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by way of natural resultancy from the body, but by way of iospiration from the Lord ; not from the warm bofom of the matter, but from the breath of its Maker.
4. Lastly, We have here the nexus, copula, the tie or band by which it is united with the body of man, viz. The breath of bis (i. e. of man), noftrils. It is a most astonishing mystery, to see heaven and earth married together in one person; the dust of the ground, and an immortal spirit clasping each other with such dear embraces, and tender love ; such a poble and divine guest to take up its residence within the mean walls of flesh and blood. Alas, how little affinity, and yet what dear affection is found betwixt them!
Now, that which so sweetly links these two different Datures together, and holds them in union, is nothing else but the breath of our aostrils, as the text speaks : it came in with the breath; whilft breath stays with us, it cannot go from us; and as soon as the breath departs, it departs also. All the rich elixirs and cordials in the world cannot persuade it to stay one minute after the breathe is gone. One puff of breath will carry away the wifeft, holiest, and most desirable soul that ever dwelt io flesh and blood. When our breath is corrupt, our days are extinct, Job xvii. 1. “ Thou takelt away their breath, they die, and re
cura to their dust," Psal. cxiv. 19.
Out of the text thus opened, arise two doctrioal propositions, which I shall insist upon, viz. * Duct. 1. That the foul of man is of divire original, created
and inspired immediately by the Lord. Doct. 2. That the fouls and bodies of men are link'd, or knit
together, by the feeble band of the breath of their nostrils. Io the prosecution of these two propositions, many things will come to our hands, of great use in religion, which I Mall labour to lay as clearly and orderly in the reader's understand. ing, and press as warmly upon his heart as I can. And first, Doct. 1. That the foul of man is of divine original, created
and inspired immediately by the Lord. In this firlt proposition, two things are to be distinctly pondered, viz.
i. The nature } of the foul.
2. The original s Or, what it is, and from whence it came.
1. The first thing which arrest our The nature of thoughts, and requires their attention and ex. she fou! ercise, is the nature of the foul, or wbar kind
of being it is:
T Those that are molt curiously inquisitive into all other beings, ,
and put nature upon the rack to make her confess her secrets, are in the mean time found shamefully Night and negligent in
the stody of themselves. Few. There are shat cap prevail with Tri themselves to sit down and think cloie to such questions as these.
What manner of being is this fout of mine? whence came it? why was it infused into this body ? and where must it abide, when
death bath dislodged it out of this frail tabernacle? There is a E: Datural averfation in man to such exercises of thought as these,
although in the whole universe of beings in this lower world, a more noble creature is not to be found *.
The soul is the most wonderful and altonishing piece of diEvige workmaoship; it is no hyperbole to call it the breath of 2 God, the beauty of men, the wonder of angels, and the envy
of devils. One foul is of more value than all the bodies in the
world. B. The nature of it is so spiritual and sublime, that it cannot be o perfectly known by the molt acute and pedetrating understand. sing, alisted in the search by all the aids philosophy can copui.
buté. U It is not my design in this discourse to treat of the several
faculties and powers of the soul, or to give you the rise, natures, or numbers of its affections and passions : but I shall confine my discourse to its general nature and original. And see. ing "none can so well discover the nature of it, as he who is "the author of it,” as Tertullian + speaks, I therefore juftly
expect the best light from his words, though I will not neglect _*? any other aid he is pleased elsewhere to afford.
The foul is variously denominated from its several powers
:: Therefore they who at any time have disputed concerning the Joul, must be reckoned to have disputed 'not of a vain thing, that bas nothing but a name, but about a very weighty subject, of the greatest moment, than which nothing under heaven is more excel. lent. Zanch. on the soul. ;. it Si quid de anima..certandum eft, ad Dei regulas dirigat : certe nullum alium potiorem animæ demonftrationen, quam Auco törem. Tertul. de anima, &c. i
I As it quickens the body, it is called anima, i.e. the life; as it exerts acts of the will, it is called animus; i. e. power of volition; as it is the subject of knowledge, it is called the mind'; when it re. collects, it is called the memory; when it judges right, it is called realon; as it produces breathing, it is called spirit. Indor. Etym, 0,5.'.: 0
and offices, as the sea from the fereral Thores it washes. I will not spend cime about the several names by which it is known to us in fcripture, but give you that defcription of it, with which my understanding is most satisfied, which take thus:
The foul of man is a vitri, fpiritual, and immortal substance, endowed wit's an under. The description Aanding, will, and various affections ; crented of the foul. with an inclination to the body, and infused: tbereinto by the Lord. . , la this descriprion we have the ewo general parts into which I distributed this discourse : viz. its geacral nature, and divine original. The nature of the soul is expressed to us in these folo lowing terms.is
... 1. It is a fübfiance. That is to say, not a quality, or an accident inhering in another being, or subject; as whiteness doch in the souw: bur * being by * itself. Qualities and accidents have no existence of their owa, but require another being, or subject to their exist tence; but the soul of man is a substantial being of itself, which, will evidently appear upoo the following grounds. . (1.) Becaufe it is, in a strict and proper sense, created by God. "He fočineth, or createth the spirit in man,” Zect, xii. 1. “ To him we are advised to " cominit it, as to a faithful " Creator,". 1 Pet. iv. 19. The fubftantial nature of the soul is implied in the very notion of its creation; “ for whatsoever. " is created, is a substance, an ens per fé . Accidents are Doe of said to be created, but con-created;" the crafis of humours, and resuits of matter, are not substances created, but things rifing in a natural way from created fubftances. They flow from, and, as to their efience, depend upon pre-exiftent, mat. tér; but the soul was created out of nothing, and infused into the body after it was formed and organized; which evidenceth. its fubftantial nature.
(2.) This evidenceth the foul to be a substance; that it can, and doih exist, and fab Gift by itself alone, when separated from the body by death, Luke xxiii. 43. “ To day shalt thou, (i.c, " thy soul) be with me in paradise;" end Mat. x. 20. “ Fear " noi them that kill the body buc cannot kill the foul.” Were
: * The soul is a being by itself, i. e. it does not exist in any object, 28 a part or form of it, depending on it, as to its being. College Gonimb..in lib. ir. i
+ Quicquid a Deo proprie creatiim eft ; accidentia enim non dser cuntur creari, fed cecreari. Polani Synt. p. 319.
the foul but an accident, a quality, or a refule, he thit kills the body, must needs kill the foul too; as he that casts a snow. ball inte the fire, must needs destroy the whireness with the Inow. Accidents fail and perish with their subjects : but seeing it is plain in these and many other fcriptures, the foul doth noc fail with the body; nothing can be more plain and evident, than that it is of a substantial nature,
When the Spaniards came first among the poor Indians, then thought the horse and his rider to be one creature; as many ig. porant ones think the soul and body of man to be nothing but breath and body: whereas indeed they are two distinct creatures, es vaatly different in their natures as the rider and his horfe, or the bird and his cage. While the man is on horseback, he moves according to the motion of the horfe; and whilft the bird is ietcaged, he ears and drinks, and Neeps, and hops and fings in his cage. But if the horse fail, and die under his rider, or the cagt be broken, the man 'can go on his own feet, and the bird en joy himself as well, yea, better in the open fields and woods, than in the cage : neither depend, as, to being, or action, on, the horse or cage. :
(3.) Both scripture and philosophy confent in this, that the roul is the chief, molt noble, and principal part of man, from which the whole man is, and ought to be denominated. So Gen xlvi. 26.“ All the fouls that came with Jacob into Egypt, i. e. all the perfoos; as the Latins fay, tot capita, so many heads or persons. The apostie, in 2 Cor. v. 8. seems to exclude the body froin the potion of perfonality, when he faith, We are willing rather to be absent from the body, and to be prefent with the Lord: Thar we, a term of personality, is there given to the Soul, exclusively of the body, for the body cannot be ablene . from itself: But we, that is, the souls of believers, may be both absent from it, and present with Christ, : ;
To this we may add, 2 Cor. iv. 16. where the foul is called the man, and the inner man too, the body being but the exter: bal face, or shadow of the man, And to this philofopbers agree The best philosophers are so far from thinking that the body is the substantial part of mad, and the fouł a thing dependens on ir; tliat contrarily they affirm, that the body depends upou the soul; and that it is the soul that conserves and furtains its
' R 2.! .. # The foul preserves and sustains the animated body, but when it Isaves the body, the pasure of an animated body subfiits no more ; she foul exists not in the body, as in a place, seeing ii cannot be
he body. he man, buthan the foul
124 : A Treatise of the Soul of Man. . and that the body is in the foul, rather than the foul in the body, and that which is seen not the man, but that is the man which is invisible, that the body might be killed and the man oor hurt; meaning the foul, which only deserves the name of man. Now if it be the chief part of man, and that which is only worthy the damc of a man, and from which therefore the whole is, and ought to be dedominated a man; if it be so far from depending on the body, or being contained within the body, that the body rather depends on it, and is in it, then surely the foul must be, what we describe it to be, a substantial being. '
(4.) It is part all controversy, that the soul is a substance, be. cause it is the subject of properties, affections and habits; which is the very strict and formal notion of a substance. All the af. fections and passions of hope, desire, love, delight, fear, forrow, and the rest, are all rooted in it, and springing out of it; and for habits, arts and sciences *, it is the soul in which they are lodged and seated. Having once gotten a promptitude to act, either by some strong, or by some frequently repeated acting, they abide in the soul, even when the acts are intromitted, as in sleep a navigator, fcribe or musician, are really artists, when they are neither sailing, and writing or playiog; because the habits still remain in their minds, as is evident in this, that when they awake, they can perform their several works, without learning the rules of their art anew,
Il. The soul is a vital substance, i. e. A substance which hath an essential principle of life in itself: a living, active being. A living soul, faith Moses in the text; and hereby it is distinguished from, and opposed to matter or body. The soul moves itself and the body too; it hath a selfmoving virtue or power in itself; whereas the matter, or body is wholly passive, and is moved and acted, not by itself, but by this vital spirit. Jam. ii. 26. “ The body without the spirit is * dead." It acts not at all, but as it is acted by this invisible spirit. This is so plain that it admits of sensible proof and demon, ftration, Take mere matter, and compound or divide it, alter
circumfcribed by place. The whole foul pervades the whole body; nor is there any part of it, in which it is not present: for it is not contained in the body, but rather itself contains the body; neither is it in the body, as in a vessel or bottle, but rather the body is in it. Nyf. on the joul. b. 2. f. 11. 8X Ésuv AvOpatos To OpWusvov, i.e. That which is seen, is not the Man, but every man's soul is himself.
* The soul is the subject and seat of all the virtues and vices, asts and (ciences. Buchan. loc. com. p..86..