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(i.) The will, like an absolute sovereign *, reigns over the body (t. f.) its external members by way of absolute command. It saith, as the centurion did, I am in authority, and God bath put the many members of the body in subjection to me; I sar to one, move, and it moves; to another, stop, and it stops; and to a third do this, and it doth it. The obsequious members of the body, like so many servants, have their eyes waiting on the imperial commands of the will, and it is admirable to behold with what dispatch, and speed they execute its commands, as if their obedient motions were rather concomitant, than subsequent acts to the will's mandates. Let it but command to have the windows of the body open or fhut, and it is done in a moment, in the twink of an eye; and so for the rest of the external senses and members, they pay it most ready obedience. Yet when I say, the will hath a despotical, and absolute sovereignty over the members, it must be understood with a double limitation. First, They are only at its beck for use and service; it can use them whilst well and rightly disposed; but it cannot perpetuate them, or restore them when indisposed. If the soul will the health, and lise of the body never so intensely and vehemently, it cannot keep off death one moment the longer from it. And, Secondly, Its sovereignty no way intrenches upon, nor interseres with the dominion of providence over the members of the body, and the various motions of them. God hath reserved 3 sovereign, negative voice to himself, whatever decrees the will passes. Jeroboam stretches out his hand against the man of God to finite him; but God puts a remora in the very instant to the loco-motive saculty, that though he would never so sain, he could not pull in his hand again to him, 1 Kings xiii. 4. The will commands the service of the tongue, and chargeth it to deliver saithfully such or such words, in which, it may be, the ruin of good men may be imported; and when it comes to do its office, the tongue salters; and contrary to the command of the will, drops some word that discovers and deseats the design of the will, according to that in Job xii. 10. "He removeth away the speech of the trusty." This is its despotical and sovereign power over the external members of the body.

* Man acts not by necessity of nature, but freely, namely in a rational way, that is by way of command; this command requires the final determination of the practical understanding, and while the esficacy of the command stands, the will is moved freely. Camel, de Vtlun. p. 50.

(2.) Tt hath a political power over the saculties and passions of the foul, not by way of absolute command, but by w^y of suasion and insinuation. Thus it can oft times persuade. the vaderstanding, and thoughts to lay by this or that subject, and apply themselves to the!study of another. It can bridle, and restrain the affections and passions, but yet it hath no absolute command over the inner, as it hath over the outward man. its weakness and inability to govern the inner man appears in two . things, more especially remarkable, viz. 1. It cannot wirh all irs power and skill command, and setch off the thoughts from some subjects, which are set on, at some times, with extranrdinary weightupon thesoul. However, the thoughts may obsequiously follow its beck at some times, yea, for the most part; yet they are cases, and-seasons, in which its authority, and persuasions cannot disengage one thought.

As (1.) When God hath to do with the soul, in the work of conversion, when he convinceth of sin and danger, and sets a man's evils in order before his eyes: These are terrible representations, and sain would the carnal will disengage the thoughts from such sad subjects, and strives by all manner of persuasions, and diversions, so to do; but all to no purpose, Psal. li. 3. "My sin is ever before'me." The thoughts are fixed, and there is no removing of them. It may give them a little interruption, but they return with the more impetuous violence. And instead of gaining them off, they at last, or rather God by them gains over the will also.

(2.) When Satan hath to do with the soul, in the way of temptation, and hellish suggestion : Look, as the carnal will opposed itself to the thoughts in the former case to no purpose; so that the sanctified will opposes itself to them in this case, ofttimes with as little effect or success, as he that opposeth his weak breath to the strong current of a mighty river. Well were it, if the sanctified will %vere now the master of the santasy, and could controul the thoughts of the heart; but, like a made horse, the fancy takes the bit in its teeth, and runs whither it pleaseth; the will cannot govern it. Think quite another way, saith the vriH; turn thy thoughts to other things; but notwithstanding, the soul turneth a deaf ear to its counsels 2. It cannot quiet and compose a raging conscience, and reduce it at its pleasure to rest and peace. This is the peculiar work of God. He 9nly that stills the stormy seas, can quiet the distressed and tempestuous foul. The impotence of the will, ia this case, is known to all that have been in those deeps of • trouble. And this is the misery of the devil and the damned,

that though they would never so sain, yet they cannot get rid of thole tormenting impresiions made upon them by their owa trembling and condemning consciences. There would not be so many pale, sweating, affrighted consciences on earth, and in .hell, if the will had any command or power over them. Tarn frigida mens est Criminibus; tacita sudant pracordia culpa.

It is an horrible fight to see such a trembling upon All the members, such a cold sweat upon the panting bosom of a felfcondemned, and wrath-presaging soul, in which it can, by no means relieve or help itself. These things are exempt from the liberty, and dominion of the will of man; but notwithstanding these exemptions, it is a noble saculty, and hath a vaflly ex,-. tended empire in the foul of man; it is the door of the soul, at which the Spirit of God knocks for entrance. When this is won, the soul is won to Christ; and if this stand out in rebellion against him, he is barred out of the foul, and can have no saving union with it. The truth of grace is to be judged and discerned by its compliance with his call, and the measure of grace to be estimated by the degree of its subjection to his will.

VII. The soul of man is not only indued with an understanding and -will, but also with various affeBions and pas/ions, which are of great use and ser- 7. Furnished vice to it, and speak the excellency of its -with various asnature. They are originally designed, and fetlions and past appointed for the happiness of man, in the siont. promoting and securing its chiesest good, to which purpose they have a natural aptitude: for the true happiness and rest of the soul not being in itself, nor in any other creature, but in God, the soul must necessarily move out of itself, and beyond all other created beings, to find and enjoy its trne selicity in him. The soul considered at a distance from God, its true rest and happiness, is furnished and provided with desire and hope to carry it on, and quicken its motion towards him. These are the arms it is to stretch out towards him, in a state of absence from him. And seeing it is to meet with many obstacles, enemies, and difficulties, in its course, which hinder its motion. and hazard its fruition of him, God hath planted in it, sear, grief, indignation, jealousy, anger, <bc. to grapple with, and break through those intercurrent difficulties and hazards f,

, f Pajsio anima nihil a/Jud est oifam Hietut appetivx virtutir

Vol. Hi. §

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By these weapons in the hands of grace, it conflicts with that which opposes its passages to God, as the apostle expresseth that holy fret and passion ot the Corinthians, and what a fume their fouls were in by the gracious motion of the irralcible appetite; 2 Cor. vii. 11. " For behold this self-same thing, that ye fbr"rowed after a godly fort; what carefulness it wrought in you, "yea, what clearing yourselves, yea, what indignation, yea, "what sear, yea, what vehement desire, yea, what zeal, yea, "what revenge?" Much like the raging and struggling of waters, which are interrupted in their course by some dam or obstacle which they strive to bear down, and sweep away before them.

But the soul considered in full union with and fruition of God, its supreme happiness, is accordingly furnished with afsections of love, delight, and joy; whereby it rests in him, and enjoys its proper blessedness in his presence for ever. Yea, even in this lise, these afsections are in an impersect degree exercised upon God, according to the prelibations and enjoyments it hath "of him by saith, in its way to heaven. In a word,

The true uses, and most excellent ends for which these afsections and passions are bestowed upon the foul of man, are to qualify it, and make it a sit subject to be wrought upon in a moral way of persuasions and allurements, in order to its union with Christ, (for by the affections, as Mr. Fenner rightly observes, the soul becomes marriageable, or capable of being espoused to him ;) and being so, then to assist it in the prosecution of its full enjoyment in heaven, as we heard but now. *

But, alas, how are they corrupted and inverted by sin! The

concupiscible appetite greedily sastens upon the creature, not

upon God; and the irrascible appetite is turned against holiness,

not sin. But I must insist no sarther on this subject here, it

deserves an entire treatise by itself.

0 , , . ,. .. VIII. The foul of man hath, in the ve

. 8. And an inebnation , c , c. ,. . ,

"1 1 i ry frame and nature or it, an inclination

ana love to the body. ', , , _,- ... . . ^

J to the body. There is in it a certain /,5«

dus or inclination which naturally bends or sways it towards

natter, or a body. There are three difserent natures found in

living creatures, viz.

1. The brutal.

2. The angelical.

pmfecutione tins', vel fuga mail. i. e. A passion of the foul is fibthiog else but the motion of desire in seeking good, and shunnisg

evil.

3. The human.

(1.) The ibul of a brute is wholly confined to, and dependent on the matter or body with which it is united. It is dependent on itr both in ejfe et in operari,-ia its being and working; it is but a material form, which arises from, and peri sheth with the body. "The soul of a brute, (saith a great person *) is nc} "other than a fluid bodily substance, the more lively, aud refin"ed part of the blood (called spirit) quick in motion, and from "the arteries by the branches of the carotides carried to the ** brain; and from thence conveyed to the nerves and muselesj "move the whole frame and mass of the body; and receiving •* only certain weak impressions from the senses, and of short *' continuance, hindered and obstructed of its work and motiV on, vanishes into the soft air."

(a.) Au angel is a spirit free from a body, and created without an appetite or inclination to be embodied. The Stoics call the angels t««{ 4,"Z"e*f, souly substances; and the Peripatetics,format abstratlas, abstract forms. They are spirits free from the fetters and clogs of the body.

"f A" angel is a persect soul, and an human foul is an ira*' persect angel." Yet angels have no such rooted disasfection to, and abhorrence of a body, but they have assumed, and can, in a ready obedience to their Lord's commands, and delight to serve him, assume bodies, for a time, to converse with men in them, i. e. aerial bodies in the figure and shape of human bodies. So we read, Gen. xv'rii. 2. three men i. e angels in human shape and appearance, stood by Abraham, and talked with him; and at Christ's sepulchre, Luke xxiv, "There appeared two men in ** shining garments." But they abide in these bodies, as we do in an inn, for a night, or short season; they dwell not in them as our souls in those houses of flesh, v/hich we cannot put on and off at pleasure as they do; but as we walk iu our garments, which we can put off without pain.

.(3.) The human soul is neither wholly tied to the body, as the brutal soul is; nor created without inclination to a body, as angels are; but loves and inclines to it, though' it can both live and act without it, when it is parted from it at death. The proof of this assertion, and the reasons why God created it with such an inclination, will, in their proper place, be more fully spo

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* Lord Chief Justice Hale, in his treatise de anima, p. j6. f Angchs est anima psrsesla, et anima est angclus impersect us % Pell, de aseen. mentis.

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