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madest with our fathers. A letter was easily dropped from the text; and that letter in Hebrew expresses the added words.-Ver. 21. The second line of this verse has been deemed hard to render. I think I have given the true meaning. Comp. 1 Mac. I. 51–53.

PSALM LXXV.-al. LXXIV. If I mistake not much, this psalm was composed after Judas Macchabeus bad been victorious over all bis enemies, and restored the worship of God at Jerusalem. See 1 Macc. 4. 36–39. Tbe title is, 1 FOR THE FIRST MUSICIAN: AL-THASHHITH;

WE thank thee, O God!—we thank thee:
we invoke thy name, and rehearse thy wonders !

Since I found a fit occasion,
I have exercised acts of rectitude.
The land, with its inhabitants, was shaken:
but its pillars I have reestablished.
To the profane vaunters I said: “ Vaunt not

“ yourselves :"
and to the wicked: “ Lift not up your horn:
“ Lift not up your horn on high;
“ nor speak with a stiffened neck:
“ for neither from east, nor west, nor south,
“ may any one exalt himself :
« but God is the proper judge ;
66 who humbleth one and exalteth another.
For in the hand of God there is a cup
“ full of red and turbid wine :
“ This he sheddeth here, † and therel :
6 but its last dregs all the wicked of the earth shall

" drink !"

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But I shall for ever exult,

10 and sing praises to the God of Jacob.

All the horns of the wicked I will cut off: but the horns of the just shall be exalted.


NOTES. Ver. 3. I have exercised acts of reltitude. i.e. I have exerted myself in correcting abuses, and reforming the national corruptions. This language is perfectly suitable to Judas Macchabæus : and indeed so is the whole psalm.-Ver. 5. Lift not up your born: i. e. boast not of your superior strength. The metaphor is readily understood. - Ver. 9. The addition and there, is not in the present text: but it is expressed by Sep. Syr. Vulg. Arab. and I have no doubt of its having been in their Heb. copies. All more or less drink of it, but its dregs are reserved for the wicked.

PSALM LXXVI.-al. LXXV. This psalm is by some thought to have been composed on the same occasion with psalm 46. to which indeed it bath some resemblance. But I think it more probable tbat it was only imitated from that psalm; and would refer it to the same time and occasion with the preceding : namely, to the victorious days of Judas Maccbabæus. Yet it is applicable to the defeat of the Syrians, in the reign of Hezekiab. The title is,



A PSALM-SONG OF ASAPH. GOD is acknowledged in Judah ! great is his name in Israel ! in Salem is his tabernacle, and his dwelling-place in Zion! There he hath broken the wings of the bow, the shield, the sword, and the war!

Zion! thou art more illustrious and excellent

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than those high mountains of plunderers.
The stout-hearted foes have been spoiled :
they have Nept out their sleep!
nor have any of those men of might
found their might of aught avail!
At thy rebuke, O God of Jacob !
benumbed were both chariot and horse.
. Thou, thou, O God! art terrible:

and who, in thy wrath, can resist thee?
Soon as from the heavens thy sentence is heard,
the earth trembleth—and is still :
when God ariseth, to do justice;
and to save the oppressed in the land.
The fury of man thou quelleft-
the remnant of their rage thou restrainest.
Vow votive gifts, and pay them to Jehovah, your

bring presents to the Awful-one, all ye who are about

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'Tis he who controlleth the spirit of princes!
formidable to the kings of the earth!

NOTES. Ver. 3. In Salem, i. e. Jerusalem.-Ver. 4. The wings of the bow, i. e, arrows.-Ver. 11. This verse is thus rendered in our common version : “Surely the wrath of man shall praise thee : the remainder of “ wrath thou shalt restrain.” Others variously. I follow the emendation of Houbigant; which consists only of the transposition of a letter; and affords a most suitable and congruous meaning.

PSALM LXXVII.-al. LXXVI. By whomsoever, or wbensoever, this psalm was composed; it must bave been composed in a time of calamity : probably during the Babylonisb captivity; or at least after the dispersion of the ten tribes. Its title is,

A DIDACTIC PSALM OF ASAPH. MY cry is to God--and loudly I cry: to God is my cry, that he would listen. In the day of my distress I seek JEHOVAH: by night mine hand is unremittedly stretched out to

bim. My soul refufeth every sort of comfort. I call God to mind, and am disquieted : When I reflect, my mind is overwhelmed : Mine eyes are kept constantly awake : I am so confounded, that I cannot speak. I consider the days of old, the years of yore: I recollect my former nocturnal fongs. With myself I reason, and my mind thus questioneth: “ Will JEHOVAH reject us for ever? « and will he no more be favourable ? • Is his benevolence utterly withdrawn? “ Shall his promise fail, from generation to generation ? “ Hath God forgotten to be gracious ?

10 “ Hath he, in his ire, shut up his compassion ?"

At length, I said: “ I penetrate it : “ 'Tis a change of the right hand of the Most-High ! “ But, let me call to mind the former works of « JEHOVAH:

12 6 let me call to mind thy wonderful works of old ::

13 " on all thy works let me meditate;

“ and talk of thy deeds.”
Thy ways, O God! are holy!
who fo great a God, as our God?
Thou art a God, working wonders !

among the nations thou manifestedst thy power. 16 With thine arm thou redeemedst thy people,

the posterity of Jacob and of Joseph.

The waters saw thee, O GOD! the waters saw thee, and were afraid ! the depths themselves were troubled. The clouds poured out water ! the skies emitted a found ! thine arrows flew abroad! the voice of thy thunder was heard in the heavens ! thy lightnings flashed on the globe! the earth was moved, and quaked ! On the sea was thy way; and on the deep waters thy path :

yet thy footsteps were not perceptible. 21 Thy people thou leddest, like a flock,

under the conduct of Moses and Aaron.


There is little in this psalm that needs illustration.-Ver. 11. has, I think, been generally misunderstood. Our common version is, “ And I said : This is my infirmity: but I will remember the years of the “ right hand of the Most High :” making up a sort of meaning by a long eke of Italics; which after all is hardly sense. Nor are most other versions more significant. Professor Paulus alone seems to have well understood the text : which I have endeavoured to render as literally as possible ; and without straining a single word. I have used the word penetrate, both because it most properly expresses the original, and because it has been already adopted into our language, in the same signification. To penetrate a thing is to comprebend it. The pfalmist, after

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