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and raising me from the gates of death :
that I might rehearse, JehovAH! all thy praises
in the gates of the city of Zion :
and might exult on being saved by thee.

The nations have funk into the pit they had made:
in the snare which they had laid
hath their own foot been entangled.
The Lord is recognised
in the exercise of judgment:
in the works of his own hand
hath the wicked been ensnared.

To the pit shall the wicked hasten : all the nations unmindful of God! For the poor shall not for ever be forgotten ; nor the hope of the afflicted be for ever frustrated.

Arise, JEHOVAH ! let not man prevail : be the nations judged by thee alone: place, JEHOVAH ! a master over them ; and let the nations know they are but men.





NOTES. Ver. 13. inquesting blood. I have ventured a new word, the better to express the original, without a paraphrase. The meaning is, that God will make a judicial inquiry concerning the blood of the oppressed, and


it on their enemies. Ver. 17. At the end of this verse, there is a SELAH accompanied by another word HIGAION; the precise meaning of which is not known. -Ver. 21. place a master over them. This comma is commonly rendered put fear on them ; different reading in the original : but the other is the better and more apposite reading.


PSALM IX. This psalm is supposed to bave been written on the same occafon with the preceding one; to wbicb in most of the antient verfions, and 3 of Dr. Kennicott's MSS. it is joined: bence a different order in the numbers takes place as far as psalm 147 ; wbicb

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being divided into two, makes the numbers again correspond to the end of the psalter. The teneb psalm bas no title.

WHY, JEHOVAH! ftandest thou aloof?

concealest thou thyself in the time of trouble ? 2 through the pride of the wicked the weak is distressed;

is caught in devices which the other contriveth ! 3 The wicked glorieth in the completion of his wishes;

and the rapacious calleth himself blessed! 4 The wicked despiseth Jehovah !

through contempt he seeketh bim not !

Godless are all his thoughts; 5 perverse at all times his ways !

Thy judgments, Jehovah ! are beyond his notice:

all his adversaries he disregardeth ! 6 In his heart he faith : " I shall never be moved :"

because he hath never been in calamity. 7 His mouth is full of perjury, deceit, and fraud; oppression and iniquity are under his tongue

! 8 In the ambushment of hedges he fitteth ;

in lurking-holes he murdereth the innocent!

His eyes secretly mark the miserable: 9 like a lion in his den, he lieth in wait

lieth in wait to seize on the forlorn. 10 He seizeth by dragging him into his net ;

he croucheth and compresseth himself,

until the miserable fall into his toil ! II In his heart he faith : “ God hath forgotten

" he is hood-winked-he will never see.” 12 Arise, JEHOVAH, God ! exert thy power :

forget not † for ever the forlorn. 13 Why should the wicked despise God?

should he think that thou wilt not make inquest? 14 Thou providest for the protection of the forlorn :

because thou hast seen his trouble and forrow,

To thee the miserable committeth his cause : of the helpless thou art the helper. So shatter the arm of the wicked and malignant, 15 that, when sought for, he may not be found. Be JEHOVAH king for ever and ever :

16 perish all the gentiles, out of his land ! To the wish of the forlorn thou hast listened, O JEHOVAH !

17 to their disposition of heart thou hast inclined thine

ear ; to do justice to the helpless and the oppressed : 18 that no man, henceforth, be expelled from the land.

NOTES. My translation of this psalm differs in fo many places from the common versions, that my readers will possibly be astonished: but I can assure them that I have used no violence to the text, nor admitted a single change or conjectural emendation ; save the addition in ver. 12. which is inserted on the authority of the Arabic version. The text indeed is throughout highly metaphorical : and some of the metaphors appear harsh in our modern idioms. I have endeavoured to foften them, without altering the meaning ; and I trust the whole psalın is perfectly intelligible.–Ver. 16. It is clear, I think, from this and ver. 18, that the psalm must have been composed after the remigration froin Babylon: consequently, if it ever belonged to the preceding psalm, the title of that psalm which ascribes it to David must be a false title and indeed little stress is to be laid on any of the titles.

PSALM XI.--al, X.

This psalm seems to bave been composed by David, either during bis perfecution by Saul, or in tbe time of Albalon's rebellion. Its title is,


IN JEHOVAH I trust :-why say ye to me: Escape, like a birdling, to the mountains; “ for lo! the wicked have bent the bow,



6 have fitted their arrow to the string,
“ to shoot in fecret at the upright of heart !
“ When the foundations of justice are fubverted,
« what can the just man do ?”
Jehovah in his sacred palace;
Jehovah, whose throne is in the heavens
his eyes behold; his eyebrows examine
the dispositions of the fons of man.
The just man JEHOVAH approveth :
but the wicked and violent his foul detesteth.
On the wicked he showereth flakes of fulphureous fire;
a tremendous tempest is the portion of their cup!
But Jehovah, being just, delighteth in justice :
his countenance regardeth the righteous.



NOTES. Ver. 1. Escape, &C. This is the advice of David's timid friends, which is continued to the end of ver. 3. The Hebrew text is here evidently corrupted: but almost all the antient versions have priserved the true reading. - Ver. 4. David's reply is abrupt, but beautifully poetical.-Ib. bis eyebrows examine. This is a bold metaphor, but by nomeans unnatural: when weexamine auything seriously, the eyebrows are sensibly affected, and visibly exerted. — Ver. 6. a tremendous tempeft, or blast. He alludes, most probably, to the burning wind called the fmum, or famiel; which is often fatal to the unguarded traveller.

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Composed, I think, during the rebellion of Abfhalom. Its title is,

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SAVE thou, JehovAH! for gone are the com

the fincere have ceased to be among the sons of man !
Dissemblingly they speak, each one to his fellow;
speak with flattering lips, but with a double heart !

Cut off, Jehovah ! every flattering lip;


every tongue that uttereth boastful things : of those who say : “ By our tongue we shall prevail - 5

our lips are our own-who is lord over us?” “ For the misery of the afflicted,

6 “ for the anguish of the miserable, “ I myself (faith JEHOVAH) will instantly arise, s6 and place them in safety from their insulters."

The words of JEHOVAH are words fincere, filver tried in an earthen crucible;

7 seven-times refined ! JEHOVAH, then, will be their guardian;

8 will preserve them for ever from this race of men ; when the wicked stalk every where around,

9 and the vileft of mankind are exalted.

NOTES. There are great beauties in this psalm, which disappear in a dry prosaic theological version. The transitions are as bold as those of Pindar, and more emphatical. In ver. 8. are some various readings, which I notice nothere; as I think the common readings are preferable.


This psalm is generally referred to Saul's persecution of David: but from ver. 5 one is inclined to think tbat it was composed during the rebellion of Absbalom. Its title is, FOR THE FIRST MUSICIAN: A PSALM OF DAVID. I

HOW long, Jehovah! wilt thou me forget ? how long hide from me thy countenance ? how long shall I be uneasy in mind?

3 be all day grieved in my heart? how long shall my foe be exalted above me?

Be favourable-hear me, JEHOVAH! my God! 4 enlighten mine eyes, lest I Neep the sleep of death; left mine enemy fay : “I have prevailed :" left

my foe exult on my being removed.


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