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which He would show them that day," in opening for them a safe passage through its waters, and destroying therein their pursuers. And after the event he and the children of Israel sang unto the Lord in celebration of their deliverance, saying, “The Lord is my strength and song, and He is become my salvation.” A great salvation was wrought in Israel when Saul slew the Ammonites and Jonathan vanquished the Philistines. So far the word has exclusive reference to social events and outward conditions, and not to spiritual states and character.

In course of time, however, and as we pass from the historical to the ethical, devotional, and prophetic books of Scripture, there is a blending of both senses, the temporal and the spiritual, in its use. This was done, apparently, on the principle of a correspondence between the visible and the invisible; the outward was a type of the inward, the state of the body representing the state of the soul. Thus David prayed, “ O Lord, heal my soul”; and Jeremiah, “Heal me, O Lord, and I shall be healed ; save me, and I shall be saved." And further, as the calamities averted were regarded as judicial inflictions, their removal was considered as indicative of an absolution of guilt and a restoration to Divine favour. Hence the prayer, “O remember not against us former iniquities, let Thy tender mercies speedily prevent us : for we are brought very low. Help us, O God of our salvation, for the glory of Thy name : and deliver us, and purge away our sins, for Thy name's sake” (Psalm lxxix., 8, 9). The eighty-fifth Psalm is an embodiment of similar sentiments. In the writer's mind God's temporal providences are considered as the outward expression of His feelings toward His people; they are the smiles or frowns of His countenance, and, therefore, in his apprehension, temporal and spiritual salvation were infallibly connected.

At a later period, and chiefly by the prophets, who spoke of things to come, the term came to be used in an exclusively spiritual and supernatural sense, and temporal deliverances were adverted to for the purpose of illustrating the sublimity and importance of the greater salvation. They were material pictures symbolising in sensible forms its transcendent character. It is scarcely necessary to adduce passages confirmatory of this statement, as, especially in Isaiah's writings, they are so readily to be met with. A reference to the twelfth and twenty-fifth chapters, with the four first verses in th twenty-sixth chapter of Isaiab, shall suffice.

The Apostle Peter writes in harmony with the fact we are asserting when he says, " The salvation of your souls. Of which salvation the prophets have inquired and searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace that should come unto you : searching what, or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ which was in them did signify, when it testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should follow. Unto whom it was revealed, that not unto themselves, but unto us they did minister the things, which are now reported unto you by them that have preached the gospel unto you with the Holy Ghost sent down from heaven ; which things the angels desire to look into” (1 Peter i., 9-1..,

In the New Testament writings, therefore, we find the term taking a definite moral meaning, and that of the highest kind ; so that to him who rightly understands and enjoys the blessing it expresses, there is scarcely a word of sweeter sound, save the thriceblessed name of Him by whom salvation came to us. It is there used to express that great moral and judicial deliverance, with all its immediate and remote results, which God has wrought out for us as sinners through Jesus Christ. For, theories apart, no one who has carefully studied those writings can have failed of perceiving that in them the human race is ever represented as sinful. Man is described as having universally forsaken God, and gone after vanity and lies. The defection began with our first parents, and has run on through all their posterity. “All have sinned, and come short of the glory of God.” And while the fact of man's sinfulness is affirmed, judgment is pronounced upon him as a sinner. Sin is not spoken of simply as an infirmity, a failing ; it is solemnly declared to be exceeding sinful--an evil and bitter thing—and they who commit it are worthy of death. And to all men a time and state of retribution are announced. “God has appointed a day wherein He will judge the world, and bring every work into judgment, whether it be good or bad.” Consequently we find the lost condition of man solemnly asserted. As all had sinned, it is emphatically declared that by terms of law no flesh can be justified in the sight of God.

Now the salvation which God has provided for us through Jesus Christ is a rescue from this state of sinfulness, and guilt, and condemnation; it is a deliverance both from a sinful character and a sinful condition ; and it is a restoration to God, to the enjoyment of His favour and the participation of His nature. By it man escapes from the judicial consequences of transgression, and is also brought to a right state of heart toward God. Its central ideas are absolution, purification, and glorification. The condemned are forgiven, the sinful made holy, the rebellious brought to loving obe dience, and the estranged and alienated advanced to the privilege of adoption and communion. Our salvation may be described, in its objective character, as a deliverance from heathenism to the Christian Church, and a transition from the Church to heaven. The enjoyment of eternal life in heaven is the consummation of the Christian salvation.

Hence the Apostle Peter introduces the passage we have quoted from his first epistle with the following exultant language : "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which according to His abundant mercy hath begotten us again unto a lively hope by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, to an inheritance incorruptible and undefiled, and that fadeth not away, reserved in heaven for you, who are kept by the power of God through faith unto salvation ready to be revealed in the last time. Wherein ye greatly rejoice, though now for a season, if need be, ye are in heaviness through manifold temptations : That the trial of your faith, being much more precious than of gold that perisheth, though it be tried with fire, might be found unto praise and honour and glory at the appearing of Jesus Christ: Whom having not seen, ye love; in whom, though now ye see Him not, yet believing, ye rejoice with joy unspeakable and full of glory : receiving the end of your faith, even the salvation of your souls” (1 Peter i., 3—9). And likewise the Apostle Paul writes : “So Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many ; and unto them that look for Him shall He appear without sin unto salvation” (Hebrews ix., 28). “Those Christians who are alive when that event takes place will be delivered from the mortality and corruption which are the consequences of sin in the flesh. Their bodies shall be changed and fashioned like unto the glorified body of Christ. Those who have died previous to that event have had their souls already freed from sin, but their bodies will then partake of the same deliverance. The conquered grave shall resign its prey. That which was sown in weakness shall be raised in power ; that which was sown in dishonour shall be raised in glory ; that which was sown a natural body shall be raised a spiritual body. This mortal shall put on immortality, and this corruptible shall put on incorruption; and the saying shall be brought to pass which is written, Death is swallowed up in victory. And then, with glorified bodies and purified souls united, the raised dead and the transformed living shall be caught up together in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air ; and so shall they ever be with the Lord.”

This threefold view of salvation, it may be added, is of some consequence, as furnishing a consistent interpretation of various passages of Scripture which would otherwise appear contradictory. Thus we read of salvation as already enjoyed by believers; as enjoyed by them only in part, and which they are daily to work out; and as that which they are to hope for. If all these statements are

understood to apply to the same deliverance, there is manifest confusion; but if we view the deliverance as threefold, we can find an application for each, which makes it harmonise perfectly with the others. When salvation is spoken of as already enjoyed, as in the passage, “By grace are ye saved,” it is a deliverance from condemnation which is intended. Again, when it is spoken of as partly attained and to be daily worked out, as in the passage, “Work out your own salvation," it is not deliverance from condemnation which is meant, but deliverance from error and pollution; not justification but sanctification. And, again, when salvation is spoken of as a future thing, which is to be hoped and waited for, it is neither deliverance from pollution nor condemnation which is intended, but the final deliverance which is to take place at the coming of the Lord. It is what the Apostle calls “the adoption, to wit, the redemption of the body."*

It has been said that salvation, properly so termed, may be regarded as consisting in an emancipation from the dominion of sin, eternal happiness being its consequence or adjunct. We think it more in harmony with the teachings of the New Testament to say, with Bishop Hopkins, that salvation comprehends in it all the benefits of the covenant of grace ; not only glorification, which it does most signally denote, but also pardon, justification, reconciliation, and adoption ; all which are called salvation, because they all tend thereunto, and terminate in it.

Justification, or pardon, may be fitly spoken of as salvation begun ; sanctification, or holiness, as salvation continued ; glorification, or heaven, as salvation completed.



LIVINGSTONE. We have seen in our former article how Livingstone, from the time of his third entrance upon African exploration in 1866, had travelled over six hundred miles of the watershed of the south central regions of that great continent. We followed him in his wanderings along the course of the Chambeze, until he saw it flowing into the eastern end of Lake Bangweolo, and afterwards found it issuing out of the western end of the same great lake as the Luapula. We have also seen how he explored the latter river to Lake Moero, and followed it on through that lake towards the north, and at last saw it breaking, a mighty stream, through a rent in the mountains of Rua. He could

• Landel's “Path of Life” with slight abbreviations and verbal alterafions, pp. 26-28.

not follow the great river in its northern course because his supplies and followers failed him ; and he was therefore compelled, in poverty, sickness, and exhaustion, to retrace his steps towards the east. We have also seen how he made his way back again to Tanganyika, and across that lake to Ujiji, and also the great disappointment he met with there in the loss of his goods from Zanzibar and the unfaithfulness of his servants. He rested at Ujiji for four months, waiting for fresh supplies and men, until his patience was quite exhausted, when he once more crossed the great lake and dashed into the country of the Manyuema. This was a vast, unexplored region to the north-east of Tanganyika. It had been hitherto unvisited by either Europeans or Arabs. The latter had heard, however, of its great wealth in isory, and had organised a large trading party, which was about to set out to visit it, and to this party Livingstone joined himself. He did it very reluctantly, because it seemed to compromise him in the estimation of the natives with the cruelties and abominations of the Arab traders. There seemed, however, no alternative.. His object was to try to strike the Luabula in its course to the north. When crossing the watershed, which consisted of six hundred miles of drainage, he was puzzled with the vast quantity of water he had met with, and he began to suspect that he was working away, not only at the Nile sources, but also at the sources of the Congo. His purpose, therefore, in visiting the Manyuema country was to determine, if possible, whether the course of these vast waters was to the north or to the west. He wanted to find out into what the Luabula, which he had seen issuing northward out of Lake Moero, through a crack in the mountains of Rua, flowed.

This country of the Manyuema, to which the Doctor set off on the 12th of July, 1869, appears to be one of great interest, luxuriance, and grandeur.

“The country,” says he, “is extremely beautiful, but difficult to travel over. The mountains of light grey granite stand like islands in new red sandstone, and mountain and valley are all clad in a mantle of different shades of green. The vegetation is indescribably rank. Through the grass—if grass it can be called which is over half-an-inch in diameter in the stalk, and from ten to twelve feet high -nothing but elephants can walk. The valleys are deeply undulating, and in each innumerable dells have to be crossed. There may be only a thread of water at the bottom; but the mud is grievous : thirty or forty yards of the path on each side of the stream are worked by the feet of passengers into an adhesive compound. By placing a foot on each side of the narrow way one may waddle a little distance along, but the rank crop of grasses, gingers, and bushes cannot spare the few inches of soil required for the side of the foot, and down he comes into the slough. The path often runs along the bed of the rivulet for sixty or more yards, as if he who first cut it out went that distance seeking for a part of the forest less dense for his axe. In other cases the Muall palm, from which here, as in Madagascar, grass cloth is woven, and called by the same name, 'Lamba,' has taken possession of the valley. The leaf-stalks, as thick as a strong man's arm, fall off and block up all passage, save by a path made and mixed up by the feet of elephants and buffaloes ; the slough therein is

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