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ly Christians. - III. General proofs that none of the canonical books of Scrip-

ture are or ever were lost. – IV. Particular proofs as to the integrity of the old

Testament. — V. And also of the New Testament.


CHAPTER III. On the Credibility of the Old and New Testaments.

SECTION I. Direct Evidences of the Credibility of the Old and New


I. The writers of the Old and New Testaments had a perfect knowledge of the

subjects they relate ; and their moral character, though rigidly tried, was

never impeached by their keenest opponents. -- II. If there had been any

falsehood in the accounts of such transactions as were generally known, they

would have been easily detected : for these accounts were published among

the people, who witnessed the events related by the historians. 1. This proved

at large concerning the Old Testament ; and, 2. Concerning the New Testa-

ment; the writers of which were contemporary with and eye-witnesses of such

events, and have related such ac' ons as could not have been recorded if they

had not been true; they were, moreover, neither deceived themselves, nor did

or could deceive others, in their relations, not being either enthusiasts or fana-

tics, but, on the contrary, men of the strictest integrity and sincerity. - III.

The credibility of the Scriptures further confirmed by the subsistence to this

very day of monuments instituted to perpetuate the memory of the principal

facts and events therein recorded. - And, IV. By the wonderful establish-

ment and propagation of Christianity.

Page 129

Section II. Testimonies to the Credibility of the Old and New Tes-

taments from Natural and Civil History.

1. Testimonies from Natural and Civil History to the credibility of the Old


1. Testimonies to the Mosaic account of the Creation of the world. — II. Particu-

larly of Man.- III. Of the Fall of Man. – IV. Of the Translation of Enoch.

- V. Of the Longevity of the Antediluvian patriarchs. – VI. Of the Deluge. -

1. Proofs of that event from the fossilised remains of the animals of a former

world ; -2. From civil history, particularly from the paucity of mankind, and

vast tracts of uninhabited land, mentioned in the accounts of the first ages,

the late invention and progress of arts and sciences, and from the universal

tradition of the deluge ; – Refutation of objections to the Mosaic history of

that catastrophe. - VII. Testimonies of profane history to the building of the

Tower of Babel. – VIII. To the Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah. - IX.

To the Mosaic account of the Patriarchs. — X. To the reality of the person

and character of Moses, and to the departure of the Israelites from Egypt.-

XI. Notice of various customs borrowed by antient nations from the Hebrews.

-- XII. And of certain personal histories, which may be traced to the Old

Testament History. - XIII. Testimonies of antient and modern writers to the

truth of the Scripture account of the fertility of Palestine. — Concluding ob-



$ 2. Testimonies of Profane Writers to the Credibility of the New Testament.

İ. Testimonies of Jewish and Pagan authors to the account of princes and go-

vernors mentioned in the New Testament. — II. Testimonies to the character

of the Jewish Nation, which are either directly mentioned or incidentally al-

luded to therein. – III. Similar testimonies to the character of Heathen Na-

tions. - IV. Testimonies of Jewish adversaries to the name and faith of Christ.

---1. Of Josephus. — 2. Of the Talmuds. – V. Testimonies of heathen adversa-

ries to the character of Jesus Christ. - 1. Pontius Pilate. — 2. Suetonius. – 3.

Tacitus. — 4. Pliny the younger. – 5. Ælius Lampridius. – 6. Celsus. – 7.

Porphyry.-8. Julian. - 9. Mohammed. Testimonies of heathen adversa-

ries to the doctrines, character, innocency of life, and constancy of the first

Christians in the profession of their faith. – 1. Tacitus, confirmed by Sueto-

nius, Martial, and Juvenal. — 2. Pliny the younger and Trajan. - 3. Celsus.

- 4. Lucian. – 5. Epictetus, Marcus Antoninus, Galen, and Porphyry: - 6.

Julian. - VI. Refutation of the objection to the credibility of the Scripture

history, which has been raised from the silence of profane historians to the

facts therein recorded. — That silence accounted for, by the facts,-1. That

many of their books are lost. — 2. That others are defective. - 3. That no

profane historians now extant take notice of all occurrences within the period

described by them. – 4. Reasons why they would slight the facts relating to
Jesus Christ as fabulous. -- Result of the preceding facts and arguments.
No history in the world is so certain as that related in the Old and New Tes-


Page 188

63. Collateral Testimonies to the Truth of the Facts recorded in the Scriptures

from Coins, Medals, and antient Marbles.

1. The Mosaic narrative of the deluge confirmed by the Apamean Medal. — II.

The account of Pharaoh-Necho's war against the Jews (2 Chron. xxxv. 20—24.),

confirmed by Herodotus and by an antient Egyptian Tomb discovered and ex.

plored by M. Belzoni. — III. T'he captivity of the ten tribes by Shalmaneser,

confirmed by antient Sculptures. - IV. Acts xiii. 7. confirmed by a Medal

proving that Cyprus was at that time under the government of a pro-consul.

- V. Acts xvi. 11, 12. confirmed by a Coin of Macedonia Prima. VI. Acts

xvi. 14. confirmed by an Inscription. – VII. Acts xvii. 23. confirmed by In-

scriptions .-VIII. Acts xix. 35. confirmed by a Medal of the city of Ephesus.

- IX. The Triumphal Arch of Titus, at Rome. — Application of this sort

of evidence.


CHAPTER IV. All the Books of the Old and New Testaments are of

divine Authority, and their Authors are divinely inspired.

SECTION I. Preliminary Observations.

I. Inspiration defined. — II. Reasonable and necessary. – III. Impossibilitylofthe

Scriptures being the contrivance or invention of man.- IV. Criteria of inspi.



Section II. The Miracles, related in the Old and New Testaments, are

Proofs that the Scriptures were given by Inspiration of God.

I. A Miracle defined. - II. Nature of the evidence from miracles. - III. Their

design: - IV. Credibility of miracles vindicated and proved. -V. Refutation of
the objection that the evidence for the credibility of miracles decreases with

the lapse of years, and the contrary proved. - VI. Criteria for ascertaining true

miracles. – VII. Application of these criteria, 1. To the miracles of Moses

and of Joshua, and, 2. To those of Jesus Christ and his apostles ; the number,

variety, design, and greatness of which, as well as the persons by whom and

before whom, and the manner in which, they were performed, are fully con-

sidered, together with the effects produced by them. - The miracles of Christ

and his apostles were never denied. - VIII. An examination of some of the

principal miracles related in the New Testament, particularly, 1. The con-

version of water into wine by Christ. — 2. The feeding of five thousand. 3.

The healing of the paralytic. — 4. Giving sight to the man who was born

blind. - 5. The healing of a man, lame from his birth, by Peter and John.

6. Raising from the dead the daughter of Jairus. - 7. The widow's son at Nain.

-8. And Lazarus. — IX. The RESURRECTION of Jesus Christ, viz. 1. Christ's

prophetic declarations concerning his death and resurrection. — 2. The evi-

dence of adversaries of the Christian name and faith to this fact. — 3. The

character of the apostles by whom it was attested, and the miracles wrought

by them; all which demonstrate the reality and truth of Christ's resurrection.

- X. General summary of the argument furnished by miracles. XI. Com-

parison of them with pretended pagan and popish miracles, particularly those,

1. Of Aristeas the Proconnesian. — 2. Of Pythagoras. -- 3. Of Alexander of

Pontus. – 4. Of Vespasian.-5. Of Apollonius of Tyana. – 6. Pretended mira-

cle at Saragossa.—7. Pretended miracles of the Abbé de Paris. - The reality

of the Christian miracles dernonstrated.

SECTION III. On Prophecy.

I. Prophecy defined. - The highest evidence that can be given of divine revela-

tion. - II. Difference between the pretended predictions of the heathen ora.

cles and the prophecies contained in the Scriptures. - III. On the use and

intent of prophecy.- IV. On the chain of prophecy.- Classification of the

Scripture prophecies. — Class I. Prophecies relating to the Jewish nation in

particular. - i. Abraham. - 2. Ishmael. - 3. Settlement of the Israelites in

Canaan. – 4. Predictions of Moses relative to the sufferings, captivities, and

present state of the Jews. - 5. Birth of Josiah foretold, and his destruction of

idolatry. - 6. Isaiah's prediction of the utter subversion of idolatry among the
Jews. - 7. Jeremiah's prediction of Zedekiah's captivity and death.-8. Eze.


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kiel's prediction of the calamities of the Jews, inflicted by the Chaldæans. -

9. Daniel's prediction of the profanation of the temple by Antiochus Epipha-

nes, &c. - 10. Hosea's prediction of the present state of the Jews. Class II.

Prophecies relating to the nations or empires that were neighbouring to the

Jews.- 1. Tyre. — 2. Egypt. — 3. Ethiopia. 4. Nineveh. – 5. Babylon. - 6.

The four great monarchies. - Class III. Prophecies directly announcing the

Messiah, their number, variet and minute circuinstantiality. - 1. That the

Messiah was to come. -2. The time. — 3. The place of his coming. – 4. His

birth and manner of life and doctrine. — 5. His sufferings and death. – 6.

His resurrection and ascension.—7. The abolition of the Jewish covenant by

that of the Gospel. - The certainty with which these prophecies can only be

applied to Christ. Class IV. Prophecies delivered by Jesus Christ and his

Apostles. — 1. Prophecies of Christ concerning his death and resurrection,

the descent of the Holy Spirit, the destruction of Jerusalem and its temple,

and the spread of Christianity. - Refutation of objections drawn from its re-

jection by Jews and Gentiles, and from the existence and prevalence of Mo-

hammedism. - 2. Prophecies of the apostles concerning the corruptions of the

Gospel by the church of Rome, and the spread of infidelity. - V. Refutation

of objections from the alleged obscurity of prophecy. - Concluding observa-

tions on the evidence afforded by prophecy.

Page 313

CHAPTER V. Internal Evidences of the Inspiration of the Scrip-



SECTION I. The System of Doctrine, and the Moral Precepts, which

are delivered in the Scriptures, are so excellent and so perfectly holy,

that the Persons who published them to the World must have derived

them from a purer and more exalted Source than their own Medita-


- ib.

01. A Concise Viero of the Religion of the Patriarchal Times.

Patriarchal doctrines concerning, 1. The nature and attributes of God; II. His

worship; and, III. The moral duties of man.


02. A Summary View of the Doctrines and Precepts of the Mosaic Dispensation.

General observations on the Mosaic dispensation. - 1. Statement of its doctrine

concerning God: 1. By Moses; and, 2. By the prophets. – II. Concerning the

duty of man towards God. — III.

The belief of a future state. — IV. The ex-

pectation of a Redeemer. -- V. The morality of the Jewish code delineated.

– VI. The Mosaic dispensation introductory to Christianity.


03. A Summary View of the Doctrines and Precepts of the Gospel Dispensation.

I. Divine Character of the founder of the Christian religion. — II. The Leading

Doctrines of the Gospel, worthy of the character of the Almighty ; particu-

larly, 1. The Account of God and of his perfections, and the duty and spiritual

worship which we owe to him. - 2. The Vicarious Atonement made for sin

by Jesus Christ. – 3. Forgiveness of sins. — 4. Justification by faith. – 5.

The Promise of the Holy Spirit to sanctify and renew our nature. – 6. The

Immortality of the Soul; and a future state of rewards and punishments. –

III. The Moral Precepts of the New Testament admirably adapted to the ac-

tual state of mankind. - 1 Summary of the duties it enjoins between man and

man, particularly integrity of conduct, charity, forgiveness of injuries. — 2.

The Duties of Governors and Subjects, Masters and Servants, Husbands and

Wives, Parents and Children. --- 3. The Personal Duties of sobriety, chastity,

temperance, &c. — 4. The Holiness of the Moral Precepts of the Gospel, a

proof of its divine origin. --5. Considerations on the manner in which the

moral precepts of the Gospel are delivered; and on the character of Jesus

Christ as a moral teacher.-IV. Superiority of the motives to duty pre-

sented by the Gospel. — They are drawn, I. From a consideration of the

reasonableness of the duty. - 2. From the singular favours bestowed by God.

-3. From the Example of Christ. — 4. From the sanctions of duty, which

the civil relations among men have received from God. - 5. From the regard

which Christians owe to their holy profession. – 6. From the acceptableness

of true repentance and the promise of pardon. - 7. From the divine assistance

offered to support men in the practice of their duty. - 8. From our relation to

heaven while upon earth. – 9. From the rewards and punishments proclaimed

in the Gospel


0 4. On the Objections of unbelievers to the doctrines and morality of the Bible.

I. Mysteries, no ground for rejecting the Scriptures. - II. The Scripture doc.

trine of redemption not inconsistent with the generally received ideas con-

cerning the magnitude of creation. – III. The doctrine of a future judgment

not improbable, and the two-fold sanction of rewards and punishments not of

human invention. - IV. Christianity does not establish a system of priest-

craft and despotism over the minds and consciences of mankind. - V. Does

not prohibit free inquiry, but invites it. - VI. The objection, that its morality

is too strict, obviated. — VII. And also that some of the Moral Precepts of

Jesus Christ are unreasonable and impracticable. – VIII. Christianity does

not produce a timid spirit, nor overlook the sentiments of friendship, or pa-

triotism. - IX. The assertion, that the Bible is the most immoral book in the

world, disproved by the evidence of facts. - X. Intolerance and persecution

not inculcated in the Scriptures.

Page 428

Section II. The wonderful Harmony and intimate Connexion, subsist-

ing between all the Parts of Scripture, is a further Proof of its Di-

vine Authority and Original.


SECTION III. The Preservation of the Scriptures, a Proof of their

Truth and Divine Origin.


Section IV. The Tendency of the Scriptures to promote the present

and eternal Happiness of Mankind, constitutes another unanswerable

Proof of their Divine Inspiration.

1. Appeals of Christian apologists, and testimonies of heathen adversaries, to the

beneficial effects of the Gospel in the characters and conduct of the first

Christians. - II. Summary Review of its blessed effects on society, especially

in private life. — III. On the political state of the world. -- IV. On literature.

- Christianity not chargeable with the crimes of those who have assumed the

name of Christians, while they have been utterly destitute of every Christian

feeling. – V. Historical Facts, further attesting the benefits conferred by the

Gospel on the world. - VI. The effects respectively produced by Christianity

and infidelity in private life, contrasted, particularly under adversity, afflic-

tions, and in the prospect of futurity.


SECTION V. The peculiar Advantages, possessed by the Christian Re-

velation over all other Religions, a demonstrative Evidence of its Di-

vine Origin and Authority.

Peculiar advantages of Christianity over all other religions. - I. In its perfec.

tion. - II. Its Openness. - III. Its Adaption to the capacities of all men.-

IV. The Spirituality of its Worship. – V. Its Opposition to the spirit of the

World. — VI. Its Humiliation of man and exalting of the Deity. - VII. Its

Restoration of order to the world. – VIII. Its Tendency to eradicate all evil

passions from the heart. — IX. Its Contrariety to the covetousness and ambi-

tion of mankind. -X. Its Restoring the Divine Image to men. - Its Mighty



SECTION VI. Inability to answer all Objections, no just Cause for re-

jecting the Scriptures. The Unbelievers in Divine Revelation more

credulous than Christians.


CHAPTER VI. Recapitulation of the Evidences for the Truth and

Divine Authority of the Scriptures, &c.

I. Necessity of a Divine Revelation proved. - II. The Genuineness and Aathen-

ticity of the Scriptures, considered simply as compositions, established. - III.

As also their Uncorrupted Preservation. - IV. And their Credibility. – V.

Proofs that the Scriptures were written by men divinely inspired. - VI. The

Scriptures a Perfect Rule of Faith and Morals. - VII. Moral Qualifications

for the study of the Scriptures, and in what order they may be read to the

greatest advantage.

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No. I. On the Inspiration of the Holy Scriptures.

1. Observations on the Inspiration of the Old Testament. --- II. And of the New

Testament. – III. Conclusions derived from these considerations. Page 515

No. II. On the Miracles supposed to have been wrought by the

Egyptian Magicians.


No. III. On the Contradictions which are falsely alleged to exist in

the Holy Scriptures.


SECTION I. Seeming Contradictions in Historical Passages. - 531

Section II. Apparent Contradictions in Chronology,


Section III. Apparent Contradictions between Prophecies and their



Section IV. Apparent Contradictions in Doctrine.


SECTION V. Seeming Contradictions to Morality.


Section VI. Apparent Contradictions between the Sacred Writers. 572

Section VII. Seeming Inconsistencies between Sacred and Profane



SECTION VIII. Alleged Contradictions to Philosophy and the Nature of


• 590

No. IV. A Table of the Chief Prophecies relative to the Messiah.

CHAPTER I. The Principal Prophecies relative to the Messiah, with

their Accomplishment, in the very words of the New Testament.


Section I. Prophecies relative to the Advent, Person, Sufferings, Re-

surrection, and Ascension of the Messiah.

· 598

Section II. Predictions relative to the Offices of the Messiah. 604

CHAPTER II. The principal Predictions by Jesus Christ, relative to

his Sufferings, Death, Resurrection, the Spread of the Gospel, and

the Destruction of Jerusalem.

SECTION I. Predictions (for the Conformation of his Disciples' Faith)

that they would find things according to his Word.


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