, flaunt, launch, gaunt'-let, jaun'-dice, a-vaunt'.

A broad, as in fall: ball, call, hall, tall, salt, nor, form, storm, fought, sought, ought; fault, cause, au'-ger, av'-ful, au'-thor, laro'-yer, al'-ways, au'-gust, bal'-sam, bau'-ble, pal'-sy.

A, as in fare: care, share, dare, rare, snare, stare; hair, there, heir, com-pare', for-bear', de-clare'.

A, as in last : grass, pass, staff, dance, branch, chance, chant, graft, waft, blast, grasp, class, mas'-tiff, past'-ure, plas'-ter, bom'-bast.

E long, as in mēte: theme, scene, scheme; beard, field, yield, fiend, grieve, brief, leaf, quay, seize, pique, ma-rine', treat'-y, re-lief', be-lief', re-ceive', de-ceive', re-ceipt', len'-ient.

E short, as in mệt: men, wren, bed, fed, helm, yes, chest, egg, ket’-tle, mer'-it, tep'-id; bread, said, says, saith, friend, realm, man'-y, guess, leop'-ard, spe'-cial, pref'-ace, heif'-er, a-gain'.

I long, as in pīne: fine, twine, shine, smile, mile, vine, kind, child, might, isle, blight, flight, o-blige'; height, type, buy, sky, al-ly', de-fy', ap-ply', aisle, guile.

I short, as in pin: tin, fin, since, fill, pill, miss, hiss, bid, hid, ring, prince, quince, skip, whip, ser'-vile, agʻ-ile; myth, lyr'-ic, bu'-sy, sieve, cyn'-ic, cyl'-in-der.

O long, as in note: told, fold, sold, vote, dome, roll, port, home, more, on'-ly, po'-et; loathe, dough, gloro, flow, soul, seu, beau, bu'-reau, yeo'-man, en-croach', haut'-boy.

O short, as in not: blot, dot, bond, fond, pond, fox, shot, odd, rob, sob, fos'-sil, fos'-ter, do'-cile, pros'-pect; was, wash, wand, watch, wasp, knowl'-edge.

O, like long oo, as in möve: prove, lose, tomb, do, who, dis-prove'.

U long, as in tūbe: tune, use, mute, cube, tube, fume, pure, lute, flute, du'-ty, cu'-bic, cu'-rate, mu'-sic, re-sume', en-dure'; new, feu, pew, Tuesday, pur-suit', beau'-ti-ful.

U short, as in tůb: tun, sun, hut, just, dust, cull, buzz, sung, thumb, vul'-gar, hur'-ry, busk'-y; son, dove, does, rough, tongue; her, sir, term, verge, earth, verd'-ure.

U obtuse, as in full: pull, bull, bush, push, puss, pul’-pit, pul'-ley, butch'-er, cuck'-oo, cush'-ion; could, would, should, good, hood, wolf, wool, foot, book.

Oi, as in toil: boil, coil, foil, void, coin, tur-moil', embroil', foi'-ble, re-joice'; coy, toy, joy, boy, em-ploy', oys'-ter.

Ou, as in bound: sour, hour, pound, proud, noun, doubt, trout, ground, shout, de-vout', a-round'; now, vow, brown, town, crowd, vow'-el, en-dow'.

EXERCISE III.-Subtonic Sounds. The following will be found useful exercises for securing distinctness of articulation. Pronounce the Italic letters very distinctly; also, give the vowel sounds correctly.

B, as in bāle, băd, bär, ball, bâre, båss; bēast, běst; bīnd, bill; bāne, bot, boor; bū'-gle, bůg'-gy, byl'-ly; boil, bound. Bābe, dråb, rõbe, probe, bab-ble, bab-bler, in-hab-it.

D, as in dāle, dăb, därk, dawn, dâre, dåst'-ard; deal, děbt; dive, did; dome, dot, mood; dū'-ty, důst, good. Mod-est, de-duce', ad'-ded, wed'-ded, da'-ted, fa'-ded, si'-ded.

G, as in gāle, găg, gärb, gall, gâir'-ish, gås; gēar, guěst; guīle, gill; göre, got, goose; leg-ūme', in-gủlf', goi'-tre, gout. Beg'-gar, gew'-gaw, guin'-ea, plague, guard, egg, jug.

J, as in jāil, jáck, jär, jaw; jěst, gěst'-ure, gēn'-ius; gi'-ant, gib'-bet; jū’-ry, jŭdge, judg'-ment, jus'-tice. Edge, ledge, wedge.

L, as in tāme, lămb, lärk, tall, lâir, låss; least, léss; line, bil; lõne, lot, loose; lū’-rid, lug'-ging, bul'-ly. Lol, live'-ly, love'-ly, aw'-ful-ly.

M, as in māde, măd, mär, mall, mâre, måss; mēat, měnd; mīnd, mill; moan, mot'-to, möve; mūle, můl'-lin. Mam'. mon, mo'-ment, hymn, mem'-o-ry, me-men'-to.

N, as in nāme, nā'-val, năp'-kin, när-cot'-ic, naught, nau'-tilus, nást'-y; nēat'-ly, nět'-tle; night'-ly, nin'-ny; no'-ble, non'-sense, noose; nūde, nům'-ber. Ban'-ner, gnaw, kneel, kitch'-en, hy'-phen.

Ng, as in băng, king, ring-ing, fligo-img, am'-ger, comgress, noth'-ing, pro-long', drink, plank, lynx, tin'-ker, ran'kle, mon'-key, con'-quer, an'-chor.

R, as in rāid, răd'-i-cal, de-bär', râre, råsp, rēar, rest, rise, riv'-er, ro'-ver, rot-ten, rood, ru'-ral, růsh. E-ter'-nal, for'-mer, for-bear', mur-mur.

Th, soft, as in that, this, these, those, with, thus, tithe, clothe, breth'-ren, far'-thing, fa'-ther, breathe, wreathe, hea'-then, there'-fore.

V, as in vāin, văl'-id, vär'-nish, vást, vēal, vēst, vīle, vil'-lain, võte, viv'-id. Weave, sev'-en, re-vive', re-volve', pre-serve'.

W, as in wāil, wăg, wall, wäre, weak, wěst, wild, will, wove, woof. Be-wâre', way'-ward, worth'-less, wel'-come.

Y, as in you, use, use'-ful, year, yawn, yawl, young, yon'der, mill'-ion, fil'-ial, pon'-iard, span'-iel.

Z, as in zēal, zěst, zinc, zone, as, was, maze, prize, flies, a-rise', dai'-sies, prais'-es, breez'-es.

Zh, as in az'-ure, brā'-sier, glā'-zier, leis'-ure, meas'-ure, o'-sier, sēiz'-ure, vis'-ion, col-lis'-ion, pleas'-ure, treas'-ure,

EXERCISE IV.-Atonic Sounds. F, as in fāme, făn, fär, fall, fâre, fäst, fēast, in-fest, find, fill, foam, fond, food, fū'-el, fủn'-nel, full-ly, foil, found. Fan-ci-ful, prof' fer, craft'-y, rough, e-nough', cough, trough, laugh, laugh-ter, phys'-ic, phan'-tom.

H, as in hâte, hắd, hall, hâir, hēarse, hěld, hīve, hill, hone,


hot, hoot, hü'-mid, hům'-ble, hound. Hot'-house, be-hest', off'-hand.

K, as in kāle, kăl'-mi-a, kaw, kēēl, kedge, kind, kill, cāne, căn, cây, seek. Ech-o, choo-rus, ep-och, con-quest.

P, as in pāle, pin'-el, päro-don, pal-sy, pear, piss, pẽace, pěst, pine, pin, põle, pond, poor, pū'-pil, půn'-ish, pul'-ley, poi'-son, pound. Hap'py, pip' pin, pup'-pet, rap'-id, creep, grope.

S, as in sāil, săd, stär, salt, cor'-sâir, sēal, sěnd, slime, slim, sõle, sol-id, stū'-por, súb'-ject, soil, sound. Sin'-less, sci'-ence, scene, schism.

T, as in tāme, tăn, tär, tall, teâr, tåsk, tēar, těnt, time, till, tone, top, tour, tüne, turn. Tit'-ter, mat'-ter, crit'-ic, debt, taught, to'-tal.

Th, sharp, as in thāne, thănk, think, thorn, trūth. thank'-ful, thought'-ful, think'-ing, a'-the-ist.

Ch, as in chäse, cắt, chăm, chalk, chair, cheäse, chäst, chime,chịn, chõre, chop, choose, churn. Church, hatch, march, satch'-el, touch'-ing.

Sh, as in shāde, shăm, sharp, share, shēēp, shělf, shine, shin, shoal, shot, shoot, shăn. Gush, rush, sure, o'-cean, action, man'-sion, chev-a-lier', cham-paign'.

Wh, as in whāle, whăck, wharf, whêre, whēēl, whělp, whīne, whiff. Wheth'-er, whip’-ping, whis'-per, whi'-ten. EXERCISE V.-Miscellaneous Subtonic and Atonic Combi

nations. 1. Brāve, breathe, breath; draw, drift; fled, flounce; glen, glide; cleave, cleft; crime, crust.

2. Play, plead; pray, prove; quell, quill; shriek, shrink; screen, scrawl; smite, smote; speak, space.

3. Splice, splash, splunge; spring, spread; squib, squill, square; stream, straw; threw, throw, thrift; thwack, thwart; tweed, twine.

4. Barb, curb, bulb; urge, dirge; wolf, self; humph, tri'umph; punch, lunch; harsh, marsh; earl, purl; helm, film; prism, rhythm; vamp, clamp: delve, helve.

5. Act, tact; learnt, burnt; first, worst, thirst; most, lost; sent, lent; felt, pelt. .

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