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failed to think of any man likely to undertake the enterprise, Sir Roderick turned to Livingstone, and said, “Why cannot you go? Come, let me persuade you. I am sure you will not refuse an old friend.” “I had flattered myself,” said the Doctor, “that I had much prospective comfort in store for me in my old age, and pecuniary matters want looking after for the sake of my family ; but since you ask me in that way, I cannot refuse you." That was sufficient. The affair was settled at once, and Dr. Livingstone immediately commenced to prepare for his departure. He left England finally on 14th August, 1865, and, by way of Paris, reached Bombay in safety. Having there made all necessary arrangements for his expedition, in company with thirteen Sepoys, ten Johnna men, nine Nassick boys, and six educated Africans, with six camels, two buffaloes and a calf, two mules, and four donkeys, together with a suitable present for the Sultan, he sailed for Zanzibar. After a few weeks' rest and to complete his preparations, he left Zanzibar, and in H.M.S. Penguin sailed for the Rovuma, a river on the east coast of Africa, near which they landed, and which Livingstone made the starting-point of his last wanderings through the country he loved so well.
And now, let us ask, what are the thoughts and feelings that fill the mind and heart of the great traveller as he stands on the threshold of his last labours and discoveries ? He tells us himself in these journals.
“Now," says he," that I am on the point of starting on another trip into Africa, I feel quite exhilarated; when one travels with the specific object in view of ameliorating the condition of the natives, every act becomes ennobled.
" Whether exchanging the customary civilities on arriving at a village, accepting a night's lodgings, purchasing food for the party, or answering polite African inquiries as to our objects in travelling, we begin to spread a knowledge of that people by whose agency their land will yet become enlightened and free from the slave trade.
“The mere animal pleasure of travelling in a wild, unexplored, country is very great. When on lands of a couple of thousand feet elevation, brisk exercise imparts elasticity to the muscles, fresh and healthy blood circulates through the brain, the mind works well, the eye is clear, the step is firm, and a day's exertion always makes the evening's repose thoroughly enjoyable.
“The effect of travel on a man whose heart is in the right place is that the mind is made self-reliant ; it becomes more confident of its own resources—there is greater presence of mind. The body is soon well knit; the muscles of the limbs grow as hard as a board, and seem to have no fat; the countenance is bronzed, and there is no dyspepsia. Africa is a most wonderful country for appetite, and it is only when one gloats over marrow-bones or elephants' feet that indigestion is possible. No doubt much toil is involved, aud fatigue of which travellers in the more temperate climates can form but a very faint conception; but the sweat of one's brow is no longer a curse when one works for God: it proves a tonic to the system, and is actually a blessing.”
In this last sentence Livingstone indicates the secret of his arduous and successful labours. God was in all his thoughts and ways. He had, it is true, subordinate motives, but that was his supreme motive. He had an inherent love of science. He sought to make discoveries. He wished to put down the slave trade. He desired to promote a healthy and legitimate commerce. He was ambitious to confer the benefits of civilisation on the barbarous tribes of Africa. His motives were manifold. Still there was ever one deep, central motive from which they all sprang, and that was his great desire to serve and glorify God.
Unable to find a road for his camels through the mangrove swamps at the mouth of the Rovuma, they start from the north side of Milkindany Bay, their first object being to reach Lake Nyassa. For many miles they have to cut their way, with axes and hatchets, assisted by the natives, through the mangrove jungles that flourish so luxuriantly on the low lands on both sides of the river. Livingstone's difficulties now begin. They arise, however, not so much from the natural obstacles he meets with, nor the hostility of the native tribes, as from the more worthless of his own men, especially the Sepoys whom he had been induced to bring with him from Bombay. They had been greatly praised by their friends, but he soon found that all their good qualities were purely imaginary. He had not proceeded many weeks before he became subject to great vexation on their account, and their carelessness, laziness, and crudity completely spoiled many of his experiments on his cattle with the tsetse fly. They also tried to corrupt the Nassick boys, and were incorrigible for filthiness and theft. The only instance in which we hear of the Doctor actually in anger striking a servant was under a provocation from them; and he records the fact with self-blame and remorse, and resolves that hereafter he must not punish in this way again, though afterwards he has on one two occasions to punish by his deputy Susi. He had at last reluctantly to come to the conclusion that " Sepoys are a mistake”; and he takes the first opportunity to send them back to the coast. They all left him at last but the havildar, and he subsequently had to be left behiod, where he died, and was buried in the African wilderness.!
The route they took from the coast was S.S.W. to the Rovuma, which they struck on the 18th of April, about thirty miles from its mouth, and on the 19th of the May following they came to Ngomano, the confluence of the Rovuma and the Loendi, in the country of the Makonde. From this place, after a rest of fifteen days, they made their way through a hilly country three or four thousand feet above the sea level, and then by a gradual descent, to Lake Nyassa. This lake, which is a magnificent body of fresh water two hundred miles long by twenty wide, and in some places as much as two hundred fathoms deep, surrounded with grand and beautiful scenery, was an old friend of the Doctor's, for he had discovered it during his second series of travels, in 1859. It was on the 9th of August, 1866, they reached Nyassa, having spent seven months in travelling through five hundred miles of very difficult country. “When we came to the lake," says Livingstone, “I felt grateful to that Hand which had protected us thus far on our journey. It was as if I had come back to an old home I had never expected again to see ; and pleasant it was to bathe in its delicious waters again, to hear the roar of the lake and dash in the rollers. I feel quite exhilarated.”
After resting for a short time at Nyassa they again start on their travels, and making their way round and across the south end of the lake, they come into an unexplored region, a point beyond which no white man had ever penetrated. Travelling now becomes specially dangerous, as all the country round was devastated by the Mazitu, a savage tribe of Zulus, who had settled on the west side of the Nyassa, and caused great terror by their depredations. There was also a great drought, and food was scarce, which greatly added to the difficulties of the way. The means of transit, too, had been greatly diminished by the death of all the camels, and many of the oxen, with which the party had been provided. They now take a nortb.westerly direction, to avoid the dreaded Mazitu, and passing over extensive plains and tracts of forest land but thinly peopled, come at length into a mountainous region inhabited by numerous tribes. Here the climate was cold for Africa, but there was much cattle, and chiefs of considerable power ruled over the scattered villages. The party, however, had been much weakened by desertion. The Sepoys had all left or died, others had deserted, several of the educated Africans had absconded, reducing the whole number of his followers to twenty. Livingstone, who understood the African character well, knew that the only chance of preventing further desertions was to keep them on the march, so as to increase the distance from home, and so lessen the chance of a successful flight. On therefore they went, and still on, day by day, and yet on, into a land of fear and dread. They are now in the country of the terrible Mazitu, and now another desertion takes place. It is that of the Johnna men, with Moose their leader, who got back to Zanzibar, and, to excuse his own cowardice, raised the report of Livingstone's death, which subsequently came to England, but was afterwards proved to be false. After being thus deserted by the greatest part of his men, bis cattle mostly dead, and reduced to a condition of great physical weakness by over-fatigue and want of proper food, the great traveller recommences his wanderings. He has a brave heart and an indomitable will, and so he pushes on over plains, across mountains, along valleys, through marshes and rivers, week by week and month by inonth, exposed to iönumerable dangers and to great suffering from fatigue, hunger, and thirst. It would occupy more space in this magazine than can be allotted me to name only the places at which he calls, and the tribes and countries through which he passes. We must observe, however, before proceeding with our narrative, that in the course of this journey the Doctor met with a great river that very much puzzled him for a time. It was the Chambeze, He found it running to the north, and that it was regarded as one of the main branches of the Zambesi. The similarity of name also seemed to favour the notion. Still, he could not clear up the matter, and he would not proceed until he had done so. The uncertainty cost him mapy a month of tedious and unprofitable wanderings. Up and down and across its course he wandered like an uneasy spirit, until he came to the conclusion that it was no branch of the Zambesi, and that it could be none other than the head-waters of the Nile After this, striking away to the north-east of Cazembe's country, he came to a large lake called by the natives Liemba, from the country of that name which borders it. He was the discovorer of Liemba, which he regarded as a distinct lake, but which he afterwards found was but a continuation of the great Lake Tanganyika. Thus, after a long weary march of eight months from the date of touching at Lake Nyassa, he reaches the second great stage of his journey. From the point which they occupy they look down upon the southern end of this grand and beautiful lake, and are filled with wonder and delight at the sight of its glittering waters. Tanganyika was discovered by Burton and Speke on the 13th of February, 1858. It is said to be three hundred and fifty miles long, and from twenty-five to thirtyfire miles broad, with a depth in some parts of three thousand feet, while on some of its sides the rocks rise perpendicularly two thousand feet above the level of the water. It is surrounded with grand and lovely scenery, and its islands and banks are inhabited by numerous tribes of warlike and prosperous races. “After being a fortnight at this lake," says Livingstone, “it still appears one of surpassing loveliness. Its peacefulness is remarkable, though at times it is said 10 be lashed into storms. It lies in a deep basin whose sides are nearly perpendicular, but covered well with trees; the rocks which appear are bright-red argillaceous schist ; the trees at present all green; down some of these rocks come beautiful cascades, and buffaloes, elephants, and antelopes wander and graze on the more level spots, while lions roar by night. The level place below is not two miles from the perpendicular. The village at which we first touched the lake is surrounded by palm-oil trees—not the stunted ones of Lake Nyassa, but the real West Coast palm-oil tree, requiring two men to carry a branch of the ripe fruit. In the morning and evening huge crocodiles may be observed quietly making their way to their feeding grounds; hippopotami snort by day and at early morning."
One of the greatest disasters Livingstone experienced during this his third series of African travels took place on his march from Nyassa to Liemba or Tanganyika. It was the loss of his medicine chest. It had been entrusted to two of his servants, with other things of importance, to carry on the march, but, when passing through one of the dense forests, they deserted and threw it away. Search was afterwards made for them, but neither they nor the medicine chest were ever found. This was a great calamity to the Doctor, he felt it much, and it is not improbable that it was the remote cause of his death. It was stored with quinine, which was always a specific with him when suffering from African fever, to which he was subject. “I felt," says he, "when the medicine chest was lost, that I had now received the sentence of death, like poor Bishop Mackenzie.” He had been exposed during this march to great dangers, had been repeatedly ill, had been robbed of his goods on all sides, his chronometers, and other scientific instruments had been injured so that they would not properly act, and he had now arrived'at Lake Tanganyika, broken down in health and greatly depressed in spirits. It was here, indeed, that he had his first serious illness—the first of those attacks of insensibility to which he became afterwards so subject.
“ After I had been a few days here," he says, “I had a fit of insensibility, which shows the power of fever without medicine. I found myself floundering outside my hut and unable to get in ; I tried to lift myself from my back by laying hold of two posts at the entrance, but when I got nearly upright I let them go and fell back heavily on my head on a box. The boys had seen the wretched state I was in, and hung a blanket at the entrance of the hut that no stranger might see my helplessness; some time elapsed before I could recognise where I was.”
After his recovery and a little rest, the Doctor starts again on his travels. He makes his way round the southern end of the lake, and strikes off to the west. The country is greatly disturbed. The several races who inhabit it are at war, and he meets with scenes of great cruelty and bloodshed. But keeping clear as much as possible of the disturbed districts, he prosecutes his march. His object is now to reach Lake Moero. A long reach of country unexplored by Europeans lies before him. He now comes across the tracts of the Arab slave and ivory merchants, and his heart is sadly grieved at the way in which these atrocious wretches treat the natives. They go with armed bands of half-castes, pick a quarrel with the natives, murdering all who resist; they then steal their ivory, and carrying off the women and children, they drive them to the East Coast, where they sell them as slaves. After a march of six months he reaches Lake Moero, which he estimates to be about sixty miles long, and between thirty and forty wide. · He then explores its southern end, and finds a large river running into it from the south, and he also learns from the natives that there is still a much larger lake to the south-east, out of which this river comes. He wants to get further information about the matter, and he makes his way to the town of a powerful chief who held sway over the tribes in this part of the country, called Casembe. Casembe is described as a kingly savage. He is a tall, stalwart man, wearing a peculiar kind of dress made of crimson print, and worn in many folds in the shape of a prodigious kilt, the upper part of his body being bare. He received the Doctor in state, surrounded by his chiefs and principal officers, the most conspicuous being his executioner. This individual had a chain round his neck, at the end of which was suspended a pair of shears, and also a huge sword by his side. The principal business of this gentleman was to cut off the hands and crop the ears of those who offended his master. Livingstone approached him, and touching the shears that hung from his neck said, “Yours is a nasty business," when he merely grinned at him, and looked out of the corner of his eyes towards the people who were spectators of the scene, as though he would like to operate upon some of them. That he did a good deal of business in his peculiar line was evident from the numbers of people without hands and with cropped ears whom the Doctor met as he wandered through Casembe's dominions. The statement of the traveller that he was going north in search of lakes and rivers filled him with astonishment. “What can you want to go there for ?” he said. “The water is close here! There is plenty of large water in this neighbourhood!” Casembe had never seen an Englishman before ; and notwithstanding that he could not understand this