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Upon chests, weighing 110lb. bility which may be conferred upand upwards, 16 per cent.

on them. Upon chests, weighing under 4. It reserves to the sovereign 110lb. 25 per cent. With reser- the right of enacting, with regard vation, however, of the same to the Duchy of Genoa, such proremedy as is prescribed in the visions as he mayjudge convenient. sixth article of the law of the 3d This decree is introduced by a of October 1816, in the case of preamble, of which the following inadequate tares.

is the most important passage:We enjoin and command, &c. “ Desirous to maintain in the Passed the Second Chamber of class which, by their peculiar inthe States-General, on the 16th of stitution, stands nearest the threne, December 1817, with a majority and whose especial duty it is to of 85 against 7.

watch over its defence, that lustre

and inheritance of glory which SARDINIA.

forms its noblest prerogative, we

have determined to return to the (From the Piedmontese Gazette.)

laws that existed with regard to The King of Sardinia, by a primogeniture before 1797. But decree of the 9th of Dec. has for the same end, other and more abolished

important provisions still are re1. The prohibition against the quired, for the abuse of titles must erection of primogenituresand feu- be restrained (which must emadal rights, enacted by the 9th sec- nate from us alone); and there. tion of the edict of the 29th of fore the rules of their concession, July 1797, or by any other law; transmission, and extinction, shall restricting, however, to those pri- be fixed with relation to their domogenitures and majorats only tation and prerogatives." which shall be erected in favour of persons to come in terms of our

CONSTANTINOPLE. laws, the capacity of establishing similar limitations, and in favour

(Letter from Constantinople, seth June. of their descendants in the male

Printed in the Hamburgh Mail.) line, leaving in force the laws The représentations of the Rusenacted before the 29th of Julysian minister, Count Von Strogo1797, in such matters.

noff, which were founded on the 2. When the person who erects most reasonable and just demands such majorats, however, shall leave of Russia, seem 'not to bave led to four children or upwards, he shall any thing decisive in the Disan. not have the power of entailing The influence of the Grand Vizier more than a third part of his pa- over the Reis-Effendi and the trimony; and where he shall have Tefterdar had hindered it. The less than four, he shall not be able Sultan, who, on the other bang, to tie up more than the half of it. earnestly desired a good under

3. It shall always be allowed to standing with Russia, addressed the person who erects such primo- on the 3d of March to the Grand genitures and majorats, to 'trans. Vizier the following energetic and mit through them the title of no- remarkable rescript:

casion to a second, which was in “HALTI-SHERIF.

the following terms:“ There have been many and As my Ministers, after mature long deliberations already held consideration of all the circumupon the note which the Russian stances, have considered it necesAmbassador has delivered ; yet no sary to give up all thoughts of war, journal of your sittings has yet and to embrace the wise part of been laid before us. It is now reconciliation, it is absolutely neabove 40 days since this business cessary that the conferences should was laid before you for discussion. be immediately opened, and that Why have you not come to any the note in question should be deresolution upon it? From this de- livered without delay by the Reis lay we must believe that you em- Effendi to the Russian Ambassaploy yourselves in your sittingsonly dor; but the greatest care must in things of no consequence. Will be taken that this note be well and you then wait till the Russian Am- clearly drawn up; and not like bassador is angry, and proceeds to the first, in which there was no threats? If you believe that war sense at all, in order to give is unavoidable, think on the means Russia to understand that it is of defence : show us minutely the our intention to arrange matters necessary causes of war, and the amicably." extent of the resources which you The inclination of the Grand will employ. But on the other Seignor to peace, and this decisive hand, if time and circumstance do language, were sufficient to cause not allow us to undertake a war, the fall of the opposite party. The prevent the discontent of the Rus- Grand Vizier received a severe sian Ambassador as soon as possi- reprimand; but his instrument, ble by a suitable answer.”

the Reis Effendi, was disgraced, The impression which this re- and his office given to the Djanil script made on the Divan was Efendi, a man who has already easily to be foreseen. It gave oc- 'frequently filled that place.

ChalCHAPTER XIV.

America, North and South.-Message to the Senate and House of Repre

sentatives from President Madison. - Votes taken for President and VicePresident.Monroe chosen for the former Office, and his Speech.Second Speech, on December the 2d.-State of Spanish Affairs.

N the 3d of February the fol. British ports after the signature O lowing message was received of that convention, and been colby the Senate and House of Re- lected previous to the 17th of presentatives, from the President August 1815. of the United States :

Feb. 3, 1917. James Madison." “The Government of Great This message was referred to Britain, induced by the posture of the Committee of Ways and Means, the relations with the United States and ordered to be printed. which succeeded the conclusion of

PRESIDENT AND VICE-PRESIDENT. the recent commercial convention, issued an order on the 17th day On the 4th of February rotes of August, 1915, discontinuing were taken for the choice of perthe discriminating duties payable sons to fill the offices of President in British ports on American ves and Vice-President; when James sels and their cargoes. It was not Monroe was declared President, until the 22d of December follow- and Daniel D. Tomkins, Viceing that a correspondent discon- President, by a large majority. tinuance of discriminating duties On the same day the President was on British vessels and their car solemnly inaugurated, after which goes in American ports, took effect, he delivered the following speech: under the authority vested in the “I should be destitute of feel. executive by the act of March ing if I was not deeply affected by 1816. During the period between the strong proof which my fellowthese two dates there was con- citizens have given me of their sequently a failure of reciprocity confidence, in calling me to the or equality in the existing regu- high office whose functions I am lations of the two countries. I re- about to assunie. As the exprescommend to the consideration of sion of their good opinion of my Congress the expedience of paying conduct in the public service, I to the British Government the derive from it a gratification, which amount of the duties remitted, those who are conscious of having during the period in question, to done all they could to merit it, can the citizens of the United Staies; alone feel. My sensibility is insubject to a deduction of the creased by a just estimate of the amount of whatever discriminating importance of the trust, and of the duties may have coninienced in nature and extent of its duties : with the proper discharge of which marked by very extraordinary the highest interests of a great and events, the United States have free people are intimately con- flourished beyond example. Their nected. Conscious of my own citizens, individually, have been deficiency, I cannot enter on their happy, and the nation prosperous. duties without great anxiety for Under this constitution our comthe result. From a just respon merce has been wisely regulated sibility I will never shrink; calcu- with foreign nations, and between lating with confidence, that in my the States; new States have been best efforts to promote the public admitted into our union; our terwelfare, my motives will always ritory has been enlarged by fair be duly appreciated, and my con- and honourable treaty, and with duct be viewed with that candour great advantage to the original and indulgence which I have ex- States; the States, respectively, perienced in other stations. protected by the national Govern

In commencing the duties of ment, under a mild parental systhe Chief Executive office, it has tem, against foreign dangers, and been the practice of the distin- enjoying within their separate guished men who have gone before spheres, by a wise partition of me to explain the principles which power, a just proportion of the would govern them in their re- sovereignty, have improved their spective administrations. In fol- police, extended their settlements, lowing their venerated example, and attained a strength and mamy attention is naturally drawn to turity which are the best proofs the great causes which have contri- of wholesome laws well admi. buted in a principal degree to pro- nistered. And if we look to the duce the present happy condition condition of individuals, what a of the United States. They will proud spectacle does it exhibit ? best explain the nature of our On whom has oppression fallen in duties, and shed much light on the any quarter of our union? Who policy which ought to be pursued has been deprived of any right of in future.

person or of property? Who re“ From the commencement of strained from offering his vows, in our revolution to the present day, the mode which he prefers to the almost forty years have elapsed; Divine Author of his being? It and from the establishment of is well known, that all these blessthis constitution, twenty-eight. ings have been enjoyed in their Through this whole term the Go fullest extent: and I add, with vernment has been what may em- peculiar satisfaction, that there has phatically be called self-govern- been no example of a capital pument; and what has been the nishment being inflicted on any effect? To whatever object we turn one for the crime of high treason. our attention, whether it relates “Some who might admit the to our foreign or domestic con- competency of our Government to cerns, we find abundant cause to these beneficent duties, might felicitate ourselves in the excellence doubt it in trials which put to the of our institutions. During a pe- test its strength and efficiency, as riod fraught with difficulties, and a member of the great community

VOL. LIX.

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of nations. Here, too, experience political institutions, we have not has afforded us the most satisfac- been less so in other circumstances, tory proof in its favour. Just as on which our prosperity and hap. this constitution was put into ac- piness essentially depend. Situate tion, several of the principal states within the temperate zone, and of Europe had become much agi- extending through many degrees tated, and some of them seriously of latitude along the Atlantic, the convulsed. Destructive wars en- United States enjoy all the varieties sued, which have of late only of climate, and every production been terminated. In the course incident to that portion of the of these conflicts, the United States globe. Penetrating internally to received great injury from several the great lakes, and beyond the of the parties. It was their inte- sources of the great rivers which rest to stand aloof from the con- communicate through our whole test, to demand justice from the interior, no country was ever happarty committing the injury, and pier with respect to its domain. to cultivate, by fair and honour- Blessed too with a fertile soil, our able conduct, the friendship of all. produce has always been very abunWar became at length inevitable, dant, leaving even in years the and the result has shown that our least favourable, a surplus for the Government is equal to that the wants of our fellow-men in other greatest of trials, under the most countries. Such is our peculiar unfavourable circumstances. Of felicity, that there is not a part of the virtue of the people, and of the our union that is not particularly heroic exploits of the army, the interested in preserving it. The nary, and the militia, I need not great agricultural interest of the speak. Such, then, is the happy nation prospers under its protecGovernment under which we live— tion. Local interests are not less a' Government adequate to every fostered by it. Our fellow-citizens purpose for which the social com- of the North, engaged in navigapact is formed a Government tion, find great encouragement in elective in all its branches, under being made the favoured carriers which every citizen may, by his of the vast productions of the other merit, obtain the highest trust re- portions of the United States, cognized by the constitution while the inhabitants of these are which contains within it no cause amply recompensed, in their turn, of discord, none to put at variance by the nursery for seamen and one portion of the community with paral force thus formed and reared another-a Government which up for the support of our common protects every citizen in the full rights. Our manufacturers find a enjoyment of his rights, and is able generosis encouragement by the to protect the nation against in policy which patronizes domestic justice from foreign Powers. industry; and the surplus of our . Other considerations of the produce, a steady and profitable highest importance admonish us market by local wants, in less fato cherish our union, and to ding voured parts, at home. to the Government which supports “Such, then, being the highly it. Fortunate as we are in our favoured condition of our country,

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