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are seen distinctly to rest on it above. The basalt is not in the least changed by the contact of the coal, nor the coal by that of the basalt. The coal is very beautiful and distinct, and in one place is seen a coalified tree, if I may use the word, 10 or 12 inches in diameter, running directly in below the basalt.
Within sight of this spot, and about 300 yards to the east of it, are the beautifully conspicuous basaltic pillars, 45 feet long, and vertical, with the longest ones in the middle, and the others gradually shortening towards each side like the columns of an organ. From this appearance they have received the appropriate name of the organ. At the bottom of this cliff, by examining and breaking the loose columnar pieces of the rock that have fallen down, we found many fine specimens of calcedony, zeolite, and semi-opal. These occur in cavities in the basalt. Sometimes the cavity is not completely filled with the calcedony or opal; and when that is the case, the empty space is observed to be always the upper part of the cavity, while the rock is in situ. Moreover, the surface of the calcedony or opal next to the empty space is always found to be flat and horizontal, which would show that the substance must have been filtered into its situation in a fluid state, and afterwards consolidated.
Of Cinnamon as an article of Com-.
(From the same.)
cinnamon is in Exod. xxx. 23. It is again mentioned in the Song of Solomon, iv. 14; and in Prov. vii. 17. Casia a synonime of cinnamon is mentioned in Ezek. xxvii. 19, where it is enumerated among a large variety of articles of merchandise. As the ancients were supplied with cinnamon from Arabia, and the north and east coast of Africa, they without good foundation, supposed that this spice was the produce of those countries. There is much probability that from the earliest ages Europe has been indebted to Ceylon for part of its consumption of this article. It may have been exported from Ceylon by small vessels belonging to the island, or to the natives of the continent of India, to some of the emporia on the Malabar coast, and from thence to Sabea, on the south coast of Arabia, by the Arabs, who were the first who traded extensively on the Indian ocean. Here the ships belonging to the merchants of Phænicia and Egypt found large stores of the produce of India; and by this medium the demands from all parts of Europe were supplied. Even in modern times the commodities of India were chiefly imported into Europe by the way of Egypt. The enormous expense incurred by transporting cinnamon such a circuitous route, and a great part of it by land, must have greatly enhanced its price, and prevented the use of it from becoming general.
On some occasions, however, the quantity expended appears to have been considerable. At the funeral of Sylla 210 burthens of spices were strewed upon the pile. It is probable that cinnamon
The earliest notice we have of formed a great part of the spices
burned on this occasion, as the produce of the Moluccas was then but little, if at all, known to the Romans. Nero is reported to have burned a quantity of cinnamon and casia at the funeral of Poppæa greater than the countries from which it was imported produced in one year.
In 1498 Vasco de Gama landed at Calicut. Indian commerce now took a different route, and the Portuguese supplied Europe with. the articles which had formerly passed through the hands of the Venetians. Eager to engross the cinnamon trade, the Portuguese, early in the 16th century, arrived at Ceylon, and obtained leave from one of the chiefs to establish a factory, which led to the erection of the Fort of Colombo. Notwithstanding the permission of the chief, their landing was obstinately opposed by the Arab merchants, who had for many ages supplied Europe with cinnamon, and who dreaded an immediate termination of their monopoly. Shortly after a fort had been built, the Portuguese succeeded in concluding a treaty with the king of Kandy, wherein he agreed to furnish them annually with 124,000lb. of cinnamon on the part of the Portuguese, it was stipulated that they were to assist the king and his successors, both by sea and land, against all his enemies.
The thriving and rich settlements of the Portuguese in the East Indies eventually attracted the attention of the adventurous and opulent merchants of the states of Holland. Soon after they had gained some footing in India, they became anxious to engross the cinnamon trade, which,
as Baldeus emphatically observes, is " the Helen or bride in contest of Ceylon;" and early in the 17th century found means to ingratiate themselves with the king of Kandy, who invited them to aid him to expel the Portuguese from the island.
In 1612 the king engaged to deliver to the Dutch East India Company all the cinnamon that he was able to collect.
In 1638 the garrison of Batticaloa was captured by the combined Dutch and Kandian forces. On this occasion a treaty was concluded between the king and the Dutch general, wherein it was stipulated that none of the king's subjects were to be permitted to sell the Dutch any cinnamon, &c. &c. except what was sold by his order. He retained the entire and exclusive privilege of preparing and selling this article of
Peace was concluded between the Portuguese and Dutch in 1644 or 1645. By this treaty a moiety of the cinnamon trade was ceded to the Dutch. The cinnamon was collected in the following manner: -Both parties employed chalias to cut and prepare cinnamon, which was to be deposited in a convenient spot upon the river Dandegam, near to Negombo. At the end of the cinnamon harvest, the quantity collected was equally divided between the two parties; and each party paid the usual price to the chalias for peeling their share of cinnamon. War again commenced in 1652. Colombo surrendered to the Dutch in 1656; and Jaffna, the last place of strength of the Portuguese, fell in 1658.
For many years previously to the entire surrender of Ceylon by the Portuguese, the Dutch had purchased and exported large investments of cinnamon from the Malabar coast. To obtain the exclusive commerce of this coast, they, in the year 1662 and 1663, wrested from the Portuguese the forts of Quilon, Cannanore, Cochin, and Cranganore.
The English merchants were desired to withdraw from this coast; and the natives were prohibited from supplying the English with produce under penalty of confiscation. The Dutch exerted all their influence and power to obstruct the peeling of cinnamon in the territories of the Ma
labar princes, except what was sold to themselves, for which they refused to advance the regular market price.
Notwithstanding a zealous perseverance, and a rigid exertion of their power, to prevent what they denominated smuggling on this coast, they did not succeed. Other nations, by paying nearly double for the articles they purchased, were readily supplied by the natives, even in opposition to the orders of their own princes. These fruitless attempts are stated to have been very expensive; which induced the Supreme Government to pass in 1697 a number of regulations. One of these regulations stated," that it was determined not to obstruct any more, by measures of constraint and harshness, the navigation of the Malabars, and their trade in the productions of their country, consisting chiefly in areca, wild cinnamon, and pepper, which the Company could not exclusively purchase from them." VOL LIX.
In 1687 the Dutch imported into Holland cinnamon to the amount of 170,000 lb. This quantity is stated to have been less than the usual annual importation. In 1730 they imported 640,000lb.
The Dutch continued to enjoy the exclusive commerce of this spice for many years. The means adopted for this end were well imagined, but not so correctly carried into effect. The correspondence between the Directors and the Supreme Government evince the care that was taken to "direct and command that no cinnamon should be exported but what was of an excellent quality." The Directors complain repeatedly that much of the cinnamon im
ported from Ceylon was of a bad quality. They enumerated the defects, and stated, in their letter bearing date September, 1768, that for several years it had been of such a bad quality that they had not dared to bring it to the sales, for fear of ruining the credit of the Ceylon cinnamon. several occasions they returned a number of bales of "bad, illsorted cinnamon," that the Ceylon government might institute an inquiry respecting the causes why their commands were so much neglected. They complain much of the inspectors of cinnamon; and add, that they must either be very deficient in a knowledge of their duty, or extremely negligent. According to oral information, the chief cause of defective cinnamon having been exported was, that the requisitions from Holland were always for a larger quantity than they were able to procure of an excellent quality.
Before the Kandian war, which terminated in 1766, the Dutch 2 L annually
annually exported from Ceylon from 8,000 to 10,000 bales of cinnamon, each weighing 86lb Dutch, or about 92 English. This war, which was very unfortunate for the King of Kandy, was extremely expensive to the Dutch. The chief advantage they obtained was the entire possession of the harbours and coasts round the island. By the treaty of peace agreed upon on this occasion it was stipulated that the Dutch were to be permitted to bark cinnamon in the king's territory to the westward of the Balany Kandy, which is a range of mountains that stretches nearly north and south, and is about 12 English miles west from Kandy. It was also stipulated that the king was to receive five pagodas per bale, or about 5d. per lb., for all that which his subjects barked and prepared in his country to the eastward of Balany Kandy. The cinnamon collected by the Dutch was estimated to cost them about this price. The cinnamon furnislied, in consequence of this treaty, by the subjects of the King of Kandy, was of an inferior quality, being mixed with thick, coarse, and ill-prepared bark.
The Dutch accepted only of what they deemed of a good quality, and paid for the quantity they received. The Kandians considered this an unprofitable speculation, and soon ceased to furnish cinnamon of any quality. Posterior to the war of 1766 Ceylon did not export annually more than from 6,000 to 7,000 bales of cinnamon. This defalcation has been ascribed to the discouraging conduct of the King. It was not to be expected that he
should have entered cordially into a measure to which he had been forced to yield a reluctant acquiescence. So unwilling was the King of Kandy to extend the limits for cutting cinnamon, that he on one occasion refused 5,000 pagodas which were offered to him by the Dutch for permission to peel cinnamon for five months in a district to the eastward of Balany.
Stavorinus, who visited the Malabar coast in the years 1775 and 1778, says that an annual quantity of 1,000,000 lb. of cinnamon is said to be exported from this coast to the Gulf of Persia and to the Red Sea. A small quantity is likewise sent to Europe. This quantity is incredible.
Fra Paolino da San Bartolomeo had, from his long residence, profession, and studies, an infinitely better opportunity of learning the internal state of the country, as well as the export trade, than Stavorinus, who was only an occasional visitor. He arrived in India in 1776, where he resided 13 years. He tells us that the English purchased cinnamon from the king of Tranvancore, at the rate of about 80 rupees a candy, or about 500lb, avoirdupois, which is nearly two fans per lb., and that Malabar supplied at least 500 candies, amounting to 250,000 lb. He adds, that "the Dutch do not wish the cinnamon to thrive, and extirpate the trees in Malabar wherever they find them, in order that their cinnamon which grows on Ceylon may not become of less value." The statements of the learned Carmelite appear in general to deserve belief, except relating to the subject of religion,
and then his opinions and conduct seem to be at variance with his usual good sense.
Mr. Wilcocke, the translator of the voyages of Stavorinus, in his note to the work, says, that in 1778, 600,000 lb. of cinnamon were disposed of at the Europe sale, at about 11s. sterling per lb., being part of the imports from Ceylon. In an appendix to that work, he gives a statement of the quantities of cinnamon and cinnamon oil sold at the Dutch East India Company's sales from 1775 to 1779:
Pounds of cinnamon in 1775, 400,000-1776, 400,000-1777, 400,000-1778, 350,000-1779, 300,000.
Ounces of oil of cinnamon, in 1775, 240-1776, 160-1777, 160-1778, 160-1779, 160.
Being an annual average of 370,000 lb., which, if sold at 11s. per lb. the rate stated above for the year 1778, amounts to 203,500l.
The encroachments of other nations into the cinnamon trade continued to give the Dutch great alarm. These encroachments, which were never regarded with indifference, had been making gradual, but steady, advances. A letter from the Dutch India Directors, addressed to the Supreme Government, bearing date Dec. 29, 1787, expressly states, that "We have great need of a considerable quantity of the best cinnamon to put a stop to the consumption of the Chinese, and the cinnamon imported by other nations; and by that circumstance, to occasion their not yielding a profit any longer, prevent their importation; and by these means ours will retain that general esti
mation which alone can ensure its high price, and consequently our profit." Their fears were too well grounded: the cinnamon importations into Holland gradually declined.
The following is an account of the cinnamon imported and sold at the Dutch India Company's sales from the years 1785 to 1791 inclusive, with the sale amount of each year:—
The average quantity imported into Holland in each year of the preceding period is 345,092 lb. and the average annual amount 199,1951. Ss. being about 11s. 6d. per lb.
This statement evinces that the exportation of cinnamon was on the decline: it still, however, retained its price. The rivalship of the China cinnamon trade, and the difficulties and impediments occasioned by the King of Kandy to the collecting of cinnamon in his territories, may be assigned as the chief causes of the diminution of the cinnamon commerce in Ceylon. The Kandian Court, although unsuccessful in the resistance it made against the Dutch, remained unconquered, and entertained a proud spirit of independence, a constant enmity, and deep resentment, against its invaders, for the many attempts they had made to humiliate and subdue its power. The misfortunes of
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