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Philip of Spain determines on the assassination of William of Orange-Balthazar

Gérard, a Jesuit, undertakes to attempt his life-Gérard a fanatic-Parma en-

courages Gérard in his intentions-Gérard introduces himself to Villers, and is by

him recommended to William the Silent-Balthazar obtains money from William-

William the Silent is shot by Gérard-Torture of the murderer-Change in the

political arrangements of the Netherlands-Bruges and Ghent surrender to Parma-

Parma plans the siege of Antwerp-The Hollanders hesitate to destroy the dykes-

Saint Aldegonde made burgomaster of Antwerp-Antwerp and Babel-The butchers

of Antwerp resolutely oppose the piercing of the dykes-Military force within the

city-Condition of Parma's troops-Herenthals taken by the Spaniards-The fort of

Liefkenshoek taken by the Marquis of Richebourg-The attack on fort Lillo fails-

Kalloo is made the head-quarters of the Spanish army-Formation of the Steeken

canal-Blockade runners-Establishment of a food tariff-Bridge-building, Parma's

great object-The Antwerpers ridicule the idea-The sluices on the Flemish side of

Antwerp are opened-This stratagem favourable to Parma-Forts St. Mary and

Philip completed-Skirmishes-Parma makes overtures of peace, which are rejected

-The Antwerpers attack Bois-le-Duc-The city entered-Hohenlo returns for re-

inforcements -The Antwerpers shut in-Parma's bridge of boats is finished-Lief-

kenshoek is recaptured by the Antwerpers – Gianibelli the Mantuan-The "Fortune"

and the "Hope"-The fire-ships approach Parma's bridge-The "Fortune" does

not explode-Explosion of the "Hope" and panic of the Spaniards-Failure of

Jacob Runaway's naval attack-The Patriots make preparations to pierce the

Kowenstyn--Parma's defences on the dyke-The dyke is attacked and pierced-The

Zeland ships cannonade the Spaniards-Count Mansfeld holds a council of war-

The Dutchmen are driven from the dyke-The Antwerpers capitulate-Alexander

Farnese enters the city.

Disaffection amongst the English leaders-Farnese, the master spirit of Spain-

The Spanish king makes overtures of peace to Queen Elizabeth-The papal bull-

Parma accused of the publication of a pamphlet on the subject of the bull-His

indignant denial-Preparations in Spain and Portugal for the invasion of England-

Drake destroys eighty vessels in Cadiz harbour—Queen Elizabeth's parsimony detri-

mental to English interests-Parma's preparations-Inactivity of the English--A

nominal force enrolled-Muster of the troops at Tilbury Fort-The English fleet-

Force of the Armada-The Marquis of Santa Cruz appointed captain-general of the

Armada-Parma opposed to the appointment - Death of Santa Cruz-The Duke of

Medina Sidonia appointed to succeed him-Sickness in Parma's camp-Medina

Sidonia's plan of action-The Armada sets sail from Lisbon-David Gwynn's exploit

-The Armada reassembles at Corunna-Arrival of the Armada in the English Channel

-The English fleet refuse a general engagement-Attack the rear-guard of the fleet

-Admiral Oquendo's flag-ship blown up-Medina sends a message to Parma-The

second battle with the Armada-Admiral Howard knights some of his officers-The

Armada anchors in Calais roads-The Hollanders prevent the coalition of Medina

and Parma-Insecure anchorage of the Armada-The English fire-ships dismay the

Spaniards-The flag-ship of Don Hugo de Moncada, the "Capitana," grounds on

the bar of Calais harbour-The English attack and board her-The French prevent

their capturing her-Riot between the French and English on board the Capitana-

Pursuit of the Armada-The Spaniards retreat-The Armada overtaken by a storm

-The English relinquish the pursuit-Arrive safely in Margate roads-The Armada

scattered and many of the ships driven on the Irish coast-Drake's summing up of

the discomfiture of the Spaniards-Parma attacks the Dutch-Is repulsed--Enthu-

siasm in England on the approach of the Armada—The queen reviews the troops at

Tilbury-False reports in Spain of the success of the Armada-Philip's resignation

on hearing news of the defeat of the Armada-Rejoicings in England

Henry of Navarre-Personal appearance, the opposite of Philip of Spain-Henry

III. of France a puppet in the hands of Catherine de Medici-His vanity and
effeminacy-His vices and his penitence-Elected King of Poland - Forsakes the
Poles-Ascends the throne of France-Temporises with the Protestants-Henry of
Guise, called Henry of the Scar-Madame League-Henry of Navarre as a staunch
Protestant leader of the Huguenot party and determined foe of Rome and Spain—
The disturbed state of France-Henry III., terrified by the popularity of Henry of
Guise, forbids him to approach the capital-Guise advances on Paris and is warmly
received by the people-The great day of the barricades-Henry III. driven from
his palace takes refuge at Chartres-Reconciled to his Huguenot cousin of Navarre—
The States-General convoked at Blois-Description of its aspect at the present time

A ramble through the city in 1864 -Old memories-Prince Maurice-"Tandem

fit surculus arbor"-Incident at Lierre-James and the Dutch-Kingship according to

the Scottish Solomon-Marriage of Elizabeth, the daughter of James, to the Elector

of the Palatinate-The Elector assumes the crown of Bohemia-The beginning of

the thirty years' war-The Union of the Protestants-The League of the Catholics-

The Elector driven from the throne of Bohemia finds refuge in the Netherlands-

Marriage projects for the Prince of Wales-" Baby Charles" and "Dog Steenie"-

Marriage of the Prince of Wales with Henrietta Maria of France-Nuptial solemnities

-The Huguenots at Rochelle stand on the defensive-General Assembly-A French

copy of Dutch policy-Revolt of the Protestants-Advance of the royal army-

Treaty of peace-Cardinal Richelieu chief man in the state-Huguenots again in

trouble-Soubise raises an army. Descent on the island of Ré-Seizure of the

royal flotilla-The Duke of Rohan-England and Dutch employed against the

Huguenots-Quarrel between the French and English Courts-An outraged queen-

Expedition fitted out to help the Huguenots-Buckingham entrusted with the com-

mand-The Huguenots suspicious, and decline to permit the landing of the expedi-

tion-Buckingham's descent on the island of Ré-Lays siege to St. Martin, but

retires without affecting any result-Rochelle beleaguered by the royal troops-The

heroic speech and brave conduct of Quitin, the governor -The lion-hearted Duchess

-Richelieu and the engineers-The great dyke-Sufferings of the besieged-Plague,

famine-All expectation of relief from England disappointed—Assassination of the

Duke of Buckingham-The surrender of the Rochellois

The Covenant-The "Bishops' war"-The Marquis of Hamilton and his

mother-General Leslie-Triumphs of the Covenanters-Battle of Newburn--Terms

of peace

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"Kings' matters"-The sovereign and the sovereign people-Policy of Queen

Elizabeth-Cowardice of James-A legacy of grievances-Efforts of King Charles

to supply the royal coffers-Sir John Eliot the people's spokesman-Dissolution of

Parliament-Remonstrances and counter-remonstrances-Unconstitutional proceed-

ings of the monarch-The forced loan-Laud advanced to the see of Bath and

Wells-His circular to the clergy advocating the absolute authority of the king-

Reassembly of the Commons-The royal speech-Seolding and threatening a House

ill-disposed to submit to either-The Commons address themselves to popular

grievances-The Petition of Right-Impeachment of the Duke of Buckingham-

Tonnage and poundage-The firm attitude assumed by the Commons- Tuesday

come seven nights"-A riotous debate-John Eliot's resolution-Penalties-The

king without a Parliament-"Gog and Magog"-Arbitrary impositions - The

"honour" of knighthood-Revival of monopolies-London made little-High Com-

mission Court and Star Chamber-The sufferings of a Nonconformist-Ship money

-John Hampden refuses to pay-The struggle for twenty shillings and a good

cause-Strafford's suggestion-Pym's prophecy-Arrest of Strafford-"Terrible

reformers"-Strafford's trial, accusation, and defence-His execution-Cavaliers

and Roundheads-Disturbances at Westminster-Charles impeaches the five mem-

bers―The failure of his scheme-A queen's advice-The Parliament removed to

Guildhall—"Privilege!"-Return to Westminster-The beginning of the end-.

The trial by battle-Royal standard-raised at Nottingham-The Commons prepare

for defence-A dinner party at Hull-Prince Rupert and the king's horse-Coining

money-The battle of Edge Hill-The fight for the standard-Chalgrove Field-

Death of John Hampden-The king at Oxford-Arrival of his queen-Compli-

mentary verses composed in her honour--Newbury-The rise of Oliver Cromwell-

Stories of his boyhood-An injudicious restriction-First appearance in Parliament-

Cromwell's Ironsides-The battle of Marston Moor-The final defeat of the Royalists

at Naseby-The surrender of Oxford-The king received by the Scots, but given up

to the English-The king a prisoner at large-Joyce's commission-The increasing

influence of the army over the Parliament-The king's "game"-The flight of

Charles defeated-A prisoner at Carisbrook-His progress to London-Trial and


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