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it, and change it how you will, you can never make it see, seel, hear, or act vitally without a quickning and actuating soul: Yet we must still remember, that this active principle, the soul, though it hath this vital power in itself, it hath it not from itself, but in a constantreceptivedependance upon God, the first cause, both of its being and power.

III. It is a spiritualsubstance.

All substances are not gross material, visible and. palpable substances; but there are spiritual, and immaterial, as well as corporeal substances, discernible by sight or touch. To deny this were to turn a downright Sadducee, and to deny the existence of angels and spirits, Acts xxiii. 8. The word substance, as it is applied to the soul of man, puzzles, and confounds, the dark understandings of some, that know not what to make of an immaterial substance, whereas in this place it. is no more than substare accidentibus *, si. e.) to be a subject in which properties, affections, and habits are seated and subjected. This is a spiritual substance, and is frequently in scripture called a pirit; "Into thy hands 1 commit my spirit," Luke, xxiii. 46. " Lord Jeius receive my spirit," Acts vii. 59. and so frequently all over the scriptures. rtnd the spirituality of its nature appears, (1.) By its descent, in a peculiar way, from the Father of spirits. (2.) In that it rejolceth in the essential properties pf a spirit. (3.) That at death it returns to that great Spirit who was its esficient and former. .;

(1.) It descends, in a peculiar way, from the sather of spirits, as ham been fhewn in the opening of this text: God stiles himself its Father, Heb. xii. 9. its former, Zech. xii. 1. 'Tis true, he giveth to all living things lpt,v *<*< w«nt, lise and breath. Acts xvii. 25. Other souls are from him, as well as the rxtional soul; but in a sar different way and manner. They flow not immediately from him by creation, as this doth. It is. said, Gen. i. 24, 27. "Let the earth bring forth the living creature "after its kind;" but "God created man in his own image:" "Which seems plainly to make a specified difference betwixt the reasonable, and all other souls,

(2.) It rejoiceth in the essential properties of a spirit: For it is an incorporeal substance,.as spirits are. It hath not parses extra parses, extension of parts; nor is it divisible, as the body is. It hath no dimensions, and figures as matter tuth; but is

* A substance in this use of the word, is that which depends not, in respect of its being, upon any sellow creature as accidents and qualities do, whose being is by having their in-being in another sellow' treaure as their subject; but this being, the foul, exists in itself.


a moll pure, Invisible, and (as the acute and judicious 15:. Most exprefseta it) indiscernible sabsta«ce. It hath the principle of Use, and marioa in itself, or rather, it is such a principle itself, and is fi®t moved as the dull, and sluggish master is, ftr dluJ. by another, ks esiicaey is great, though it be uosaea, and not liable to the test of our touch, as no spiritual substances are. "A spirit (saith Christ) hath »ot flecti and bones," Luke xxiv. 59. We both grant and seel, that the soul hath a love, and inclination to the body, -{whish indeed is ne more than 'rt fs BecesTary it should havx;) yet can we no more hiser its corporiety from that love to the body, than we can inse* she corporiety of angels from their affection, and benevolent love to men.' It is a spirit of a nature vastly'difisre«t from the body in which it is immersed. There is (saith a learned anthor*) no greater my* fiery in nature, than the union bet-wiset Jbttl and body: That a mind and spirit sliould be so tied and linked to a clod of clay, thai -while that remains in a due temper, it cannot by any art or power free itself !..- What so much a kinare a mindand a pit ce ofearth, a clod and a thought, that they shall be thus affixed to one another?

Certainly, the heavenly pure bodies do not disser so much from a dunghil, as the foul and body disfer: They differ but as more pure and less pure matter; but these, as material, and immaterial, if we consider wherein consists the being of a body, and -wherein that of a foul, and then compare them, the matter will be clear.

We cannot come to aq apprehension of their beings, but by considering their primary passions and properties, whereby they make discovery of themselves. The first, and primary afsection of a body f (as is rightly observed) is that extension of parts whereef it is compounded, and a capacity of division, upon which, as upon the fundumental made, the particular dimensions (that isi the figures) and the Ideal motion do depend.

Again, for the being of our souls, if \*e reflect upon ourselves, we fhall find that ail our knowledge of them resolves into this, that we are beings conscious 10 ourselves of several kinds of cogitations; that by our outward senses we apprehend bodily things present; and by our imagination we apprehend things absent; and that we oft recover into our apprehension things past and gone, and, up<3u oar perception of things, we find ouiselves variously afsected.

Let these two properties of a soul arid body be compared, and upon the first view of a considering mind it will appear, ;hat

•* Mr. How's Fun. Serm. p, 9, 10, < '*

f Philosophical Essay, p. * § a. p. 39.


divisibility is not apprehension, or judgment, or desire, or discourse: That to cut a body into several parts, or put it into several (hapes, or bring it to several motions, or mix it after several w,tys, will never bring it to apprehend, or delire. No nian can think the combining of fires, and air, and' water, and' earth, should make the lump of it to know or comprehend, what is done to it, or by it. We see manisestly, that upon thedivision of the body, the soul remains entire and undivided. It is not the lofs of a leg, or arm, or eye, that can maim the,

demanding, ot the will, or cut off the afsections.

Nay, it pervades the body it dwells in, and is whole in the' whole, and in every part, which it

cdirld never do if it were material. Understand it negative*.

Yea, it comprehends in its under- fy, that the foul is not in the /sanding, the body or. matter ia parts of the body per partes,, which it is lodged; and more part in one part, and part in than thJt, it can, aud doth from another,seeing it is indiviftbl*t\ conceptions of pure spiritual and and hath no pihts. immaterial beings, which have no

dimensions or figures; all which shews it to be no corporeal, bur a spiritual, and immaterial substance. '(3.) As it derives its being from the Father of spirits, in a peculiar way, and rejoiceth in its spiritual properties: So at death it returns to that great Spirit from whence it came. It is not annihilated, or resolved into soft air, or sucked up'again by the element of fire, or patched back again into ihe soul of the world, as some have dreamed; but it returns to God who gave it, to! give an account of itself tohim,and receive its jugmentfrom him. "Then (halt the dust return to sheearth as it was, and the spirit "shall return to God who gave it," Eccl. xii. 7. Each part of, man to its like, dqst to dust, and spirit to spirit. Not that the. soul is resolved into God, as the body is into earth.; but as. God. created it a rational spirit, conscious to itself of moral good and elrii, so when it hath finished its time in the body, it must appear before the God of the spirits of nil Xielh, its arbiter and final judge.

By all which we see, that as it is elevated too high on the on»' hand, when it is made a>particlf es God himself; not only the' creature, btft a part of God, J as Plutarch, and || Philo Judeas;

% Anima autem menth part kept faffa, nonf&lum Dei fiput est, -•frtm\etiam parr; neque abco, fed de eo et ex fafix- Plut. de Qu. Maton.

J Qpemade credibi'Ie videtur- tarrLexiguam mensem' humanam* mem*

and others have term'd it; (spirit it is, but of another and inserior kind ;) So it is degraded too low, when it is affirmed to be. natter, though the purest, finest, and most subtile in nature^ which approacheth nearest to the nature of spirit. A spirit it is, as much as an angel is a spirit, though it be a spirit of another speck!. This is the name it is known by throughout the scriptures. Id a word, it is void of mixture and composition; there are no jarring qualities, compound element, or divisible parts in the foul, as there are in bodies; but it is pure, simple, invisible, and indi'visible substance, which proves its spirituality, and brings us to the fourth particular, viz.

IV. It is an immortal substance. The simplicity, and spirituality of its nature, of which I spake before, plainly shews us, that it is in its very nature, designed for immortality; for such a being, or substance as this, hath none of the seeds of corruption, and death in its nature, as all material, and compounded beings have. It hath nothing within it tending to dissolution: No jarring elements, no contrary qualities are found in spirits, as there are in other creatures of a mixed nature. Phyficians, and Philosophers have disputed, and contended eagerly about the true causes of natural death; "* and whilst they have been contending about the way, they "have come to the end." The ingress of the foul is obscure, and its egress not clear. But this seems to be the thing in which they generally centre, that the expence, and destruction of the f natural moisture, or radical balsam, as others call it, which is as the oil that maintains natural heat, or the bridle that restrains that stame of lise from departing (as others express it;) this is the cauie of natural death: Others % assign the unequal re

membranula cerebri, aut eordt, haud amplis spaciii inclusam; to* tarn cte/i mundique magnitudinevi capere, nisi illius divirue fxjicisque animeeparticula ejset indivisibilis? Philo.

* Litigamut de via, interim ad terminum rapimur.

J A« y«f art Tt if< IfVirH tif>at Kttl Btfftot, Ml rafylt rot-'

STo*. Tc iJ Anp«' ^"Xf"^' I"?4" T° Ts0t?t*o$ ipeuvsral hup «ru(. i. e. For we must understand, that the animal hath a natural moisture and heat; which makes it to live. But old age drying up that moisture, and changing that heat into coldness, occasions death. All this is very plain. Aristotle, on long and short Use. . ,

% Turn flamviat et micas calidum nativum corporis nostri in humido primigenio, ejus humidi substantia consumitur, non aliter quam in lampade ileum a stamina exhauritur. Hcurnius. Aphor. I. Tarn diu durat vigor vita, quam diu fiat caladium nativum,

paration of the parts of the body, as the cause of death. But be it one or another, 'tis evident the soul, which consists neither of contrariant qualities, nor of dissimilar parts, must be above .the reach and stroke of death. For if the foul die, it must be either from'some seeds, and principles of death, and corruption within itself, or by some destructive power without itself. In itself you see there is no seed, or principle of death; and if it be destroyed by a power without itself, it must be either by the stroke of some creature, or from the band of God that; first formed and created it: But the hand, and power of no creature can destroy it; the creatures power reaches no further than the body, Mat. x. 28. " They cannot kill the soul." And tho' the almighty power of God, that created it out of nothing, can as easily reduce it to nothing; yet he will never do so. For besides the designation for eternity, which is discernible in its very nature (as before was observed) and which speaks the intention of God to perpetuate his threatnings of eternal wrath, and promises of everlasting lise, respectively made to the souls of men, as they fhall be found in Christ, or out of Christ, puts it beyond all doubt that they shall never die; as will be more fully

'evidenced in the following discourse.

Well then, I hope so sar our way is clear, in the search of the nature of the soul, that it is a substance, a spiritual substance, and being so, it is also an immortal substance. No doubt remains with me as to either of these. Let ns then proceed to the consideration of its saculties, and powers, by which it may be yet more fully known, and we shall find that, It is a vital, spiritual, and immorta1 substance, endued -with an 'understanding. This is the noble leading saculty of the soul: We are not

- distinguished from brutes by our senses, but by our understanding. As grace sets one man above another, so understanding sets the meanest man above the best of brutes. "Strange and wonder

tivum, donee ad mortem suerit deventum: Et quantum a calido et bumido receditur, tantus ad mortem fit accesfus. J. Bapt. Montan. Ortus nostriprimordio, caloris et humoris nativi babent [ammum compliment urn, <bc. Pernelius liber de spir. et cal. Vergetitf ætate, imtqualit admodum fit .reparatio, alia parses reparantur satis ft licit er, fed alia tegre, et in pejus. Ut a-b eo tempers cer\ pora bttmanasubiri incipiunt tormentum Mud Mezentii, ut viva in amplex mortuorum hmnoriantur, Verulara. ift additu Hilt. Tit. et mort. .-• . ... ,.f.... .- v -'. . •"''

Vol. III. K.

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