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6. Ants, wants, stilts, wilts; facts, bracts, roasts, toasts; dense, fence; necks, decks; basks, tasks; cuffs, puffs, tenths, truths, depths; twelfths.
7. Black'n, slack'n, stoln; rõb'd, prob'd; long'd, oblig'd, urg'd; breath'd, sheath'd, wreath'd ; o-pen'd; whelm’d; bronz'd; buzz'd.
8. Prob’dst, prov'dst, liv'dst, learn'dst, charm'dst, blabb'dst, dazzl'dst, call'st.
1. The suppression of a sound; as,
for go-ing. 66 mound. mor-nin
“ mor-ning. des 66 desk.
trav'l 66 trav-el. beas 66 beasts.
ex-per ex-pert. 2. The omission of a syllable ; as, ev'ry. for ev-er-y.
trav'ler for trav-el-er. sep’rate sep-a-rate. glor’us glo-ri-ous. num'rous nu-mer-ous. ob'slete ob-so-lete. lib'ry “ li-bra-ry.
mem'ry mem-o-ry. 3. The change of a vowel sound ; as, bas-kit for bas-ket.
up-prove for ap-prove. good-niss good-ness. win-der win-dow. hon-ust 66 hon-est.
hun-durd 66 hun-dred. in-stunt in-stant.
sep-e-rate sep-a-rate. 4. Miscellaneous. for when.
2-dear for i-de-a. wat 66 what.
co cord. wich 56 wbich. арат warm. wa-tah
wa-ter. 5. The blending of syllables belonging to different words.
The pure ein art, instead of The pure in heart.
Two small eggs.
There is a calm.
Some ice cream.'
II. ACCENT AND EMPHASIS. ACCENT is the peculiar force of voice given to one or more syllables of a word.
The accented syllable is often marked thus '; as in win'. dow, com-mu'-ni-cate.
Most words of three or more syllables have two syllables accented, as in multi-pli-ca"-tion. The more forcible stress of voice is called the primary accent, and the less forcible is called the secondary accent.
EMPHASIS is a forcible stress of voice upon some word or words in a sentence, on account of their significancy and importance. Sometimes it merely gives prolonged loudness to a word, but generally the various inflections are connected with it. Thus it not only gives additional force to language, but the sense often depends upon it. EXAMPLES.-—I did not say he struck me'; I said he struck John'. I did not say he strůck me; I said he pushed me. I did not say hè struck me; I said John did. I did not say he struck me; but I wrote it. Ỉ did not say he struck me; but John said he did. He that can not beár a jest, should never make one. It is not so easy to hide one's faults as to mend them. CASSIUS. I may do that I shall be sorry for. BRUTUB. You have done that you should be sorry for.
Emphatic words are usually denoted by being printed in italics, as in the above examples; but when the emphasis is designed to be very marked, CAPITALS are sometimes used, tbus: To arms! TO ARMS! TO ARMS! he cried. I repeat it, sir; we must FIGHT.
III. INFLECTIONS. For a description of the Inflections, see the Second Read
er, page vii.
RULE I.–Direct questions, or those that can be answered by yes or no, generally require the rising inflection, and their answers the falling.
EXAMPLES. - Do you think he will come to-day'? No'; I think he will not'.-Was that Henry'? No'; it was John'.-Did you see William'? Yes', I did'.--Are you going to town to-day'! No', I shall go to-morrow!.
RULE II. - The pause of suspension, denoting that the sense is unfinished, such as a succession of particulars that are not emphatic, cases of direct address, sentences implying condition, the case absolute, etc., generally requires the rising inflection.
EXAMPLES.—John', James', and William', come here. The great', the good', the honored', the noble', the wealthy', alike pass away.
Friends', Romans', countrymen', lend me your ears.
Ye hills', and dales', ye rivers', woods', and plains',
Tell, if ye saw, how came I thus'; how here'? Note.—For cases in which emphatic succession of particulars modifies this rule, see Rule VIII.
RULE III.- Indirect questions, or those which can not be answered by yes or no, generally require the falling inflection, and their answers the same.
EXAMPLES.—When did you see him'? Yesterday'.-When will he come again'? To. morrow!
Who say the people that I am'? They answering, said, John the Baptist'; but some say Elias'; and others say that one of the old prophets' is risen again.
RULE IV.-A completion of the sense, whether at the close or any other part of the sentence, requires the falling inflection.
EXAMPLES.—He that saw me' saw you also'; and he who aided me once' will aid me again!
In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth'. And the earth was without form, and void'; and darkness was on the face of the deep': and the spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters!!
NOTE.—But when strong emphasis, with the falling inflection, comes near the close of a sentence, the voice often takes the rising inflection at the close.
EXAMPLES.—If William does not come, I think John' will be here'.-If he should come, what would you do'?
CAssI08. What night is this?
RULE V.-Words and clauses connected by the disjunctive or, generally require the rising inflection before the disjunctive, and the falling after it. Where several words are thus connected in the same clause, the rising inflection is given to all except the last.
EXAMPLES.—Will you go' or stay'? I will go'.-Will you go in the buggy', or the car. riage', or the cars', or the coach'? I will go in the cars!.
He may study law', or medicine', or divinity'; or', he may enter into trade!
Note I.—When the disjunctive or is made emphatic, with the falling inflection, it is followed by the rising inflection, in accordance with the note to Rule IV.; as, “He must have traveled for health, or' pleasure'."
EXAMPLES.—He must either work', or study'.—He must be a mechanic, or a lawyer'. -He must get his living in one way, or the other'.
Note II.—When or is used conjunctively, as no contrast is denoted by it, it requires the rising inflection after as well as before it, except when the clause or sentence expresses a completion of the sense. EXAMPLES. -Did he give you money', or food', or clothing'? No', he gave me nothing!
RULE VI.-When negation is opposed to affirmation, the former takes the rising and the latter the falling inflection, in whatever order they occur. Comparison and contrast (antithesis) come under the same head.
EXAMPLES.— I did not hear him', I saw him':-I said he was a good soldier', not a good citizen'.-He will not come to-day', but to-morrow':-He did not call me', but you!-He means dutiful', not undutiful'.-I come to bury Cæsar', not to praise him'.
This is no time for a tribunal of justice', but for showing mercy'; not for accusation', but for philanthropy'; not for trial', but for pardon'; not for sentence and execution', but for compassion and kindness!
Comparison and Contrast.-Homer was the greater genius', Virgil the better artist'; in the one we most admire the man', in the other the work!—There were tyrants at home', and robbers abroad'.
By honor' and dishonor'; by evil report' and good report'; as deceivers', and yet true'; as unknown', and yet well known'; as dying', and behold we live'; as chastened', and not killed'; as sorrowful', yet always rejoicing'; as poor', yet making many rich'; as having nothing', yet possessing all things'.
When our vices leave us', we flatter ourselves we leave them!
RULE VII.-For the sake of variety and harmony, the last pause but one in a sentence is usually preceded by the rising inflection.
EXAMPLES.—The minor longs to be of age'; then to be a man of business'; then to arrive at honors'; then to retire'. Time taxes our health', our limbs', our faculties', our strength', and our features'. RULE VİII.—1st. A Commencing Series.
In an emphatic series of particulars, where the series begins the sentence, but does not either end it or form complete sense, every particular except the last should have the falling inflection.
EXAMPLE. -Our disordered hearts', our guilty passions', our violent prejudices', and misplaced desires', are the instruments of the trouble which we endure.
2d. A Concluding Series. When the series ends the sentence, or forms complete sense, every particular in the series, except the last but one, should have the falling infection; and, indeed, all should have it, if the closing member of the series is of sufficient length to admit a pause with the rising inflection, before the
EXAMPLE.—Charity suffereth long', and is kind'; charity envieth not'; charity vaunteth not itself'; is not puffed up'; doth not behave itself unseemly'; seeketh not her own'; is not easily provoked'; thinketh no evil'.
RULE IX.-Expressions of tender emotion, such as grief, pity, kindness, gentle joy, a gentle reproof, gentle appeal, gentle entreaty or expostulation, etc., commonly require a gentle rising inflection. EXAMPLES.–Mary' ! Mary'! do' not do so'.
My mother'! when I learned that thou wast dead',
Temptation without, and corruption within';-
RULE X.-Expressions of strong emotion, such as the language of exclamation (not designed as a question), authority, surprise, distress, denunciation, lamentation, earnest entreaty, command, reproach, terror, anger, hatred, envy, revenge, etc., and strong affirmation, require the falling inflection.
EXAMPLES. - What a piece of work is man'! How noble in reason'! how infinite in faculties'! in action', how like an angel'! in apprehension', how like a God'!
My lords, I am amazed"; yes, my lords, I am amazed at his Grace's speech.
I tell you, though you', though all the world', though an angel from heaven' should doclare the truth of it, I could not believe it.
I dare' accusation. I defy' the honorable gentleman.