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The Second Part of the Second Volume is appropriated to the INTERPRETATION OF THE SCRIPTURES ; comprehending an investigation of the different senses of Scripture, literal, spiritual, and typical, with criteria for ascertaining and determining them;--the signification of words and phrases, with general rules for investigating them; emphatic words,-rules for the investigation of emphases, and particularly of the Greek article ;-the SUBSIDIARY MEANS for ascertaining the SENSE OF SCRIPTURE, viz. the analogy of languages ; analogy of Scripture, or parallel passages, with rules for ascertaining and applying them; scholia and glossaries; the subject-matter, context, scope, historical circumstances, and Christian Writers, both fathers and commentators.

These discussions are followed by the application of the preceding principles, for ascertaining the sense of Scripture, to the HISTORICAL INTERPRETATION of the Sacred Writings; the interpretation of the FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE of SCRIPTURE comprehending the principles of interpretation of tropes and figures; together with an examination of the metonymies, metaphors, allegories, parables, proverbs, and other figurative modes of speech occurring in the Bible; the SPIRITUAL or mystical INTERPRETATION of the Scriptures ;—the INTERPRETATION of PROPHECY, including general rules for ascertaining the sense of the prophetic writings, observations on the accomplishment of prophecy in general, and especially of the predictions relative to the Messiah ;—the INTERPRETATION of Types, of the DOCTRINAL and MORAL parts of Scripture, of the PROMISES and THREATENINGS therein contained ;--and the INFERENTIAL and PRACTICAL READING of the Sacred Writings. A copious Appendix to this volume comprises (among other articles) bibliographical and critical notices of the principal grammars and lexicons of the Hebrew, Greek, and Cognate Languages, of the most remarkable editions of the Septuagint Greek Version of the Old Testament, of the principal writers on the criticism and interpretation of the Scriptures, and a select list of the chief commentators and expositors of the Bible.

The utmost brevity, consistent with perspicuity, has been studied in this portion of the work; and therefore but few texts of Scripture, comparatively, have been illustrated at great length. But especial care has been taken, by repeated collations, that the very numerous references which are introduced should be both pertinent and correct; so that those readers, who may be disposed to try them by the rules laid down, may be enabled to apply them with facility.


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Part I. includes an outline of the Historical and Physical Geography of the Holy Land.

Part II. treats on the POLITICAL and MILITARY AFfairs of the Jews, and other nations incidentally mentioned in the Scriptures.

Part III. discusses the SACRED ANTIQUITIES of the Jews, arranged under the heads of Sacred Places, Sacred Persons, Sacred Times and Seasons, and the Corruptions of Religion among the Jews, their idolatry and various sects, together with a description of their moral and religious state in the time of Jesus Christ.

Part IV. discusses the DOMESTIC ANTIQUITIES, or the PRIVATE LIFE, MANNERS, CUSTOMS, AMUSEMENTS, &c. of the Jews, and other nations incidentally mentioned or alluded to in the Holy Scriptures.

An APPENDIX to this Third Volume contains (besides chronological and other tables, of money, weights, and

measures,) a Geographical Index of the principal places mentioned in the Bible, especially in the New Testament; including an abstract of profane oriental history, from the time of Solomon to the captivity, illustrative of the history of the Hebrews as referred to in the prophetic writings, and presenting historical notices of the Assyrian, Chaldee, Median, and Persian empires.

In this volume the Author has attempted only a sketch of biblical geography and antiquities. To have written a complete treatise on this interesting subject, -as he conceives such a treatise should be written, would have required a work nearly equal in extent to the present : but though he has been designedly brief in this part of his undertaking, he indulges the hope that few really essential points, connected with sacred antiquities, will appear to have been omitted. .

VOLUME IV. is appropriated to the analysis of SCRIPTURE. It contains copious critical prefaces to the respective books, and synopses of their several contents. In drawing up these synopses the utmost attention has been given in order to present, as far as was practicable, at one glance, a comprehensive view of the subjects contained in each book of Scripture. How necessary such a view is to the critical study of the inspired records, it is perhaps unnecessary to remark.

In executing this part of his work, the author has endeavoured to steer between the extreme prolixity of some analysts of the Bible, and the too great brevity of others : and he ventures to hope, that this portion of his labours will be found particularly useful in studying the doctrinal parts of the Scriptures.

Throughout the work references have been made to such approved writers as have best illustrated particular subjects; and critical notices of their works have been

introduced, partly derived from the Author's knowledge of them, partly from the recorded opinions of eminent biblical critics, and partly from the best critical journals and other sources the preference being invariably

:given to those, which are distinguished by the acknowledged talent and ability with which they are conducted. The late opening of the Continent, and the sales by auction of several valuable divinity libraries, have also enabled the Author to procure many critical works that would otherwise have been inaccessible.

Of the works cited in the notes to the following pages, care has been taken to specify the particular editions. They are all referred to, as authorities, for the statements contained in the text ; many of them furnish details which the limits of the present volumes would not admit; and some few give accounts and representations which the Author thought he had reason to reject. All these references, however, are introduced for the convenience of those readers, who may have inclination and opportunity for prosecuting more minute inquiries.

Such are the plan and object of the work, now submitted to the candour of the Public. The Author has prosecuted his labours under a deep sense of the responsibility attached to such an undertaking ; and, though he dares not hope that he can altogether have avoided mistake, yet he can with truth declare that he has anxiously endeavoured not to mislead any one.

The Author cannot conclude this preface, without tendering his grateful acknowledgments to the Right Reverend the LORD BISHOP OF LONDON, for his liberal offer of access to the Episcopal Library at Fulham ; an offer, the value of which (though he had occasion to avail himself of it only to a limited extent,) was greatly enhanced by the kindness and promptitude with which it was made.



CHAPTER I. On the Necessity, &c. of a Divine Revelation.

I. Revelation defined. - II. A divine Revelation, possible. – III. And proba-

ble.- IV. Its necessity shown from the state of moral and religious knowledge

among the antients. – V. And also from the actual state of religion and mo-

rals among the modern heathen nations. - VI. Refutation of the objection,

that philosophy and right reason are sufficient to instruct men in their duty.

- vh. On the possible means of affording a revelation.

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CHAPTER II. On the Genuineness and Authenticity of the Old and

New Testaments.

SECTION I. On the Genuineness and Authenticity of the Old Testament.

I. Great importance of the question, whether the books contained in the Old

TESTAMENT are genuine or spurious. — Genuineness and authenticity defined.

– II. External proofs of the genuineness of the Old Testament. - Historical

testimony, and the character of the Jews. - III. Internal evidence. - 1. Lan-

guage, style, and manner of writing. – 2. Circumstantiality of the narratives

contained in the Old Testament. — IV. Proofs of the genuineness and au-

thenticity of the Pentateuch in particular. - 1. From the language in which

it is written. - 2. From the nature of the Mosaic Law. - 3. From the united

historical testimony of Jews and Gentiles. - 4. From the contents of the Pen-

tateuch. – V. Objections to the authenticity of the Pentateuch considered and



SECTION II. On the Genuineness and Authenticity of the New Testa-


L General title of the New TESTAMENT. - II. Account of its Canon. - III.

GENUINESESS of the books of the New Testament. — Their AUTHENTICITY


CAL EVIDENCE, afforded by antient Jewish, Heathen, and Christian testimonies

in their favour, and also by antient versions of them in different languages :

- and, 3. From INTERNAL EVIDENCE, furnished by the character of the wri.

ters, by the language and style of the New Testament, and by the circumstan-

tiality of the narrative, together with the coincidence of the accounts there

delivered with the history of those times.


SECTION III. On the uncorrupted Preservation of the Books of the Old

and New Testaments.

1. The uncorrupted preservation of the Old Testament, proved from the abso-

lute impossibility of its being falsified or corrupted either by Jews or by

Christians, and from the agreement of all the manuscripts that are known to

be extant. - II. The uncorrupted preservation of the books of the New Tes-

tament proved, 1. From their contents; – 2. From the utter impossibility of

an universal corruption of them being accomplished ; – 3. From the agree-

ment of all the manuscripts; and, 4. From the agreement of antient versions,

and of the quotations from the New Testament in the writings of the ear-

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