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which may tend to mar the progress of the best regulated expedition. Therefore, it may not be improper to confirm and strengthen the whole, by directing the attention to what has been done, in journeying under difficulties which may bear a comparison with the undertaking here alluded to, and occasionally under circumstances the most unfavourable for success. 1st. When treating of icebergs, I alluded to the journey of Alexei Markoff, in which it appears, that he performed near eight hundred miles across a surface of packed ice, in the spring of 1715, in a sledge drawn by dogs; and consequently, that he might be supposed to have encountered the principal difficulties that could be expected in the proposed scheme, whilst we have the advantage of improving by his experience.
2d. Speaking of the south western tendency of the ice, I have also noticed the loss of several of the Dutch Greenland fleet in 1777, from which we learn, that part of the unfortunate suffering crews, under every privation of provision and clothing, and exposed to the severity of an arctic winter, accomplished a journey on foot, along the coasts of Old Greenland, from the east side near StatenHook to the Danish settlements on the west, a distance of near a hundred leagues.
3d. On contrasting the projected polar journey with the catalogue of marvellous occurrences, and wonderful preservations which are exhibited in the records of maritime disasters, the difficulties of the undertaking in a great measure vanish, and its dangers are eclipsed, by the wonderful reVOL. LIX.
sults which necessity has in various instances accomplished.
Discovery of Eight Islands.
(From the Asiatic Journal.)
We publish for general information, the following observations received from the Hon. James Ashley Maude, Captain of His Majesty's ship Favourite, in regard to the situation and appearance of eight islands discovered by him on the 13th, 14th, and 15th of July, 1816, in the Persian Gulph, during a cruize for general protection of the trade.
"The situation and appearance of eight islands on the Arab ianside in the Gulph of Persia, not laid down in any of the charts; the names of which are Arabic, and the latitudes and longitudes of each taken from cross bearings, the latter by chronometer; seen by his Majesty's ship Favourite, the Hou. James Ashley Maude, captain, during a cruize for the general protection of trade in the Gulph, on the 13th, 14th, and 15th of July, 1816.—
Dauss. In latitude 25° 10' N. longitude per chronometer 52° 45 E. bearing SE distance 4 leagues, appears of a moderate height with a few small hummocks, and south western extremity a low sandy point six or seven miles in length, no trees, and soil a metallic appearance; in passing it, distance off shore four or five leagues, we had from 13 to 18 fathoms, coarse sand with a few overfalls.
Jarnain Island.-South easterly direction found Dauss is in latitude 25° 8' N. longitude, per chronometer, 52° 55′ E. bearing SE. 20
by S. five or six leagues, has three high hummocks nearly of an equal height, two on the northern extremity and one more to the southward. The haze of the atmosphere was too great to observe whether the extremities were low, apparently no vegetation, hills formed of a metallic substance.
Arzenie Island. West south westerly direction from Jarnain in latitude 24° 56′ N. longitude, per chronometer 52° 33′ E. bearing SSW. nine miles, is rather high, a rugged appearance. About a cable's length off the eastern and western extremities there are two rocks a little above water; and on the north-east side a shoal extends nearly a mile from the shore, composed of rocks and coral sand. The Favourite anchored under this island, with the centre of the island bearing S. by EE. five or six miles in 12 fathoms, fine coral sand and shells.
I could not discover any fresh water on this island, but from ravines occasioned from the heavy rains, I have no doubt by sinking wells, water might be procured. The soil consists of metallic substance, no trees, and only a few herbs; the southern side exceedingly rugged, and in breadth I imagine two or three miles, and seven miles in length, which terminates to the WSW. in a low sandy point.
Dalmy Island.-South westerly direction from Arzenie in latitude 24° 36′ N. longitude, per chronometer, 52° 24′ E. bearing SW. S. four leagues, appears rather high; darker colour than the former island; has to the northward a round hill, below which the boundary is bluff but not high; the
northern extremity terminates in a low sand, off which a shoal extends nearly two miles, and ought not to be approached under seven fathoms, as the overfalls are sudden; to the south eastward the island is nearly of an equal height, two or three hummocks above a very low sandy point from north to south, and is about six miles in length, beyond which the pilot informed me a shoal extends to a considerable distance; and it is recommended not to go to the southward of this island, as the overfalls are sudden, and several small islands and sand-banks extend from the Main, which is said to be very low, and distant twenty miles to the southward of this island.
The channel between Arzenie and Dalmy is perfectly clear of shoals, but the overfalls are sudden from 15 to 21 and 12 to 7 fathoms, fine coral sand.
Seer Beni Yass Island - South easterly direction from Dalmy, in latitude 24° 34' N. longitude, per chronometer, 52° 40′ E. bearing SE. by S. five leagues, rather high in the center, and very rugged appearance terminating to the north western extremity in a low sandy point, apparently seven or eight miles in length.
The pilot informed me the point nearly joins the main land, leaving a narrow channel only navigable for small pearl boats. The whole coast to the westward being very low, off which there are several small islands, and they are con sidered dangerous to approach. The channel between Arzenie and Seer Beni Yass is deemed safe by the pilot.
Danie Island.-North westerly direction
direction from Dalmy, in latitude 25° 1' N. longitude, per chronometer, 52° 20′ E. is very low, nearly on a level with the sea, about two miles in length, and very narrow; the colour of the sand so nearly resembles the horizon in hazy weather, that great caution and a good look-out are requisite when approaching it.
Sherarou Island.-To the north westerly direction of Danie, in latitude 25° 13′ N. longitude, per chronometer, 52° 18′ E. bearing NNW. 12 miles, appears low, with two small hummocks on each extremity; and off the northern point, at half a mile, a small rock projects above water, and a few smaller rocks off some white sandy bays at the foot of the hummocks, which appear formed of dark metallic substance: the island is narrow, and about three or four miles in length in a north-western direction from this isle, the coast ought to be approached with care, as it is very low, but said to be clear of shoals.
The channel between Danie and Sherarou is clear of shoals, but the overfalls are rather sudden; but we had not less than 34 fathoms, sand and a mixture of white coral.
Hawlool Island.-North easterly direction of Sherarou, in latitude 25° 41′ N. longitude, per chronometer, 52° 23′ E. bearing NNW. distance 10 miles, appears high in the centre, gradually decreasing at each extremity; no trees and no appearance of vegetation; the water deep close too.
The above described islands ap
pear formed of the same metallic substance as the islands of Polior, the tombs, &c. &c. off the Persian side of the Gulph, of a brownish colour, their base being formed of coral. They are said not to produce any good fresh water; but, by digging wells, I have every reason to imagine from the appearance of the soil, and what I witnessed on the island of Arzenie, the rain having formed high banks by the rapidity of its torrents, good water might be procured. I do not imagine any of these islands are equal to much cultivation without the aid of considerable indus try; but their situation appears particularly convenient, as they are placed nearly in the centre of a very extensive pearl fishery, on which the finest pearls in the world are produced-the season for the fishery from April to September: the extent of the bank is 200 miles in length, east and west, and north and south 70 miles.
The exact position of these islands I am afraid will not be found quite accurate, as their positions are stated merely from cross bearings, and the strongly heated atmosphere had considerably affected the rate of my chronometer; and the sun and moon not being within distance together, with occasionally hazy weather, caused some difficulty to be surmounted with respect to judging of the imaginary distance off shore, but I hope their situations are sufficiently accurate to render the strangers to this side of the Gulph some aesistance in navigating their vessels.
Seer Beni Yass
Lat. 24° 56′ N.
Long. per chro. 52° 42', July 13th, 4° 47′ W. Lat. 24° 34' N.
Long. per chro. 52° 40′, July 14th, 4° 39′ W. Lat. 25° 1' N.
Long. per chro. 52° 20′, July 15th, 3° 59′ W. Lat. 52° 13' N.
Long. per chro. 52° 18′.
Lat. 25° 41' N.
AN ACCOUNT OF A RHINOCEROS
(From the same.) Rhinoceros hunting has, I believe, seldom been painted, though I have known several sportsmen who have had good opportunities of doing so; perhaps, therefore, an account of a day lately passed in this noble but dangerous diversion, may afford some gratification to your sporting readers. On the 25th ult. our Shekarries (or huntsmen), whom we had sent for information, brought us intelligence of a herd of seven or eight rhinoceros having taken up their abode in a large swamp, in a village near Baragur, in the Nepal territory.-On reaching the spot with our elephants, seven in number, and our shooting apparatus, we found that either side of the lake for about two hundred yards was clothed with glorious jungle or brushwood for every kind of savage game; forming a cover of nearly ten feet in height. We had
J. A. MAUDE, Captain."
seven guns, chiefly double barrelled; five of the latter fourounce rifles. Soon after our party (four in number) had entered the jungle, the piping of the elephants, and the prints of rhinoceros' feet, shewed our game to be near; and indeed in less than a few minutes we started two young ones, about the size of a full-grown neel-ghae (a species of elk) and not unlike that animal in colour. The first fire killed one, and wounded the other severely, which, notwithstanding, went off at a smart elk trot, howling in a most hideous manner. The old ones were soon collected round us by the cries of their young, and three males, of monstrous size, and frightful appearance, charged our line with the utmost impetuosity. Two of our elephants gave way, receiving the charge on their hinder parts, and were instantly upset. Those that stood firm were not knocked down, but staggered several paces by the shock: my elephant was one that gave way, and my situ
ation was far from laughable. The elephant often attempted to rise, but was as often laid flat by his antagonist, and at length with such force, that I was thrown several yards into the lake, in a state of utter stupefaction-luckily falling on some willows, I was saved from drowning. I was not sorry, on recovery, to find myself out of reach of the horn of my furious enemy, and of the shots of my friends, who, despairing of my escape, fired without ceremony. Their balls struck the monster's body in several places without producing any effect, though from four-ounce rifles. At last a lucky one broke a large flake from his horn, and caused him to make off, turning through the thickets with astonishing strength and swiftness. We traced his footsteps for some miles, when being convinced that he had taken to the forest, we returned to look after the others, determined to search for him on a future day. On our way back, we found the young one we had wounded in the morning lying dead; both must have been very young, for their horns were scarcely perceptible, and no scales appeared in their breasts or shoulders. It was now past noon, and we had little hopes of finding the others; when, on rounding a point of the lake, we roused them again, and after a chase of more than three hours, killed two, a male and female. They were not so bold now as we had reason to expect. They seemed to have lost their courage with their leader, to whom they were very inferior in size, but still their dimensions astonished us not a little; the largest of them was above six feet
high, and stronger in proportion than any elephant I ever saw; the day was too far spent to admit of our taking a sketch of them, at which we were much vexed, for hitherto, I believe, they have been very unfaithfully represented. No elephants but males of superior courage should be employed in this desperate sport. We have another wild animal in this neighbourhood as little known as the rhinoceros. The natives consider it of the elk kind, but it has no characteristic of this or any of the species of deer I have seen or read of; the horns of the male are remarkably thick and short; in every other respect they resemble more an English brindled bull. They are exceedingly shy and solitary; seldom seen but on a bare inaccessible rock.
Camp, NE. Frontier, May 1815.