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honourable estimation in which their arts are held, or their own interest, or the common custom.
None of them are matabooles but a few of the canoe builders and the superintendants of funeral rites, perhaps about a fifth or a sixth part of them, and some of these are very expert in cutting ornaments out of whales teeth for necklaces, or for inlaying clubs, likewise in making clubs and spears, and other warlike instruments, which are not separate professions, but arts practised by the canoe-builders as being expert in the use of the togi or axe; at least there are no toofoonga fono le (inlayers of ivory), nor toofoonga gnahi mea tow (makers of warlike instruments), but who are also canoe-builders. All the toofoonga fo vaca (canoe-builders), and toofoonga taboo (intendants of funeral rites), that are not matabooles, are mooas, for no person of so low a rank as a tooa can practise such respectable arts.
The remaining professions are followed both by mooas and tooas, with the exception of the three following, viz. toofoonga fy cava (barbers or shavers with shells), tangata fe oomoo (cooks), and ky fonnooa (peasants), all of whom
Of the different professions, some are hereditary in the way before mentioned, and some are not; the latter consist of toofoonga ta tattow (those who perform the tattow), toofoonga tongi acow (club carvers, or engravers of the handle, not inlayers); and toofoonga fy cava (barbers). The arts followed by these are not hereditary, because they are not of that respectability to engage a man to
follow any of them because his father did the same; they are practised by any one who has a natural turn that way.
But the two lowest of all, viz. the cooks and peasants, are such by inheritance, for the chiefs in whose service they may be, necessarily require their services, and their children naturally succeed them, for neither of these arts require any great talent to learn: every body knows how to cook and till the ground in a tolerable degree; but those who are born. to no better fate have no alternative left them, they must follow these necessary employments as the business of their life, if their chiefs command them; and to such alone the terms cook and peasants are here applied. The cook is somewhat the superior; he sees to the supplying of provisions, takes care of the storehouse, looks to the thatching and fences of the dwelling-house, occasionally gives an eye to the plantation, and sometimes works upon it himself. The head cook is generally not a little proud of himself, and is looked on with some respect by the cooks below him and the common peasants.
The term cook is frequently ap plied to a man though he be not a cook, to signify that he is of very low rank for although a cook belonging to a chief may give himself many airs, and be thought something of by the common tooas about him; yet if there be a company of peasants together, he that has the least to boast of in respect of family connexions is sure to be made the cook, and as it were servant to the rest. The following then will be the
order in which the different professions will stand as to the respect they may command in society-all individuals are not, however, esteemed according to their profession, but according to their abilities in it; for a clever
man in one art will be sometimes more esteemed than a man of moderate abilities in a higher. In this arrangement the cooks are placed before the peasants, because the cooks of chiefs generally have to overlook them.
Toofoonga fo váca; canoe build
Toofoonga fóno le; cutters of
Toofoonga táboo; superintendants
Hereditary. Toofoonga ta máca; stone-ma-
Toofoonga fy cava; barbers or
Property in these islands, as may easily be conjectured, consists principally in plantations, houses, and canoes, and the right of succession to it is regulated by the order of relationship, as given under the head of Nobles, p. 89, so in like manner is the right of succession to the throne.
Having given a view of the rank of individuals in society, with reference to religion, civil government, and professional occupations; we have now to consider it in respect to old age, sex, and childhood.
Old persons of both sexes are highly reverenced on account of
Followed both by mooas and
Followed only by tooas.
their age and experience, in so much that it constitutes a branch
of their first moral and religious duty, viz. to reverence the gods, the chiefs, and aged persons; and consequently there is hardly any instance in these islands of old age being wantonly insulted.
Women have considerable respect shewn to them on account of their sex, independent of the rank they might otherwise hold as nobles. They are considered to contribute much to the comforts and domestic happiness of the other sex, and as they are the weaker of the two, it is thought unmanly not to shew them attention and
kind regard; they are therefore not subjected to hard labour or any very menial work. Those that are nobles rank like the men according to the superiority of their relationship, If a woman not a noble is the wife or daughter of a mataboole, she ranks as a mataboole; if she be a noble, she is superior in rank to him, and so are the children male and female; but in domestic matters she submits entirely to his arrangements; notwithstanding this, however, she never loses the respect from her husband due to her rank, that is to say, he is obliged to perform the ceremony of mo ́e-mo ́ë before he can feed himself. If the husband and wife are both nobles of equal rank, the ceremony of mo'ë-mo'e is dispensed with; but where there is any difference the inferior must perform this ceremony to be freed from the taboo. If a woman marries a man higher in rank than herself, she always derives additional respect on that account; but a man having a wife who is a greater noble than himself acquires no additional respect from this source, but he has the advantage of her larger property.
It is a custom in the Tonga islands for women to be what they call mothers to children or grown up young persons who are not their own, for the purpose of providing them or seeing that they are provided with all the conveniences of life; and this is often done, although their own natural mothers be living, and residing near the spot, no doubt for the sake of greater care and attention, or to be afterwards a substitute for the true parent, in the event
of her premature death; but the original intention seems not now understood, for it happens sometimes, that a young man having both his natural mother and a wife living, will take it in his head to have an adopted mother, whom he regards the same as his natural parent. If a woman is the foster mother to a person superior to herself, which is mostly the case, she acquires no additional respect from this source in society, though the adopted person be ever so great a noble; but if a woman is an attendant to a person of consequence, some respect always accrues to her on that account, because it is a thing publicly known, she forming a part of the retinue of the chief, and accompanying him every where; whereas, the relation in which a woman stands to her adopted son or daughter is more a matter of private agreement and mutual understanding. Thus, Mafi Habe, one of the wives of Finow the first, the father of the present king, was Mr. Mariner's foster mother, appointed by the king her husband. To this person Mr. Mariner feels himself greatly indebted for a considerable portion of his intimate knowledge of the language and true customs of Tonga, in contradistinction to words and customs introduced from other islands. She would frequently take the greatest pains in teaching him the correct Tonga pronunciation, and would laugh him out of all little habits and customs, in dress, manners, and conversation, that were not strictly according to the Tonga fashion, or not considered suffi ciently polished and becoming an egi (noble.) In all respects, and
on every occasion, she conducted herself towards him with the greatest maternal affection, modesty, and propriety: she was a woman of great understanding, "personal beauty, and amiable man
If a young girl is betrothed, or set apart to be the wife or concubine of a noble higher in rank than herself, she derives more respect on that account, independent of what is due to her own proper rank.
The women employ themselves (particularly nobles,) in making a variety of articles, chiefly ornamental; these employments, however, are considered accomplishments, not professions: some of the higher class of women not only make these employments an amusement, but actually make a sort of trade of it, without prejudice to their rank; which is what the lower class of women could not do, because what they make is not their own property, but is done by the order of their superiors; the highest accomplishments cannot add to a woman's rank, though it does somewhat to the estimation in which she may be held, for such things, when well done, are honourable in a woman of rank. These things will be farther spoken of hereafter.
Children acquire their rank by inheritance, as before observed, from the mother's side: if she be not a noble they are not, and vice versa. If a man, however high his rank, have a child by a woman who is only a tooa, no matter whether they are married or not, (but indeed there is no instance of a noble marrying a tooa,) that
child would not be a noble, though it were known that the father was a noble; the child might rank as a mooa, but not higher on the contrary, if a woman who is a noble were to have a child by a tooa, the child would be a noble; but this perhaps seldom happens, for the pride of the females would not allow of such a low intrigue; or if such a circumstance were to take place, the greatest care would be used that it should not be known. Children that are nobles are somewhat less respected, as may be supposed, on account of their childhood; but then any familiarity or slight disrespect that might be shewn them would only be by nobles nearly equal or superior to them. If Finow were to see a child of superior rank approach or be brought near him, he perhaps would say, (and frequently does on such occasions,) Take that child away! why do you bring him here, troubling me with the taboo or some such abrupt expression: such language, however, would not be decorous from an inferior, unless he be of nearly equal rank, and then only by authority of his superior age."
settle a mission from the latter country to New Zealand. They were attended by a chief of the island named Duaterra, together with two other chiefs, Shungi and Korra korra, who sailed with them from New South Wales.
In December 1814, the ship, with two other missionaries on board, arrived off the North Cape of New Zealand. Mr. Marsden was principally induced to make this attempt by a conviction that the merchant vessels which had occasionally touched upon the islands had been the aggressors, and had propagated the opinion, that the natives were no better than cannibals; he therefore, with his companions, landed without scruple upon an isle within the Bay of islands. This was very near the spot where the English ship Boyd had been totally cut off in 1509; and it happened that about a hundred of the warriors of Wangeroa, the scene of the action, were collected on the isle to attend the funeral of a deceased chief. The description given by Mr. Nicholas of his adventure with this band of warriors, is extremely striking.
"The public, I should suppose, are already aware from Mr. Marsden's statement, that the chief George, who is known by this name to the European sailors, some of whom, in all probability, first gave it to him, had been the principal agent in cutting off the Boyd, and certainly the face of this man bespoke him capable of committing so atrocious an act. His features were not unsightly, but they appeared to veil a dark and subtle malignity of intention, and the lurking treachery of a
depraved heart was perfectly legible in every one of them. He had acquired too, from his intercourse with European sailors, a coarse familiarity of manner mingled with a degree of sneering impudence, which gave him a character completely distinct from his countrymen, and making him odious in our view, reconciled us the more easily to their unsophisticated rudeness. This chief having served on board some of the whalers, could speak English very fluently, and on my going up to shake hands with him, he thought proper to return the compliment with "How do you do, my boy?" which he uttered in so characte ristic a style of vulgar freedom, yet so totally unlike the blunt familiarity of honest friendship, that he excited at the same moment my abhorrence and disgust. It was necessary, however, to be very circumspect towards this designing chief, and I took care that he should see nothing in my conduct that could lead him to suspect he was at all obnoxious to me.
The contending parties being now in perfect amity with each other, and peace firmly established, we left the camp to return to the village, resolving however to come back again, and spend the night among these warriors, with whose reception of us we had every reason to be satisfied. We wished to shew them by all the means in our power, that we were capable of forgetting the enormity of the crime they had committed, and that we harboured no resentment against them for the cruel slanghter of our unfortunate countrymen. It was with this view, therefore, that we determined on trusting ourselves