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ourselves for the night to their good faith, and Mr. Marsden was anxious to convince George, by such confidence, he was no longer in our eyes an object of hatred or suspicion. But whatever may have been the sentiments of this gentleman towards that insidious barbarian, my own were decidedly prejudiced against him; and if I had no apprehensions for our personal safety, it was because I trusted more to the hearts of his people, than to any other honourable principle in their chief. sured by Duaterra that these people were never known to violate the signal they had given us, I felt perfectly at ease; and though George might himself be disposed to act treacherously, he could find none in this instance who would co-operate in his designs. Yet here let me be understood speaking of this man only from my own individual feelings, and the impression he made on me by his appearance and behaviour, for there was no positive act to warrant the censure I have passed upon him, though I rather think I have not been much deceived as to his real character.
When we got back to the village, Duaterra, with Mr. Kendall and Mr. King, returned to the vessel, and Shunghi, who had ordered his people to prepare some fish and potatoes for our dinner, had them now brought before us, and we sat down with a good appetite. Mr. Marsden's New Zealand servant, Tommy Drummond, had by this time come on shore with some tea and an iron tea kettle, and this favourite beverage was never before more grateful to us. The repast was laid out in a large open
space, and we were quickly surrounded by crowds of the natives, each with wild amazement visible in his countenance. Men, women, and children, flocked in upon us in one oppressive body, so that to keep ourselves from being suffocated, we were obliged to form a circle, which none was allowed to pass, and seating themselves all round the verge of it, they watched our motions with the most eager curiosity. Many of them had never before in the whole course of their lives beheld an European, and to see packaka kiki, (the white man eat,) was a novelty of so curious a nature, that they gazed on it with wonder and delight.
Our situation at this moment reminded me very forcibly of certain European kings, who to shew their subjects that monarchs must eat as well as themselves, have long been in the habit of taking their sumptuous banquets in public. They kept their eyes steadfastly fixed on us all the time, and not a single occurrence escaped their observation; while staring with surprise, they frequently called to those around them to look at the wonders we presented. Many of them expressed their astonishment in silent attention, and others, bursting out into fits of laughter at every bit we ate, were exceedingly amused by the spectacle. We distributed biscuit and sugar-candy among several of them, which they liked so well that they appeared eagerly desirous to get more, smacking their lips with an exquisite relish for these unknown luxuries.
I observed among the crowd some venerable looking old men,
who regarded us with silent contemplation, and seemed rather occupied in forming conjectures as to the motives that induced us to visit their country, than in taking any particular notice of what we were doing. They appeared not to feel any interest whatsoever in the distribution of the biscuits and sugar-candy, and while the young folks, with few exceptions, were all as merry as possible, these mute sages were wrapped in profound meditation. Still looking on us with an air of dignified gravity and serious reflection, they never uttered a word, and a strange association of ideas formed in my mind some resemblance between them and the Roman senators, when Brennus came with hostile vengeance to destroy the city. But they had nothing of this kind to dread from us, as we wished rather to improve, than demolish their wretched capital.
After having finished our repast, we walked through the village, which we found to consist of about fifty huts, and one hundred and fifty inhabitants. The huts were much better built than those upon the island, and the roofs of many of them were shaped like the curved top of a waggon, while others extended in the form of a sharp ridge, increasing in breadth from the summit to the extremities on each side. A small enclosure in which there was a shed where the inhabitants used to take their meals, surrounded each of these huts, and the general effect of the whole was not uninteresting.
The solemn hour of night was now approaching, and leaving these poor villagers, we returned
to the camp, accompanied by our friend Shunghi, whose fidelity and attachment were sincere and devoted. We were also attended by the New Zealand sailor, who used to act as interpreter between us and his countrymen; and on our arrival, we found the warriors all seated on the ground, and the brother chiefs, George and Tippouie, in the midst of them. On our approach they instantly made room for us, and we were invited by George to place ourselves next to him, and some dressed potatoes were laid before us in a basket, which we were to partake of for our supper.
After eating a few of the potatoes, we entered into conversation with George, and anxious to learn from him all the particulars respecting the Boyd, we immediately commenced that melancholy subject.
After George had communicated to us all the particulars I have narrated, it was time to prepare for rest, and the warriors, stretching themselves on the ground, began to wrap their kakahows more closely about them. The scene now became awfully appalling. Night threw its gloomy shade over the ruthless murderers of our countrymen, while we, but two in number, remained perfectly defenceless in the midst of them; trusting only to the internal dictates of their hearts, for the pri vilege of existing a single instant. Yet reflecting on their disposition, which is never vengeful without sufficient cause, we felt no alarms for our safety; and though perhaps we may have subjected our selves to the imputation of having unnecessarily exposed our lives in
a perilous situation, we ourselves could see no danger in what we had done, and were prompted to it by far other motives than the vanity of adventurous enterprise. George, to whom I wish to render all the merit he deserves, however I may dislike his appearance and manner, was, I must say, particularly attentive to us, and wished to make us as comfortable as he possibly could. At his particular request, we laid ourselves down to sleep beside himself and his wife, Mr. Marsden being on one side, and I on the other. The ground was our bed, and we had no other covering than the clothes we wore; while stretched at full length under the broad canopy of heaven, we prepared for repose, and feared not to close our eyes in the very centre of these cannibals. They proved themselves worthy of such confidence, and in no instance did there appear the least disposition to take advantage of it. I slept tolerably well for some part of the night, and awaking at the dawn of day, a scene, the strangest that can be imagined, presented itself to my view. An immense number of human beings, men, women, and children, some half naked, and others loaded with fantastic finery, were all stretched about me in every direction; while the warriors, with their spears stuck in the ground, and their other weapons lying beside them, were either peeping out from under their kakahows, or shaking from off their dripping heads the heavy dew that had fallen in the night. Before sun-rise they were all up, and being invigorated and refreshed by that profound sleep which health is always sure to in
vite, they rose with lively spirits to their desultory pursuits, and spent no time in lethargic slumbers.
Our next object was to proceed up the Cowa-cowa, to the part of the island where timber is found in the greatest abundance. It was therefore determined that Mr. Marsden and myself, together with Mr. Kendall and Mr. Hall, should set out without loss of time, in order to engage the natives to cut down as much timber as would be necessary for our purpose, and bring it by the usual conveyance to the vessel. We rowed to the head of the cove, which is about five miles from the place where the ship was lying at anchor, and is navigable to this distance for small vessels, and then came to some extensive flats, which though inundated with the tide, are always dry at low water, except the small channel through which the Cowa-cowa discharges itself into the cove. We now entered the open river, and rowing up along its smooth surface for about ten miles, the scenery on either side was bold and attractive. On whatever part we turned our eyes, a rich and romantic prospect invited our attention, and the river, taking a serpentine course, offered to our view at every new turning, a delightful variety of picturesque images. The tide, which rises in this river about four feet, might render it navigable to some distance for small craft, were the fallen timber cleared away, with which its channel is occasionally obstructed; a work, I should think, of no great labour, though of obvious utility in the event of a more regular intercourse with the island. If the accounts given
by the natives can be credited, this romantic stream might be sailed up almost to its source; but this I very much doubt, though timber comes down in rafts from remote parts of the interior.
The principal chief in this part was Tekokce, to whom the district belonged, though he was in some degree tributary to Tarra. Landing on the 27th, at a small village not dissimilar to that in which Tarra resided, we met with two young men, who readily undertook to conduct us to the chief; and after walking over some flat and marshy ground for about a mile, we ascended a hill, on the summit of which he was seated, with several of his people around him, who all behaved with much apparent respect. Like Tarra, he received us with manifest symptoms of pleasure and good-will, though his manner possessed not those engaging demonstrations of native politeness, which in that venerable chief were so clearly discernible. His demeanour, how ever, was firm and convincing, and his ingenuous countenance, the very index of sincerity, afforded the strongest proofs that nature had never intended it to reveal the subtle machinations of a designing heart. Nothing was to be seen in it that could in the least degree indicate either fraud or deceit, but the opposite qualities of honesty and candour were plainly legible to every heholder. In his person he was more robust than any man I had yet seen, and all his limbs displayed a perfect correctness of symmetry, evincing at the same time the greatest capability of laborious exertion. His broad shoulders were covered with a large
skin of different coloured furs, and his tall figure, bold as it was stately, and perfect as it was commanding, might have supplied even to Phidias, had it existed in the days of that celebrated artist, a model not unworthy his inimitable powers. The chief, before we apprised him of the object of our visit, was already aware of it, having learned by some means that we wanted to buy timber of him; and addressing us on the subject, he told us there was nuee nuee racow, (plenty of wood,) and promised very willingly to shew us where we could be supplied.
The adjacent land was generally level, and the soil, with the exception of the marshy parts, most excellent.
Being accompanied by Tekokes, we re-entered the boat, and proceeded about two miles further up the river, till we came to where it divided itself into two branches; when getting out to enjoy an excursion on foot, we walked along the banks through a thick grove, which lined it on that side as far as the eye could reach. The under wood was here in such quantities, and so entangled with the trees, that a passage through it would have been utterly impracticable, had not the natives taken the pains to clear a path, which ran along through various intricate windings. The timber in this grove was not large, nor could I observe any trees of the pine species; though there were several that appeared of an excellent quality, and many of them I thought would supply very good materials for turnery in particular.
Leaving this side of the river,
we got into a canoe, and crossed over to the opposite bank, where we entered a noble forest of pines, growing to the height of eighty and a hundred feet, before they branched out, and all of them as straight as if they had been shaped by nature, for no other purpose than to shew her regularity. There were none of them more than six or seven feet in circumference, and being close to the river, could be floated down without any great trouble or expense.
We now engaged with Tekokee to set all his people to work at cutting down the trees, and giving him a large English axe, a present with which he was much gratified, we returned with him to his village, and thence repaired back again to the ship.
During this excursion, we were highly gratified with the friendly reception we met with from the natives, and with the general appearance of the country, which was every where remarkably beautiful. The land on the east side of the cove rising in bold perpendicular eminences, connected with each other, and stretching along the whole extent in that quarter, forms as it were a natural wall, or rather a continued chain of fertile hills, producing on their sides a great deal of brush-wood and small trees, with a rich covering of varied herbage. The prospect on the western side assumes a different appearance, but not less attractive; the land swelling up in curious hillocks, covered with shrubs and fern, or extending in level plains of the richest verdure, and offering to the eye some of the most delightful spots that can be imagined. It were impossible for VOL. LIX.
me to give my readers any thing like an accurate idea of the countless beautiful views that are to be met with in this island; and the part of it where we had now been, was not surpassed by any other in grandeur and variety. A noble river, smooth and transparent, winding for some distance its intricate course through a forest both gloomy and majestic; hills forming themselves into grand amphitheatres, or ascending, with impervious steepness, to a considerable elevation; valleys sinking down in the most picturesque recesses, and green fields opening on the view at the skirts of the forest;-these scenes, and many more, which I shall not here endeavour to enumerate, present themselves on eitner side of the Cowa-cowa.
Travels in the Interior of America, in the Years 1809, 1810, 1811; including a Description of Upper Lousiana, together with the States of Chio, Kentucky, Indiana, and Tennessee, with the Illinois and Western Territories. By JOHN BRADBURY, F.L.S. London, &c.
Mr. Bradbury relates, that having arrived at St. Louis in Upper Louisiana, intending to make that town or neighbourhood his principal residence whilst exploring the interior of Upper Louisiana and the Illinois territory for the purpose of collecting subjects of natural history; and during the ensuing spring and suimer, making frequent excursions for the purpose; he was informed on his return to St. Louis, that a party of men from Canada had