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though others may have been con- as to derive emolument from paintducted in the paths of science bying portraits and landscapes, in superior learning, and may have Philadelphia, where he remained had a more dazzling career, the till he was about twenty-one. In Jabours of no individual have been this time he had made the acmore honourable, meritorious, or quaintance of our celebrated counpractically useful.
tryman Doctor Franklin, by whom The establishment of steam na- he was much noticed. vigation will form an important Mr. Fulton throughout his epoch in the history of our species. course as a mechanist and civil -The name of the man who ac- engineer, derived great adrantage complished it will live to the re- from his talent for drawing and motest ages, if he be not robbed painting. He was an elegant and of the fame which is due to the accurate draftsman. employment of a superior genius, It is gratifying to find, that Mr. with surprising courage, industry, Fulton ever felt as an American. perseverance, and success.
His long residence abroad did not Rnbert Fulton was born in the enfeeble his attachment to bis town of Little Britain, in the country. Thoughts of her pros. county of Lancaster, and state of perity and welfare were connected Pennsylvania, in the year 1765; he with all his projects; and those was of a respectable though not that he thought might be of adopulent family. His father, Robert vantage to her, he communicated Fulton, was a native of Kilkenny, with a promptness and disintein Ireland. His mother was also restedness which marked his desire of a respectable Irish family, by to serve her. the name of Smith, established in Ardour and perseverance were Pennsylvania.
characters of Mr. Fulton's mind; In his infancy he was put to when he had conceived what he school in Lancaster, in Pennsyl. thought a practicable and benefivania, where he acquired the rudi- cial project, he left no means unments of a common English edu- tried, and spared no pains for its cation.
accomplishment. His peculiar genius manifested It may be well to notice here, itself at a very early age. In his a matter not otherwise of importchildhood, all his hours of recrea- ance, than as it serves to mark tion were passed in the shops of the pliancy of Mr. Fulton's mind, mechanics, or in the employment and the versatility of his genius. of his pencil; and at this early At a time when he was taking a period of his life he had no other step which, as he thought, would desire for money than to supply be decisive to the fate of nations, himself with the necessary mate, which put his life at risk, and rials to indulge his taste for me- might determine his own furtune, chanism and drawing
he amused himself with making By the time he had attained the sketches from the scenery of Holage of seventeen years, he became land, and representations of the so much an artist with his pencil, manners, figures, and costume of
the the Hollanders ; some of them are his time, his talents, and his purse, broad caricatures, which cannot for the promotion of the useful but excite a smile. They are found and the fine arts. One of the last in his port folio, and though in acts of his life manifested this disgeneral they are but sketches, position. By his will, which was they show that they are from the made but a few days before his hand of a master, guided by wit death, he devised that, in certain and genius.
events, his pictures, and one half Throughout the whole course of his property not otherwise disof his experiments, no opposition posed of, should go to an academy or contradiction, no failure or dis- of fine arts, when such an academy appointment, irritated, discourag- should be established, at the place ed, or discomposed him. When which may be the seat of the nahis machines were broken or dis- tional government. ordered, he, with the utmost calm- Mr. Fulton was about six feet ness and composure, pointed out high. His person was slender, but their defects or the causes of his well proportioned, and well forindisappointinent. If an experiment ed.-Nature had made him a genfailed, though it had cost him tleman, and bestowed upon hiin great pains and labour in the pre- ease and gracefulness. He had too paration; and although the failure much good sense for the least afwas frequently, and obviously, fectation; and a modest confidence owing to the awkwardness or un- in his own worth and talents, gave skilfulness of those who assisted him an unembarrassed deportment him, his temper could not be dis- in all companies.-His features turbed; he would not hear the were strong, and of a manly scoffs of some of the numerous beauty: he had large dark eyes, bystanders, which were frequently and a projecting brow, expressive expressed in whispers intended to of intelligence and thought: his reach his ear. Not a fretful or temper was mild, and his dispoangry word ever escaped him, and sition lively : he was fond of soafter a disappointment he recom- ciety, which he always enlivened menced his preparations with the by cheerful, cordial manners, and same ardour, and with the same instructed or pleased by his sensicalmness, with which he at first ble conversation :-He expressed began. Even when his physical himself with energy, fluency, and strength must have been exhausted correctness, and as he owed more by his corporeal exertions, and to his own experience and reflecthe excessive fatigue he would tions, than to books, his sentisometimes undergo through a sul- ments were often interesting from try day, his spirits were never for their originality. a moment depresseil. On these In all his domestic and social occasions he showed himself as relations he was zealous, kind, much a moral as a mechanical generous, liberal, and affectionate. philosopher.
He knew of no use for money but We have all witnessed with as it was subservient to charity, what zeal Mr. Fulton bestowed hospitality, and the sciences. But
what what was most conspicuous in his cept an office, is an evidence of character, was his calm constancy, the disinterestedness of his polihis industry, and that indefatigable tics; but his zeal for his opinions patience and perseverance, which or party, did not extinguish his always enabled him to overcome kindness for the merits of bis difficulties.
opponents. Society will long reHe was decidedly a republican. member and regret him ; but he The determination which he often will be most lamented by those, avowed, that he never would ac- by whom he was best known.
MANNERS, CUSTOMS, &c.
NATIONS AND CLASSES OF PEOPLE.
DESCRIPTION OF A SERTANEJO. upon his naked heels,—the straps
which go under the feet prevent (From Koster's Travels.
the risk of losing the slippers. A T MAY give some description of long whip of twisted thongs hung I my friend, who turned back from his right wrist; he had a to shew me the well, and this sword by his side, hanging from may be taken as the usual appear- a belt over one shoulder; his ance of a travelling Sertanejo. knife was in his girdle, and his He rode a small horse with a long short dirty pipe in his mouth. tail and mane; his saddle was Fastened to his saddle behind, was rather raised before and behind; a piece of red baize, rolled up in his stirrups were of rusty iron, the form of a great coat, and this and his bit was of the same; the usually contains a hammock and reins were two very narrow thongs. a change of linen,-a shirt, and riis dress consisted of long pantas drawers, and perhaps a pair of loons or leggings, of tanned but nankeen pantaloons; his boroacas undressed leather of a rusty hung also on each side of the back brown colour, which were tied of his saddle, and these generally tight round his waist, and under contain farinha and dried meat on these are worn a pair of cotton one side, and on the other a flint drawers or trowsers, as the seat and steel, (dried leaves serve as is left unprotected by the leather, tinder) tobacco, and a spare pipe. He had a tanned gont-skin over To this equipment is sometimes his breast, which was tied behind added, a large pistol, thrust partly by four strings, and a jacket also under the left thigh, and thus semade of leather, which is gene- cured. The usual pace of the SerTally thrown over one shoulder; tanejo's horse is a walk, approachhis hat was of the same, with a ing to a short trot; so that the very shallow crown, and small horses of those people often have brim; he had slip-shod slippers acquired the habit of dragging of the same colour, and iron spur's their hind legs, and throwing up
the dust. The usual colour of the THE INDIAN NATIVES.
(From the same.) soon become as completely tanned The Indians of these villages, as the dress which they wear, and indeed of all those which I from exposure to the sun.
passed through, are Christians; The colour of the Sertanejos though it is said that some few of varies from white, of which there then follow in secret their own are necessarily few, to a dark heathenish rites, paving adoration brown; the shades of which are to the maraca, and practising all almost as various as there are per the customs of their religion, if I sons: two of exactly the same tint may use this word, of which so are scarcely to be met with. Chil. exact a description is given in Mr. dren of the same parents rarely if Southey's History of Brazil. When ever are of the same shade ; some the Roman Catholic religion does difference is almost always perceiv- take root in them, it of necessity able, and this is, in many in- degenerates into the must abject stances, so glaring, as to lead at superstition. An adherence to first to doubts of the authenticity; superstitious rites, whether of but it is too general to be aught Roman Catholic ordination or prebut what is right. The offspring of scribed by their own undefined white and black persons leans, in faith, appears to be the only part most instances, more to une colour of their character in which they than to the vther, when perhaps show any constancy. Each village a second child will take a contrary bas its priest, who is oftentimes a tinge. These remarks do not hold vicar, and resident i r life upon good in the Sertam, but are ap- the spot. A directe, is also atplicable to all the country which I tached to each village, who is suphad opportunities of seeing. The posed to be a white man; he has Sertanejo, if colour is set aside, great power over the persons withis certainly handsome; and the in his jurisdiction. Ifa proprietor of women, whilst young, have well-land is in want of workmen he apshaped forins, and many of thein plies to the director, who agrees for good features; indeed I have the price at which the daily laseen some of the white persons bour is to be paid, and he comwho would be admired in any mands his chief Indians to take so country. Their constant expo- many men, and proceed with them sure to the sun, and its great to the estate for which they are power at a distance from the sea, hired. The labourers receive the darkens the complexion more than money themselves, and expend it if the same persons had resided as they please ; but the bargains upon the coast: but this gives thus made are usually below the then a decided dark colour, which regular price of labour. Each has the appearance of durability, village has two Juizes Ordinarius and is much preferable to a sallow or mayors, who act for one year. sickly look, though of a lighter One Juiz is a white man, and the tint.
other an Indian ; but it may easily be supposed that the former bas,