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slation of the Common Version? That this translation is accurate, will most satisfactorily appear to every person competent to the investigation of the text, rfoy gnalah means a « burnt * offering; when it occurs with a ^ lamed prefixed, its signification is, 'for a linrnt offering;' and when a noun or pronoun precedes the word with or without a verb, the person or thing signified by the noun or pronoun, is the subject offered,— the nby gnalah, or ' burnt offering.' Lev. ix. 2, rfxh V«l' and 'a ram for a burnt offering.' In Gen. xxii. 13, the word (jnu.luIt rfosb with a lamed i? prefixed occurs, and is rendered by Mr. B. l for a burnt offering;' the subject of this burnt offering was a ram, Vm, to which the pronoun in the compound word inbjPi relates, which is correctly rendered 'and he offered it for a 'burnt offering.' The construction in the 2d terse is identically the same, rky'7 gnalah with b lamed prefixed, cannot have any other meaning than, * for a burnt offering ;'—the pronominal affix in the verb inbrm relates to the preceding noun 133, denoting the subject of the rby gnalah, 'burnt offering,' the entire clause therefore can only be construed and read as in the Common Version,' and offer him (i t. e. in thy son) for 'a burnt offering.'
'« V. 12. For now I know that thou fearest God. The translators have rendered the word HY yerea, thou fearest, which is wrong. It is the third person singular preter in kal, literally, he feareth, or reverenceth, viz. that Isaac feared God.'
Mr. Bellamy should have consulted his grammar (from which he has much to learn) before he pronounced the translation of this word in the Common Version, to be ' wrong.' «V in this place is not the third person singular preter in kal; but the participle present construed with the second personal pronoun rtntt thar, and is correctly translated in the Public Version, 'thou fearest God.' The translators knew their business a great deal better than Mr. Bellamy.
Ch. xxv. 8. 'He was gathered unto hit people.1 From this expression, Mr. Bellamy attempts to silence tbe objection that the writings of Moses do not say any thing concerning a future state.
4 But were this passage attentively read by them (the objectors,) they would be obliged to acknowledge their error. Abraham, as to his mortal body, was not gathered to his people; he was a Chaldean, and his ancestors were buried in his native place in Chaldea; thus it plainly means that the soul of Abraham was gathered to those just men the patriarchs, who in succession had taught the people to worship God; who like him received the divine commands from^the mercy-seat; also to all those who had departed in the true faith: hence the propriety of the expression, and vxu gathered unto hit people.'" ^
Mr. Bellamy is a very unfortunate man. In th'u very chapter he has informed us, that the sacred writer is silent respecting Ishmael's having auy thing to ilo with the true worship of God; that Ishinael did not labour in establishing the true, worship ot God; and yet this same expression is used in reference to him! 'In- (Isbinael) t mas gathered to his people, ch. xxv. 17:' What becomes of his attempt to convince objectors of their error? and here we cannot help referring to Mr. Bellamy's .insolent declamation against the authors of the Common \Vrsion, whom he charges with rendering ch. iii. 22, so as to encourage the belief that death is an ' eternal sleep.' King1 James's translators have presented us a Bible replete with proofs of a future life. A resurrection both of the just and the" unjust, and a. judgement to come, occupy a prominent place in their Translation, as the solemn doctrines of inspired men. Infidels reject the whole Bible, disputing its Diviue autbority. Do they reject it, under the idea that it teaches an eternal sleep in death and impunity for sin? Our Author knows that their reasons for rejecting.it are of a totally different nature, and bis , insinuations are therefore most disgraceful to him. Men of the greatest seriousness, men full of Christian hope as to futurity, have professed themselves unable to perceive in Gen. iii. 22, the doctrine of a, life to come; nor, bold as he is in declamation, does it appear from Mr. Bellamy's capricious and incorrect version of the passage. . •
'Ch. xxvi. 29, That thou wilt dn us no hurt, njn raagnah, is translated hurt, but this vowel form of the word has no such meaning in scripture. It signifies to feed, Jer. i. 19; Ezek. xxxiv. 23, he s hpil feed s Mich. v. 4, and feed, so that the translators have mistaken the meaning.'
For the translation in the Common Version Mr, Bellamy substitutes, 'If thou icilt procure supply before Ms.' Had he been able to distinguish a noun from a verb, he would have discerned the correctness of the Common Version, atid seen the futility of his reference. 'This vowel form of the word, occurs in numerous instances, in all of which, evil, or hurt, or injury, is unquestionably its meaning, and this meaning Air. Bellamy' himself gives to ' this vowel form of the word' iu ch. xxxvii. 2,
Mr. Bellamy, we have already seen, opposes the representations of two Apostles; he is hardy enough to contradict t third, the Author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, who informs us. that" for /*._> /fywn«( one meal Esau sold his birth-right." But, suys our Hebraist, 'it is absurd to suppose that Esau 'could sell his birth-right for a mess of pottage.' The text says, that Esau being faint and ready to die, acceded to Jacob's solicitations to part with his birth-right for an immediate supply of food. Mr. Bellamy says, th^t Esau had rendered himself ineligible to succeed to the officfe of the priesthood, and this a
the meaning of bis being faint I The ineligibility of Esau, he informs us, was the consequence of his having married the daughters of the idolaters of the land. And then after this Mr. Bellamy, in the very next note, asserts that
* Esau, who was evidently at that period considered as the rightful heir to the priesthood by Isaac and Jacob, and who must for this reason, have been in the exercise of the office, declared to Jacob that he was weary of rites, ceremonies, <fferinoS, and sacrifices; and en* treated him to accept of it, that he might join the spurious worship of those who had adopted a state of things under Adam, or under the Adam c primeval state, viz. offerings of the fruits of the ground without sacrifice.'
If Ksau had rendered himself ineligible to the priesthood at that period, how could Isaac and Jacob consider him as the riehtful heir to it, and how could he be in the exercise of his otti ■ -, wiien. on his defection, which bad already taken place, Jacob, as Mr B. informs us, had succeeded to it? Mr. B.'a fictions are not even consistent. The history affords no evidence of tisau's being married at this period, nor does it contain a panicle of information on the subjects with which Mr. Bellamy has embellished his Bible. His Hebrew is of the usual kind. * The word 'JivyVn halgnileeni, is rendered, feed
* me. But this word cannot be thus understood, it is only 'translated so in this passage; for in no part of Scripture is it c ever rendered to satisfy hunger.' The fact is, that the word is awed but once in the Heurew Bible, namely, in this very passage! TU which Mr. B. affirms, means, not' pottage,1 but « a sacred
* sacramental repast,' denotes the article or substance from which a repast was prepared, and in all the instances of its use in the Bible, signifies the matter of a common meal for the purpose of satisfying hunger. f]"V means faintness from exhaustion, having reference to Esau's answer," / am going to die ;"* ao the word is used in 2 Sam. xvii. 29: " The people is hungry "and "f» weary (exhausted) and thirsty in the wilderness."
The preceding extract affords a fair specimen of the style and spirit of the Notes. Mr. Bellamy every where descries tabernacles, ami priests, and sacraments, and preaching. When Jacob rested at Bethel, (Chap, xxviii. 11.) « he was,' says this gentleman,' as the representative head of the Church, well known
* to the officiating priest at this tabernacle at Bethel. The 'offeringit sacrifices, rites, ceremonies, ttututes, ordinances, 'anil laws' as described in the book of Leviticus,' were always 'the same from the beginning.' p. 109. The refreshment provided for Isaac, (Chap, xxvii. 17, 25.) was a sacred sacrimental repast 'which.' says our Author, ' is retained in Christian
* churches to the present day!' p. 110. Chap. iii. 24, according to him, describes the institution jof a place of worship,* with 'the sacred lire with the incense in the censer which was taken
Vol. X. N.S. 2 B
'by the high-priest within the vail, in the Holy of Holies before 'the Cherubim!'
Leaving these reveries, we must devote a few more words to Mr. Bellamy's self-contradictions. His work is indeed quite a curiosity in this respect. To display in their proper light the inconsistencies and contradictions to which we refer, we shall insert a table of passages which might, without difficulty, be enlarged for the entertainment of our readers, exhibiting Bellamy rerun* Bellamy.
'With the Israelitish church it pleased God to communicate with his people by the Uium and the Tin MmJm; but in this church which was prior to the time of Moses, we do not meet with .him
« We find that the Cherubim, the Shechinali, the Urim and Thummim, were continued under the Mosaic dispensation, and that by these divine symbols, God communicated his will. Now as the divine goodness had by these symbols of his presence communed with man from the fall, so likewise when he established the covenant with Noah, they were continued as the appointed means of communication.' p. 58. Gen. xi. 7.
'fp» Zaakeen means a very old man.' p. 84.
'Abraham was }pt zakeen, old.' Chap. xxir. 1.
• We find from the translations recorded in this chapter that he ( Abraham) was a person of great consequence and dignity. We
have the Pompeius
deiive their origin from Damascus, a famous city of Syria; their kings were Abraham and Israel.' which is perfectly consistent with scripture authority, where it is said, he was a mighty prince. Chap, xxiii, 6.' p. 64 Gen. xiv. 13.
4 The word Jmji vayigaang, rendered ' he gave up the ghost,' means to be employed in a very laborious work. This word is rendered in the new translation, 'thus Abraham had laboured*' Note, p. 102. Chap. xxv. 8.
'Sarah heard it in the tent door,
was behind him.' These
consistent with the original,
and cannot be applied to make
Hense of the passage, The word
and Thummim; God communicated with man only from the Cherubim.' p. 76, Gen. xviii. 1.
'fpt Zaakeen cannot be rendered by the words ' an old man,' in any part of scripture! p. 102.
'Chap, xxiii. 6. The word rrnbN Elohyim, is in the Common Version rendered mighty • but this is evidently an error- The translation, a mighty prince, cannot be applied to Abraham at this period, as he was not a temporal prince, he had not even a place to bury his dead.' p. 97.
'— and Sarah heard at the opening of the Tabernacle, for she was behind /(»».' Text, Chap, xviii. 10.
which is rendered ' behind him,' is to be translated ' and he followed Aim'—Mini Virn* va hua achearaa, * arid he followed hint ;' that is, the stranger who was the speaker to Abraham, followed him.' Note, Chap, xviii. 10. p 76.
* a>3pl Zekunim' is a plural noun, * Wipl Zekunim is translated and means ilders in all the scrip- 'old age* by Mr. Bellamy in turc when truly translated, there- Chap. xxi. 2, v:pti> p, « a son in fore D12pT p, does not mean a son his oW age.' v. 7. VJplV p, a son of'his old age.' Note, Chap, xxxvii. in his old age.' In Chap. xliv. 20, 3. he translates D^pt lV>,« Son of his
We had almost overlooked a passage which we promised to notice, lb *»K? Chap, xxxiii. 20. is translated by Mr. Bellamy, 'he preached before him;' a strange rendering at nil events: had it however been before a congregation, it might have passed; but Jacob, a mortal preaching before God, is a surprising spectacle. This very expression however he has rendered in Chap, xxxi. 4?- ' he called it;' an intelligible phrase, according with the reading of the Common Version.
We here conclude our examination of Mr Bellamy's version, not because we have exhausted the materials which it supplies for our critical strictures, (for an abundance of them yet remain unnoticed,) but fiom the apprehension that the Article has for every important purpose been sufficiently extended. A version more at variance with the principles on which it was professedly undertaken, it would be impossible to mention: the Author has set at defiance every rule by which a translator should be governed. While professing a rigid adherence to the literal import of the original, he has given the Hebrew terms meanings entirely at variance with the usage of the sacred writers.
So serious and so numerous are his errors, that had preceding translators indulged in similar freedoms, the real import of the Scriptures must ere now have been quite obscured, and of all books the Bible would have been the most corrupt. For the length to which the present Article has extended, we assign no other reason than the high patronage which this new translation has obtained, and the industry employed to recommend it as an important work, both of which are most unworthily bestowed upon it. If the tone of our strictures has partaken of severity, the utmost severity is amply justified by the arrogant manner in which its Author has contemned and aspersed the most learned, the most upright, and the most pious of Hebrew scholars, not less than by the numberless errors and gross corruptions of which he has been guilty. The appropriate title to this production, would be, The Holy Bible perverted from the original Hebrew, by Mr. John Bellamy.