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TRAITOR'S GATE, TOWER OF LONDON
UTRECHT
WESTMINSTER HALL AND ABBEY
WINDSOR CASTLE
WORCESTER CATHEDRAL
ZUTPHEN

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MISCELLANEOUS.

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“AND ROUSED IN MANY AN ANCIENT HALL THE GALLANT SQUIRES OF KENT”
ARREST OF PURITANS EMBARKING FOR THE COLONIES
ASSASSINATION OF HENRY IV. of FRANCE
BEESTON CASTLE SHILLING
BLOCK AND AXE
CAPTURE OF THE CAPITANA
COLCHESTER SHILLING
CROMWELL AT THE SIEGE OF DROGHEDA
CROMWELL DISSOLVING THE PARLIAMENT
David Gwynn's EXPLOIT
DEATH OF MASANIELLO
DEFEAT OF ORMOND AT RATHMINES
DUNBAR, BATTLE OF
ENTRY OF LOUIS XIII. Into RocheLLE
FIGHT BENEATH THE WALLS OF ROCHELLE
FEAT FOR THE STANDARD, THB ..............
“GEORGE" OF CHARLES I.
High CHURCH, EDINBURGH, BEGINNING OF THE RIoT IN THE
KING CHARLES IN THE OAK
KOWENSTYN, The FIGHT ON THE
MASSACRE AT MAGDEBURG
NEWARK SHILLING
NEWBURN, BATTLE OF
NUPTIAL CaskeT OF PHILIP III, OF SPAIN
ON BOARD THE “ARK OF DELFT”
PARMA's TRIUMPHANT ENTRY INTO MAESTRICHT
QUEEN ELIZABETH AT TILBURY
RECEPTION OF CROMWELL AT BRISTOL ON HIS RETURN FROM IRELAND
ROCHELLE, THE SIEGE OF
RUPERT'S TROOPERS AT A COUNTRY INN
SCARBOROUGH HALF-CROWN
SHIP OF THE PERIOD
SHOULDERING THE SHIPS
SIGNING THE COVENANT IN THE HIGH CHURCH, EDINBURGH
SIR PHILIP SIDNEY, DEATH OF
SOLDIER IN GOLDEN ARMOUR
STOCKADOES ERECTED TO DEFEND THE DYKE
TOMB OF QUEEN ELIZABETH
WORCESTER, BATTLE OF

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BLAKE, ROBERT
BRADSHAW, JOHN
CHARLES I.
CHARLES II.
CONDÉ, PRINCE OF
CROMWELL..
DRAKE, SIR FRANCIS
Eliot, SIR JOHN
ERASMUS
FAIRFAX, LORD
FARNESE, ALEXANDER
FROBISHER, SIR MARTIN
GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS
HAMPDEN, JOHN ...
HAWKINS, SIR JOHN
HENRY OF GUISE
HENRY OF NAVARRE
HOWARD, CHARLES
JAMES I. OF ENGLAND
Juxon, WILLIAM
LAUD, BISHOP
LEICESTER, EARL OF
LESLIE, GENERAL
Louis XIII.
LUTHER
MARIE DE MEDICI
MASANIELLO
MAURICE, Prince
MAZARIN, CARDINAL
MILTON
MONTROSE, MARQUIS OF
ORMOND, MARQUIS OF
РҮм, Јону
RALEIGH, Sir Walter
RICHELIEU
Rohan, DUKE OF
RUPERT, PRINCE
SANTA CRUZ, MARQUIS OF
SIDNEY, SIR PHILIP

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Sixtus V. .........

SULLY, DUKE OF
TILLY, GENERAL
VILLIERS, GEORGE, DUKE OF BUCKINGHAM
WALLENSTEIN, GENERAL
WENTWORTH, SIR THOMAS

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William the Silent; to relate the story of that great Armada on which King Philip so confidently relied; and afterwards to sketch some of the busiest scenes in the days when King Charles and the Parliament did battle here in England on many a well-fought field. All the stories are of strong interest and each will be complete in itself, our object being not to write the history of Holland or of England, but to furnish some striking and illustrative narratives of the Wars of both countries.

In the first place, we solicit our readers to accompany us to Holland, and to gaze for awhile upon this Northern Venice.

"To men of other minds my fancy flies,

Embosom'd in the deep where Holland lies;
Methinks her patient sons before me stand,
Where the broad ocean leans against the land,
And, sedulous to stop the coming tide,
Lift the tall vampire's artificial pride.
Onward, methinks, and diligently slow,
The firm, compacted bulwark seems to grow;
Spreads its long arms around the watery roar,
Scoops out an empire, and usurps the shore:
While the pent ocean rising o'er the pile,
Sees an amphibious world beneath him smile;
The slow canal, the yellow-blossomed vale,
The willow-tufted bank, the gliding sail,
The crowded mart, the cultivated plain,
A new creation rescued from his reign.

The territory now called Holland shared the fate of most other nations in the days of Roman supremacy. When all kindreds and tongues were rendering the humiliating confession, "We have no king but Cæsar," it is no discredit to the ancient Dutchmen to have joined in the chorus. It should, however, in justice be observed that they were not conquered, but concluded an alliance with the Romans, and only fell into subjection by degrees. When the yoke of the Romans was thrown off, the Saxons, as they did in the case of England under similar circumstances, overran the country and made themselves its masters. Then came Charles the Hammer, smiting like some mighty Thor, and dashing into fragments all who opposed him; and after him came Charles the Great, the man of iron— of iron will, iron heart, and iron hand-uniting the Netherlands to his dominions.

In the middle ages, that is from the tenth to the fourteenth century, Holland was divided into petty sovereignties under the Duke of Brabant, the Counts of Holland and Flanders, and others of less importance.

Towards the close of the fourteenth century the whole of the territory passed to the House of Burgundy, thence to Austria, and in 1548 was brought under the rule of Spain in the person of the Emperor Charles the Fifth.

Throughout the whole history of the Netherlands the people were marked by one prevailing characteristic, the love of liberty, the instinct of self-government. They raised dykes to keep out the sea; and in a similar spirit they endeavoured to erect barriers that should effectually preserve them from the inroads of despotic power; while, on the other hand, the constant effort of the oppressor was to undermine these bulwarks. The struggle between the Hollanders and the Spaniards became in

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tensified when the voices of the Protestant Reformers were heard asserting religious liberty-spiritual freedom against Ecclesiastical Authority. "Let us have freedom in matters of faith," was the firm demand of the Dutchmen:- "Be so obliging, priests and prelates, to recognise the fact that our souls are our own-we will render to Cæsar the things that are Cæsar's, but unto God the things that are God's." Ecclesiastical Authority, unaccustomed to this bold language, proceeded to argue the matter with the spiritual revolters; reasoning by flaying alive, burning, hanging, drowning, and similar infallible arguments. It thundered its anathema, cursing the Protestants, "in praying, in speaking, in silence, in eating, drinking, and sleeping;" it blew out waxen tapers with the view of showing how the

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