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that their ancient animosities and rivalry were being quenched, and that a very different sort of work was before them than that in which they had been engaged in Ireland.

The Scottish army, under Leslie, was posted between Edinburgh and Leith, well defended by batteries and entrenchments. Nothing could induce the wary commander to quit this vantage ground, and for a whole month Cromwell found it impossible to draw him from his strong position, Leslie knew that the English army as much exceeded his in discipline and experience as it fell short of it in point of numbers, and prudently

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kept within his entrenchments. By skirmishes and petty reconnoitres he endeavoured to animate the spirits of his soldiers; and in these enterprises he was generally successful. His army every day became more numerous and more expert. The young king himself arrived in the camp-not much to the "godly discipline" thereof and having displayed his courage in a small excursion, engaged the approbation of the soldiers. Cromwell in the meantime was in a disagreeable position. It was plain he would make no easy conquest-he would never fall as "Thor's hammer" on Scotia. There was no chance of his obtaining supplies, for the country

between Leith and Edinburgh had been laid waste. He had to depend on his ships which brought supplies from England; but stormy weather interfered with this arrangement, and there was long delay and much letter writing-much letter writing in a Scriptural vein. Those of the Covenanters' cause, and those of the Independent cause, alike confident that they were the chosen of the Lord and must prevail, sometimes commended one another in prayer to the mercy of the All-Merciful—

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sometimes denounced one another under Old Testament names; they were both loud in their expression as to the "fear of the Lord," and both kept their powder dry.

The most unfortunate part of the whole affair for Leslie and the Scots, was the presence in the camp of a superabundant amount of the preaching element. The preachers were perfectly satisfied in their own minds that nothing was wanting on Leslie's part but a sudden swoop on the misguided Independents in order to their complete discomfiture. Brave

old Leslie, who had seen much of stern work, was not to be so readily convinced-no, not when special revelations were vouchsafed-or, rather, said to be so-to some of the most excitable preachers in the camp, and victory was assured if a sudden attack were made.

At length Cromwell, fairly exhausted with waiting, made a sudden march in the direction of Stirling, as though he intended to cut off that city from communication with the capital. Leslie put his troops in motion-precisely what Cromwell wished him to do. In language as remarkable for its extravagance in point of fact as well as of style, Carlyle describes Cromwell as "Bathed in the eternal splendours-it is so he walks our dim earth; this man is one of few. He is projected with a terrible force out of the eternities, and in the times and their arenas there is nothing that can withstand him. It is great; to us it is tragic; a thing that should strike us dumb! My brave one! the old noble prophecy is divine; older than Hebrew David; old as the origin of man; and shall, though in wider ways than thou supposed, be fulfilled."

Marching away from his old quarters, Cromwell broke up the camp of Leslie. Hastily the forces were despatched after him. The vanguards came to skirmishing, but the boggy ground prevented a battle. So Cromwell retreated, fired his huts on the Pentlands, and fell back towards Dunbar. The Scots knew he was harassed by sickness, hard pressed for want of supplies; they saw in this retreat an escape into England; and, full of confidence as to the result, Leslie rapidly marched his troops, outstripped Cromwell, and hemmed him in between Dunbar and Doonhill. The ministers in the Scottish camp began to return thanks as for a victory. It was so very plain to them that this Cromwell could not by any means escape them. There was a deep ravine called Cockburn or Coppers path, about forty feet deep and as many wide, with a stream running through it. This separated Oliver from the Scottish army, which lay on Doonhill. On the right of Cromwell's army lay Belhaven Bay, on the left a path leading by Brocksmith House, southward. This pass only was left open, and Leslie determined to secure it. With this object in view, he moved his right wing in that direction-that pass once secured, no pass would be left to the English-nothing but surrender and defeat. Looking through a glass, Cromwell saw the movement of the Scots, divined its purpose, and suddenly cried out, "the Lord hath delivered them into our hands." He saw that a vigorous attack in the early morning on the right wing of the Scottish army would disarrange all their movements, and probably end

in their defeat. A council of war was called, and at the appointed time the attack was made.

"The Covenant-the Covenant," was the shout of the Scots; "the Lord of Hosts-the Lord of Hosts" the thundering answer of the English. The Scots, though double in number to the English, were soon

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put to flight, and pursued, with great slaughter. The chief, if not the only, resistance was made by one regiment of Highlanders-a portion of the army which was least infected with fanaticism. But two of Oliver's regiments of foot that were in the van behaved themselves with such bravery that they not only sustained the charge of the enemy's horse, but

beat them back upon their foot, and, following them close, forced both horse and foot to retreat up the hill, from which they had ventured to make the attack. The body of the enemy, finding their vanguard, which consisted of their choicest men, thus thrown back upon them, began to shift for themselves, in the effort to do which they fell into such precipitation and disorder, that few of them dared to look behind them. "Almost from the first clash of the hostile weapons, it became apparent to which side the victory would incline. Never did Cromwell more enthusiastically, and yet more calmly, exert himself; never, with his slightly-silvered locks, and piercing looks of stern composure, did he appear so like the ancient genius of war, less contending for an uncertain triumph, than assuring it to every soldier of his little band, in whose every breast his energies expanded. In the thick of the fight, the sun then rising in majesty from the sea, he seized upon his appearance with a poet's feeling, united with an intense conviction of the presence and favour of the God of Battles, crying aloud, 'Now let God arise, and his enemies shall be scattered!' And, in truth, vain were all the advantages which the Scots derived from their numbers, and the pouring of their masses down, while the English had to toil and fight their way up, the steep hills of this bloody contest." No victory could have been more complete. About three thousand of the enemy were slain, and nine thousand taken prisoners. All their baggage, arms, artillery, and ammunition fell into the hands of the English. Cromwell pursued his advantage, and took possession of Edinburgh and Leith. Never had Cromwell obtained such a triumph. The successful issue of the battle determined "that in military action nothing can supply the place of discipline and experience; and that in the presence of real danger, where men are not accustomed to it, the fumes of enthusiasm presently dissipate and lose their influence."

After he had achieved this signal victory, Cromwell wrote to the Parliament in the following terms :

"Thus you have the prospect of one of the most signal mercies God hath done for England and His people in the war; and now may it please you to give me the leave of a few words. It is easy to say the Lord hath done this. It would do you good to see and hear our poor foot going up and down, making their boast of God. But, Sir, it's in your hands, and by these eminent mercies God puts it more into your hands, to give glory to Him; to improve your power and His blessings, to His

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