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In emulation opposite to heaven.
Which when Beelzebub perceiv'd, than whom,
Satan except, none higher sat, with grave
Aspect he rose, and in his rising seem'd
A pillar of state : deep on his front engraven
Deliberation sat and public care;
And princely counsel in his face yet shone,
Majestic though in ruin: sage he stood,
With Atlantean shoulders fit to bear
The weight of mightiest monarchies ; his look
Drew audience and attention still as night
Or summer's noon-tide air, while thus he spake.

Thrones and imperial Powers, offspring of heaven,
Ethereal Virtues; or these titles now
Must we renounce, and changing style be calld
Princes of hell ? for so the popular vote
Inclines, here to continue, and build up here
A growing empire; doubtless; while we dream, 315
And know not that the King of heaven hath doom'd
This place our dungeon, not our safe retreat
Beyond his potent arm, to live exempt
From heaven's high jurisdiction, in new league
Banded against his throne, but to remain
In strictest bondage, though thus far remov'd,
Under th' inevitable curb, resery'd
His captive multitude : for he, be sure,
In highth or depth, still first and last will reign

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302 pillar] Shakesp. Hen. VI. Part ii. act i. * Brave peers of England, pillars of the State.' Newton. 313 popular vote] Vogue. Voice.' 'Bentl. MS. con.

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Sole King, and of his kingdom lose no part
By our revolt, but over hell extend
His empire, and with iron scepter rule
Us here, as with his golden those in heaven.
What sit we then projecting peace and war ?
War hath determin’d us, and foild with loss
Irreparable ; terms of peace yet none
Vouchsaf'd or sought; for what peace will be giv'n
To us enslav’d, but custody severe,
And stripes, and arbitrary punishment
Inflicted ? and what peace can we return,
But to our power hostility and hate,
Untam'd reluctance, and revenge, though slow,
Yet ever plotting how the conqueror least
May reap his conquest, and may least rejoice
In doing what we most in suffering feel?
Nor will occasion want, nor shall we need
With dangerous expedition to invade
Heaven, whose high walls fear no assault, or siege,
Or ambush from the deep. What if we find
Some easier enterprize? There is a place,
If antient and prophetic fame in heaven
Err not, another world, the happy seat
Of some new race call’d Man, about this time
To be created like to us, though less
In power and excellence, but favour'd more
Of him who rules above ; so was his will
Pronounc'd among the gods, and by an oath
That shook heaven's whole circumference, con-
Thither let us bend all our thoughts, to learn [firm'd.

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What creatures there inhabit, of what mould, 355
Or substance, how endu’d, and what their power,
And where their weakness, how attempted best,
By force or subtilty. Though heaven be shut,
And heaven's high Arbitrator sit secure
In his own strength, this place may lie expos'd, 30
The utmost border of his kingdom, left
To their defence who hold it: here perhaps
Some advantageous act may be achiev'd
By sudden onset, either with hell fire
To waste his whole creation, or possess
All as our own, and drive as we were driven
The
puny

habitants ; or if not drive,
Seduce them to our party, that their God
May prove their foe, and with repenting hand
Abolish his own works. This would surpass
Common revenge, and interrupt his joy
In our confusion, and our joy upraise
In his disturbance; when his darling sons,
Hurl'd headlong to partake with us, shall curse
Their frail original, and faded bliss,
Faded so soon.

Advise if this be worth
Attempting, or to sit in darkness here
Hatching vain empires.—Thus Beëlzebub
Pleaded his devilish counsel, first devis'd
By Satan, and in part propos’d; for whence,
But from the author of all ill, could spring
So deep a malice, to confound the race
Of mankind in one root, and earth with hell

expos'd] Compare ver. 410, and consult Newton's note.

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To mingle and involve, done all to spite
The great Creator? but their spite still serves 335
His glory to augment. The bold design
Pleas'd highly those infernal states, and joy
Sparkld in all their eyes; with full assent
They vote : whereat his speech he thus renews.

Well have ye judg'd, well ended long debate,
Synod of gods, and, like to what ye are,
Great things resolv’d; which from the lowest deep
Will once more lift us up, in spite of fate,
Nearer our ancient seat; perhaps in view [arms
Of those bright confines, whence with neighbouring
And opportune excursion we may chance
Re-enter heaven: or else in some mild zone
Dwell, not unvisited of heaven's fair light,
Secure, and at the brightning orient beam
Purge off this gloom; the soft delicious air
To heal the scar of these corrosive fires [send
Shall breathe her balm. But first whom shall we
In search of this new world ? whom shall we find
Sufficient? who shall tempt with wand'ring feet
The dark unbottom'd infinite abyss,
And through the palpable obscure find out
His uncouth way, or spread his airy flight,
Upborne with indefatigable wings,
Over the vast abrupt, ere he arrive

406 palpable] The adjective obscure used for a substantive, as 409, the vast abrupt.' Newton. 409 arrive] Shakesp. Hen. VI. Part iii. act v.

those powers that the queen
Hath rais'd in Gallia, have arriv'd our coast.'

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405 411

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The happy isle? what strength, what art can then
Suffice, or what evasion bear him safe
Through the strict senteries and stations thick
Of angels watching round ? here he had need
All circumspection, and we now no less
Choice in our suffrage; for on whom we send
The weight of all, and our last hope, relies.

This said, he sat; and expectation held
His look suspense, awaiting who appear'd
To second, or oppose, or undertake
The perilous attempt: but all sat mute,
Pondering the danger with deep thoughts, and each
In others' countnance read his own dismay
Astonish'd; none among the choice and prime
Of those heaven-warring champions could be found
So hardy, as to proffer or accept
Alone the dreadful voyage; till at last
Satan, whom now transcendent glory rais'd
Above his fellows, with monarchal pride,
Conscious of highest worth, unmov'd thus spake.

O Progeny of heaven, empyreal Thrones, With reason hath deep silence and demur Seiz'd us, though undismay’d: long is the way And hard, that out of hell leads up to light;

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410 isle] The earth hanging in the sea of air. Cic. de Nat. Deor. ii. 66.

'Magnam quandam insulam, quam nos orbem terræ vocamtis.' Newton.

432 long] Dante Inf. c. xxxiv. 95, describes the ascent from hell.

' La via e lunga, e 'l cammino è malvagio.'

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