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lutions for the purpose of carrying into effect the objects of the report. The House having lesumed, leave was given to bring in the several bills.

JUSTICES IN EYRE.

On May 19th, the bill for abolishing the offices of Justices in Eyre was moved to be read a second time. It met with no other opposition, except a speech from Mr. Boswell, on the ground of his unwillingness to strip the crown of a power to reward public services; and after a reply from Lord Milton, the second reading was carried.

At the same time a motion was made for the second reading of another bill belonging to this class, entitled the Civil Services Compensation Bill. Various objections were raised to this bill, and the House was divided, when there appeared, For the second reading 105; Against it 45: Majority 60.

On the 6th of June, the order of the day standing for a committée on this bill, Mr. Calcraft said, that if he knew of a better plan of getting rid of sinecures, he would be ready, as a member of the committee who had recon mended this bill, to adopt it; but he knew of none. Considering, however, that by its provisions the crown gave up 90 or 100,000l. and received back only 42,000l. he conceived it to be a good bargain for the public.

The House then resolved itself into a committee, in which a conversation took place on the several clauses of the bill.

The report was brought up on June 10th, when Mr. D. Gilbert moved several clauses, which were agreed to.

Mr. Calcraft moved a clause, "That any person who may accept a pension under this act, shall vacate his seat in parliament." The House divided upon this clause, when it was rejected by 64 against 27.

It was then moved, that the bill be read a third time to-morrow. The House again divided, Yeas 75; Noes 20: Majority 55.

In the House of Lords, on June 30th, the bills for the abolition of certain offices, and the compensation for civil services, were introduced by the Earl of Liverpool. His lordship, in his speech on this occasion, recommended the bills to the attention of the House, on two principles; 1st, That whatever regulation of this kind might be adopted, there was a necessity for reserving to the crown the means of rewarding public services: 2dly, That these means should be at the disposal of the crown. These principles, he attempted to shew, were sufficiently secured by the present bills. As to the sinecures bill, he said it was fit they should be given up, on two grounds-that the crown should have the power of rewarding services by direct, instead of indirect, compensation; and that the abolition would do away much of the unreasonable prejudice existing on this point. He then stated to the House the saving which would accrue to the public from the measures proposed.

now

The bills were opposed upon different grounds; and especially because they seemed founded upon a forced concession in which the ministers were induced to act in direct opposition to the interests

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of the crown. The first bill being offered for committal, a division took place, in which it was carried by Contents 27; Non-contents 7.

IRISH PEACE PRESERVATION BILL.

On March 11th, Mr. Peel asked for leave to amend an act of the 54th of the King, for enabling the lord-lieutenant of Ireland to appoint superintendant magistrates and constables in those districts of Ireland which might be come the scene of disturbance. The object of that bill was to supply a deficiency in the civil power, and to introduce something like an effective police, instead of having recourse on every occasion to a standing army. In the year 1814, when the right hon. gentleman brought forward the measure which he now wished to amend, he proposed that the lord-lieutenant in council should have the power of placing in disturbed districts magistrates specially appointed, and constables to assist them in preserving the peace. This measure met with the almost unanimous approbation of the House,

and it was in three instances carried into execution, where it was found to produce a most beneficial effect. Under this act, the whole expense was to be defrayed by the disturbed districts; a mode of proceeding which might operate very well in some parts of Ireland; but others were so poor and exhausted, that they were unable to bear this expense, and it was therefore impossible to carry it into effect in those districts. It was to provide against the recurrence of cases of this kind, and to render it, as far as possible, unnecessary to employ the mili

tary force, that he now asked for leave to amend the act. As the law at present stood, it was necessary on the appointment of a certain number of peace officers, to create a superintendent magistrate, who should act as the magistrate of the newly disturbed district. To prevent this accumulation of magistrates, he should propose, that different bodies of constables belonging to different districts, should be allowed to act under the same magistrate. He should next propose, that the lord-lieutenant and council should have the power of apportioning what part of the expense incurred by a disturbed district should be paid by the inhabitants, and what should come out of the public funds. This last amendment would direct, that in all cases where the act was introduced, an account should be laid before parliament of the expense to be defrayed by the public, and also of the appointments made under it. With respect to the objections relative to expense which might be urged against the bill, if it were said that it would be better not to pay constables to preserve the peace, but to leave it for the population in general to exert themselves to keep the peace, he should answer, that such a system could not at present be effectual; in which statement he would be borne out by every gentleman connected with Ireland. He had further the satisfaction of being able to state that a considerable reduction was proposed to be made in the army of that country. Instead of 25,000 men, it would be reduced to 22,000; and the seven brigades of ordnance which now consisted

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of 400 guns, would be brought down to 200 guns. Thus a great expense would be removed; and, what was much more important, a foundation would be laid of inspiring the people with an habitual obedience to the law.

The right hon gentleman concluded by moving, That leave be given to bring in a bill to amend the act 54 Geo. 3d. c. 131. to provide for the better execution

of the laws in Ireland, by appointing superintending magistrates and additional constables in certain cases."

Mr. Carew, Mr. Chichester, and Mr. V. Fitzgerald, expressed their approbation of the proposed measure. Leave was then given to bring in the bill; and there is no notice of its being opposed in either House.

CHAPTER

CHAPTER IV.

Issue of Exchequer Bills for local and temporary Relief.-Mr. Tierney's Motion renewed, for the Abolition of the Office of Third Secretary of State for the Colonies.-Roman Catholic Question.-House of CommonsHouse of Lords.

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EXCHEQUER BILLS.

NApril 28th, the House of Commons having resolved itself into a committee for the purpose of considering the best mode of issuing exchequer bills for the relief of temporary distresses, the Chancellor of the Exchequer said, that before he proceeded to explain the object of the proposition which he had to submit to the committee, he would read the two resolutions in which that proposition was comprised. The first was, "That it is the opinion of this committee, that his Majesty be enabled to direct an issue of exchequer bills to an amount not exceeding 500,000l. to commissioners, to be by them advanced towards the completion of public works, now in progress, or about to be commenced; to encourage the fisheries, and to employ the poor in different parishes in Great-Britain, on due security being given for the repayment of the sums so advanced." The second was, "That the lordlieutenant of Ireland be empow ered to advance out of the consolidated fund of that kingdom a sum not exceeding 250,0001. for the completion of public works, or the encouragement of fisheries, in Ireland, under condition of repayment in a time to be limited."

In this last resolution there was a difference as to form, on account of some circumstances which he should afterwards explain.

The right hon. gentleman then went into an explanation of his plan. In former cases a special committee had been appointed to inquire into the existing distress; but in the present case such a plan was unnecessary, as the House was but too well acquainted with the extent of the prevailing evil, The commissioners who were to have the disposal of this money would particularly consider the influence that the prosecution of any public work would have upon the employment of the present unemployed population. There were a great variety of such works which had already received the sanction of parliament, of which many parts were finished, but were useless until the whole were completed. To these the attention of parliament had been intended to be called in a direct manner; but it was now considered that it would be more beneficial if the money were placed at the disposal of commissioners quite unconnected with government. He would propose that those commissioners should be empowered to advance sums, by way of loans, to corporations and other bodies for the purpose of making harbours

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or canals, or to trustees of roads, or to any persons engaged in public works now in progress, or about to undertake them. The associations for the encouragement of the fisheries would likewise be a very proper institution to receive aid. In Ireland it would not be practicable to nominate a similar commission without such a delay as would defeat the purpose of the grant. It would be necessary to enter into a correspondence with that country to know what gentleman would undertake a duty which would entail some trouble without any prospect of reward. To avoid that delay, the sum appropriated to that country would be placed at the disposal of the lord-lieutenant.

With respect to advances on the security of the poor-rates, he had never thought that any thing could be done towards the relief of the agricultural population by the loan of any such sum as he then proposed to advance. He was also afraid that loans to the agricultural districts in aid of the poorrates, would encourage the practice of curtailing the fair wages of labour, and supplying the deficiency from such a source. When the bill came before the House there would be found clauses which would guard against such an idea. The advance to be granted to parishes was never to exceed the half of the last year's rate, and no advance was to be made to any parish except where the rate was double the average of the two preceding years. Speak ing of the particular distresses of Birmingham, he attributed a considerable part of it to the falling off of the supply of small arms

for the use of the allies, which amounted to no less than three millions during the war. That the general demand of goods for the foreign trade had not suffered in an equal proportion, he concluded from the official value of the exports of steel and iron from the year 1814. From the persons best acquainted with the trade of the country, he thought that a loan of 30 or 40,000l. to the manfacturers of Birmingham would be of material service in the present exigence. The right hon. gentleman concluded with proposing his first resolution.

Several members found it necessary to desire explanations from the Chancellor of the Exchequer respecting different subjects; whilst others were very doubtful whether any good would be the result of his project. The resolution was, however, put and carried; as was also the second concerning Ireland.

On the 14th of May, the Chancellor of the Exchequer rose to move the order of the day, that the House would resolve itself into a committee, to take into consideration the bill for the Employment of the Poor. He said he had introduced a considerable number of amendments into the bill, which he thought would remove some of the objections raised to it. He would not at present enter into the merits of these amendments, as a better opportunity would hereafter occur.

Some additional observations were made upon the bill; after which the report was brought up, and a day was appointed for a farther consideration.

On the 21st of May, on the

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