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desire that it should terminate. By this arrangement, useless expense on both sides, and, what is of still greater importance, the danger of collision between armed vessels in those inland waters which was great, is prevented.
"" 'I have the satisfaction also to state, that the Commissioners, under the fourth article of the treaty of Ghent, to whom it was referred to decide, to which party the several islands in the bay of Passamaquoddy belonged, under the treaty of 1783, have agreed in a report, by which all the islands in the possession of each party before the late war have been decreed to it. The Commissioners acting under the other article of the treaty of Ghent, for the settlement of the boundaries, have also been engaged in the discharge of their respective duties, but have not yet completed them. The difference which arose between the two Governments under that treaty, respecting the right of the United States to take and cure fish on the coast of the British provinces north of our limits, which had been secured by the treaty of 1783, is still in negotiation. The proposition made by this Government, to extend to the colonies of Great Britain the principle of the convention of London, by which the commerce between the ports of the United States and British ports in Europe had been placed on a footing of equality, has been declined by the British Government. This subject having been thus amicably discussed between the two Governments, and it appearing that the British Government is unwilling to depart from its present regula
tions, it remains for Congress to decide whether they will make any other regulations, in consequence thereof, for the protection and improvement of our navigation.
"The negotiation with Spain, for spoliations on our commerce, and the settlement of boundaries, remains, essentially, in the state it held, by the communications that were made to Congress by my predecessor. It has been evidently the policy of the Spanish Government to keep the negotiation suspended, and in this the United States have acquiesced, from an amicable disposition towards Spain, and in the expectation that her Government would, from a sense of justice, finally accede to such an arrangement as would be equal between the parties. A disposition has been lately shewn by the Spanish Government to move in the negotiation, which has been met by this Government, and should the conciliatory and friendly policy, which has invariably guided our Councils, be reciprocated, a just and satisfactory arrangement may be expected. It is proper, however, to remark, that no proposition has yet been made, from which such a result can be presumed.
"It was anticipated, at an early stage, that the contest between Spain and her colonies would become highly interesting to the United States. It was natural that our citizens should sympathise in events which affected their neighbours. It seemed probable, also, that the prosecution of the conflict along our coast, and in contiguous countries, would occasionally interrupt our commerce, and
otherwise affect the persons and property of our citizens. These anticipations have been realized. Such injuries have been received from persons acting under the authority of both the parties, and for which redress has, in most instances, been withheld. Through every stage of the conflict, the United States have maintained an impartial neutrality, giving aid to neither of the parties, in men, • money, ships, or munitions of war. They have regarded the contest, not in the light of an ordinary insurrection or rebellion, but as a civil war between parties nearly equal, having as to neutral powers, equal rights. Our ports have been open to both; and every article, the fruit of our soil, or of the industry of our citizens, which either was permitted to take, has been equally free to the other. Should the colonies establish their independence, it is proper now to [ state, that this Government neither seeks, nor would accept from them any advantage, in commerce or otherwise, which would not be equally open to all other nations. The colonies will, in that event, become independent states, free from any obligation to or connexion with us, which it may not then be their interest to form on a basis of fair reciprocity.
"In the summer of the present year an expedition was set on foot against East Florida, by persons claiming to act under the authority of some of the colonies, who took possession of Amelia Island, at the mouth of St. Mary's river, near the boundary of the state of Georgia. As this province lies east of the Mississippi, and is bounded by the United States and
the ocean on every side, and has been a subject of negotiation with the Government of Spain, as an indemnity for losses by spoliation, or in exchange for territory of equal value westward of the Mississippi, a fact well known to the world, it excited surprise that any countenance should be given to this measure by any of the colonies. As it would be difficult to reconcile it with the friendly relations existing between the United States and the colonies, a doubt was entertained whether it had been authorized by them, or any of them. This doubt has gained strength, by the circumstances which have unfolded themselves in the prosecution of the enterprise, which have marked it as a mere private unauthorized adventure. Projected and countenanced with an incompetent force, reliance seems to have been placed on what might be drawn, in defiance of our laws, from within our limits; and of late, as their resources have failed, it has assumed a more marked character of unfriendliness to us, the island being made a channel for the illicit introduction of slaves from Africa into the United States, an asylum for fugitive slaves from the neighbouring States, and a port for smuggling of every kind.
"A similar establishment was made, at an earlier period, by persons of the same description in the Gulph of Mexico, at a place called Galvestown, within the limits of the United States, as we contend, under the cession of Louisiana. This enterprise has been marked in a more signal manner, by all the objectionable circumstances which characterized
the other, and more particularly by the equipment of privateers, which have annoyed our merce, and by smuggling. These establishments, if ever sanctioned by any authority whatever, which is not believed, have abused their trust, and forfeited all claim to consideration. A just regard for the rights and interests of the United States required that they should be suppressed: and orders have accordingly issued to that effect. The imperious considerations which produced this measure will be explained to the parties whom it may, in any degree,
"To obtain correct information on every subject in which the United States are interested; to inspire just sentiments, in all persons in authority, on either side, of our friendly disposition, so far as it may comport with an impartial neutrality; and to secure proper respect to our commerce in every port, and from every flag; it has been thought proper to send a ship of war, with three distinguished citizens, along the southern coast, with instruction to touch at such ports as they may find most expedient for these purposes. With the existing authorities, with those in the possession of, and exercising the sovereignty, must the communication be held: from them alone can redress for past injuries, committed by persons acting under them, be obtained by them alone can the commission of the like in future be prevented.
"Our relations with the other powers of Europe have experienced no material change since the last session. In our inter
course with each, due attention continues to be paid to the protection of our commerce, and to every other object in which the United States are interested. A strong hope is entertained, that, by adhering to the maxims of a just, a candid, and friendly poliey, we may long preserve amicable relations with all the powers of Europe, on conditions advantageous and honourable to our country.
"With the Barbary States and the Indian tribes our pacific relations have been preserved.
"In calling your attention to the internal concerns of our country, the view which they exhibit is peculiarly gratifying. The payments, which have been made into the treasury, show the very productive state of the public reve
After satisfying the appropriations made by law for the support of the civil Government, and of the military and naval establishments, embracing suitable provision for fortifications and for the gradual increase of the navy, paying the interest of the public debt, and extinguishing more than 18,000,000 of the principal, within the present year, it is estimated that a balance of more than 6,000,000 of dollars will remain in the treasury on the 1st day of January, applicable to the current service of the ensuing year.
"The payments into the treasury during the year 1818, on account of imposts and tonnage, resulting principally from duties which have accrued in the present year, may be fairly estimated at 20,000,000 of dollars; internal revenues at 2,500,000; public lands at 1,500,000; bank di
vidends and incidental receipts at 500,000; making, in the whole, 24,500,000 dollars.
"The annual permanent expenditure for the support of the civil Government, and of the army and navy, as `now established by law, amounts to 11,800,000; and for the sinking fund, to 10,000,000; making in the whole 21,800,000; leaving an annual excess of revenue beyond the expenditure of 2,700,000 dollars, exclusive of the balance estimated to be in the treasury on the 1st day of January,
"In the present state of the treasury, the whole of the Louisiana debt may be redeemed in the year 1819; after which, if the public debt continues as it now is, above par, there will be annually about 5,000,000 of the sinking fund unexpended, until the year 1825, when the loan of 1812, and the stock created by funding treasurynotes, will be redeemable.
"It is also estimated that the Mississippi stock will be discharged during the year 1819, from the proceeds of the public lands assigned to that object; after which the receipts from those lands will annually add to the public revenue the sum of 1,500,000 dollars, making the permanent annual revenue amount to 26,000,000 of dollars, and leaving an annual excess of revenue, after the year 1819, beyond the permanent authorized expenditure, of more than 4,000,000 of dollars.
"By the last returns from the Department of War, the militia force of the several States may be estimated at 800,000 men, infantry, artillery, and cavalry. Great
part of this force is armed, and measures are taken to arm the whole. An improvement in the organization and discipline of the militia is one of the great objects which claims the unremitted attention of Congress.
"The regular force amounts nearly to the number required by law, and is stationed along the Atlantic and inland frontiers.
"Of the naval force, it has been necessary to maintain strong squadrons in the Mediterranean, and in the Gulf of Mexico.
"From several of the Indian tribes inhabiting the country bordering on Lake Erie, purchases have been made of lands, on conditions very favourable to the United States, and, as it is presumed, not less so the tribes themselves. By these purchases, the Indian title, with moderate reservation, has been extinguished in the whole of the land within the limits of the State of Ohio, and to a great part of that in the Michigan territory, and of the State of Indiana. From the Cherokee tribe a tract has been purchased in the State of Georgia, and an arrangement made, by which, in exchange for lands beyond the Mississippi, a great part, if not the whole of the land belonging to that tribe, eastward of that river, in the States of North Carolina, Georgia, and Tennesse, and in the Alabama territory, will soon be acquired. By these acquisitions, and others that may reasonably be expected soon to follow, we shall be enabled to extend our settlements from the inhabited parts of the State of Ohio, along Lake Erie, into the Michigan territory, and to connect our
settlements, by degrees, through the State of Indiana and the Illinois to that of Missouri. A similar, and equally advantageous effect will soon be produced to the south, through the whole extent of the States and territory which border on the waters emptying into the Mississippi and the Mobile. In this progress, which the rights of nature demand, and nothing can prevent, marking a growth rapid and gigantic, it is our duty to make new efforts for the preservation, improvement, and civilization of the native inhabitants. The hunter state can exist only in the vast, uncultivated desert. It yields to the more dense and compact form, and greater force, of civilized population; and of right it ought to yield; for the earth was given to mankind to support the greatest number of which it is capable, and no tribe or people have a right to withhold from the wants of others more than is necessary for their own support and comfort. It is gratifying to know, that the reservations of land made by the the treaties with the tribes on Lake Erie, were made with a view to individual ownership among them, and to the cultivation of the soil by all, and that an annual stipend has been pledged to supply their other wants. It will merit the consideration of Congress, whether other provision, not stipulated by the treaty, ought to be made for these tribes, and for the advancement of the liberal and humane policy of the United States towards all the tribes within our limits, and more particularly for their improvement in the art of civilized life.
"Among the advantages incident to these purchases, and to those which have preceded, the security which may thereby be afforded to our inland frontiers is peculiarly important. With a strong barrier, consisting of our own people, thus planted on the Lakes, the Mississippi, and the Mobile, with the protection to be derived from the regular force, Indian hostilities, if they do not altogether cease, will henceforth lose their terror. Fortifications in those quarters, to any extent, will not be necessary, and the expense attending them may be saved. A people accustomed to the use of fire-arms only, as the Indian tribes are, will shun even moderate works, which are defended by cannon. Great fortifications will, therefore, be requisite only, in future, along the coast, and at some points in the interior, connected with it. On these will the safety of our towns, and the commerce of our great rivers, from the Bay of Fundy to the Mississippi, depend. On these, therefore, should the utmost attention, skill, and labour, be bestowed.
"A considerable and rapid augmentation in the value of all the public lands, proceeding from these and other obvious causes, may henceforward be expected. The difficulties attending early emigrations will be dissipated even in the most remote parts. Several new states have been admitted into our union, to the west and south, and territorial governments, happily organized, established over every other portion in which there is vacant land for sale. In terminating Indian hostilities, as must soon be done, in a formidable