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ttnin-iiniix which the ascended Saviour is employed in preparing for his followers, in fact, cells of penance and expiation? But we cannot wonder, when " the Blood that taketli away sin," is deliberately spurned, the doctrine of necessity, or of the Divine causation of Evil, may, in the abstract, quite destroy all idea of ill-deserving, or of moral unfitness but, with thoughtful minds, the sense, both of ill-deserving; and of unfiliiess, will press heavily upon the conscience, in lite near appreltensioB of death; and the hope of discharging the debt, und of undergoing the discipline, takes possession of the mind. Thus, the doctrine of Final Regulation—the mournful gos|>el of Purga-< tory—supplants the bright offers of Revelation. Infatuated men, contemning "the tine gold," that costs but the humble suit, choose rather to dig the full price of their i I eaves, from the very bowels of Hell.
(To be continued.)
Art. IV. Ttvo Dissertations on Sacrifices: the first on all the Sacrifices of the Jews, with Remarks on some of those of the Heathen: the second on the Sacrifice of Christ • in both which the general Doctrine of the Christian Church on these Subjects is defended again* the Socinians. By William Outram, D.D. formerly Prebendary of Westminster; translated from the original Latin, with additional Notes, by John Allen, 8vo. pp. vii. 400. London. 18J7.
^TMIE custom of offering sacrifices to super-liiimnn natures, -*• prevailed at the beginning of the present era, among all nations, ond it is still universal, except where it has been abolished by the- influence of Christianity. The object and origin of a practice common to all the varieties of human society, must, as a matter of simple curiosity, be a most interesting subject of inquiry; but the investigation is of the first importance, as illustrative of the Jewish sacred writings, and as assisting us to form a just conception of the stupendous interposition of the Son of God on our behalf, in 'giving himself for us an ofler'ing and a sacrifice.' These dissertations, which have drawn forth the highest commendations from learned persons of different sects, were originally published in 1677, nnder the thle, De Sacrifices duo lAbri, 8fc. They have, ever since, formed a sort of common armory, to which incessant recourse has been had, for weapons to defend the doctrine of reconciliation to God by the death of his Son; w« are glad, therefore, of the opportunity that Mr. Allen's version, which on the whole ia well executed, affords us, of directing the attention of merely English readers, to Dr. Outram's very able and judicious work. A slight analysis of this learned work will be its best commendation.
Whether sacrifices were of Divine, or of human origin, appeared to Dr. Outram, to be a question so difficult and obscure, that be ventured not to determine it; but though he professes to detail the arguments in support of the opposite sides of the question, yet he has given soch superiority to the reasoning in favour of the human origin of sacrifices, that he who should make up his opinions purely upon the ground of what is advanced by Dr. O., would conclude that they were a device of man. To counteract the tendency of his Author's reasoning, the Translator has added a note, to strengthen or more fully illustrate the evidence of the Divine origin of sacrifices. That the practice of sacrifice originated in Divine institution, is our decided conviction; but instead of discussing the subject at length, which our limits forl>id, we shall simply recommend our readers to peruse the ' Discourse and Dissertations on the Scriptural Doc'trinfs of Atonement and Sacrifice,' by Dr. Magee, Vol. i. p. 43, 45, and Vol ii. p. 2, 91. where they will find the objections to the supposition of the Divine institution of sacrifices, satisfactorily refuted, and the arguments in favour of it stated with great depth of learning and force of reasoning.
From the origin of sacrifices, the Author proceeds to treat of the places in which they might be lawfully offered. Before ■ Mo^es erected the tabernacle, it was lawful to perform sacrifices in itny place, but afterwards, that structure, and subsequently the temple, were exclusively appropriated to the oblation of sacrifices Dr. Outram explains the nature and design of these sacred buildings, which formed, successively, the residence of the Divine Being. By the symbol of his presence, the Deity dwelt in them as the monarch of Israel. In the synagogues, God was worshipped; but the temple was the palace of the Great King.
'Hence, the Jews suppose, the very splendid furniture of the sanctuary, and the highly magnificent equipage as it were of a domestic establishment. Hence the exceedingly ample retinue, and the various ministers appointed to various offices: some who procured the things required for the sacred service; others who guarded the house; others employed as musicians, who, while the holocausts were burning and the wine was poured out, with the appointed solemnities, sang with the voice, blew with the trumpets, and played on the stringed instruments. Hence the table always furnished with bread, the fire continually blazing on the altar, the incense burned twice every day, and twice every day the members of the slaughtered victims laid on the altar of God, as on a table, and accompanied with sail md wine and flour. Hence the celebration of solemn days and feasts held at stated seasons.' p. 49.
The Jews were not only forbidden to offer sacrifice in any other place than that which the Divine presence rendered sacred, they were moreover restricted to a particular family in their choice of the ministers of their oblations. It appears, indeed, from the example of Cain and Abel, that in the primeval agf, every person offered his own sacrifice. In an oblation for a family, the father officiated as priest; and when sacrifices were made for communities, the chief of the community performed the sacred ceremonies. But on the erection of the tabernacle, the functions of the priesthood, which consisted in offering sacrifice to God and blessing the people, were commanded to be performed exclusively by Aaron and his sons. The priests were divided into two ranks; the higher being assigned to Aaron and his successors in the pontifical dignity, and the lower to the other priests. The Aaronic priests were consecrated to their office by oblations, after which they were solemnly invested with the sacred garments, and by the rites of unction and sacrifice. These ceremonies, together with the qualifications relative, corporal, and mental, essential to the priesthood, as well as those relating to the consecration and office of their servants the Levites, are described by our Author with great clearness and general accuracy.
The only dedicated things which the Jews considered as properly sacrifices, were the oblations called Corban, a term applied to all things offered to God before the altar. Every consecrated'thing brought to the door of the tabernacle, where the great altar was placed, was thus offered. Of things offered before the altar,' some were dismissed, as the goat which was 'led into the wilderness; some were dedicated entire and uniu'jured to the service of the sanctuary,' as the vessels appropriated to sacred uses, and the Levites, who were formally offered to God; others were consumed. Not however to the former, but to the latter only was applied the term sacrifice, which implied an oblation presented to God and then duly consumed. Those oblations only which this definition will comprize, and in the Scriptures termed offerings, were considered by the Jews as sacrifices; but 'the Scripture mentions some other 'victims, which, as they were never presented to God before his 'altar, are no where called oblations, and yet, I think, adds Dr. 'Outram, may justly be denominated expiatory sacrifices.' Of this class were the bird killed for the purification of the leper; the red heifer, whose ashes were kept for purifying those who might be polluted by the dead; and the heifer, whose head was cut off to expiate death by an unknown homicide. Of the offerings duly consumed, almost all of which were taken from the materials of human food, some were inanimate, and others animate substances. The inanimate oblation consisted of wbeaten or barley flour always mixed with oil, and sometimes with an addition of wine. This offering, termed in the Scriptures . mincha, bread offering, was invariably united with that of an animal, which sort of sacrifice, birds excepted, was termed ze
hack, a victim. Thus Corban comprehends whatever was offered at the altar of God; mincha denoting the flour offerings consumed on the altar, and zebuch animal sacrifices. The proportion of flour, oil, and wine, varied with the animals with which they were offered: 'for hullocks three tenths of an ephah 'of frne flour mingled with half a hin of oil and' half a bin of 'wine: for rams, two tenths of an ephah of fine flour mingled 'with the third part of a hin of oil, ami the third part of a hin of 'wine: and lastly, for goats and female sheep, as well as foi" 'lambs and bids, both male and female, only one tenth of an 'ephah of fine flour mingled with a fourth part of a hin of oil 'and the fourth part of a hin of wine.' Besides the meat-offering of inanimate substances, there was an oblation of incense, a' perfume composed of various sweet spices, which was to be burned once a year in the inner sanctuary, and in the outer sanetuary once every morning and every evening.
The sacrifices of the Israelites were peculiar in respect of the selection of the victims. The heathen nations sacrificed every species of animal, however base or savage; but the Israelites were permitted to offer only bullocks, goats, sheep, turtle doves, and pigeons, and the animals themselves were to be perfect in their kind, without spot or blemish.
The animal sacrifices which the law prescribed, were the burnt, the peace, the sin, and the trespass offerings. As the sacrifices anterior to the law, were holocausts or whole burntotterings, our Author considers it as uncertain whether piacu/orsacrifices were before that period ever used. To qs there appears to be little room for doubt. The sacrifice of Abel, is, by the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, compared with that of Christ; and both, though in different degrees, are said to speak peace. As the sacrifice of Christ was eminently piacular, it seems to follow from this comparison, that the sacrifice' of Abel was of the same nature. Sacrifice being of Divine institution, it is most reasonable to regard the rite as designed tobe emblematical of the offering of Christ; and this will lead us to conclude, that all the sacrifices prior to the law, which, it is highly probable, consisted of animals, were in some degree piacular. The burnt offering, the only species perhaps of sacrifice in use in the patriarchal age, was presented in gratitude for the Divine favour, to supplicate good or to deprecate evil, both in compliance with express precepts and at the will of individuals. The peace offering, so called because it referred to prosperity, (either obtained or solicited,) was termed an eucharistic sacrifice, when made for good received; but when to obtain future good, votive and voluntary. These two sorts of peace offerings differed from each other, in that the latter was presented without previous solemn engagement, and often when the
Vol. X. N.S. 2 P
person presenting it was in no immediate danger. The most remarkable, however, of the sacrifices of the Law, were the sin and trespass offerings, both of which being designed to expiate sin and to obtain pardon, were termed piacular. .These two kinds of piacular sacrifice were again sub-divided: the former, into the definite «m offering, which was the same for the rich and the poor, and the variable sin offerings which was greater or loss according to the ability of the offerer ; the latter, into the doubtful trespass offerinsr, made when it was only suspected that a sin had been committed, and the certain trespass offering, which was ordained in some cases uf bodily defilement, as well as in expiation of moral otTmces. Our Author specific* the victims of which these various sacrifices were to consist, as well as the cases in which they were to be respectively offered by individuals; hut he confesses himself utterly unable to state the difference between «ins and trespasses. Between the two classes of sacrifices, however, there were several points of difference. The trespass offering always consisted of rams and helambs: the blood was sprinkled on both sides of the altar, and it was presented only by individuals: the sin offering was never made of rams or he-lambs, the blood was put upon the horns of the altar, and it was made for the whole assembly of Israel. The sacrifices enjoined on the Israelitish nation, and offered by its representatives, were either stated or occasional. Of the latter sort were the bullock offered for a sin offering, when the people unwittingly violated a Divine prohibition; the kid for a sin offering, which, together with a bullock for a holocaust, was olVs-rcil when the people fell into idolatry; and the red heifer, which, though not preseuted before the altar, was yet a sin offering.
The following enumeration is given of the stated sacrifices of the whole congregation.
'Every day were to be offered two lambs, one in the morning and the other in the evening, " for a continual burnt offering." To these daily victims were to be added, weekly, two other lambs, " for the "burnt offering of every sabbath." At the commencement of every month, two young bullocks, one ram, and seven lambs, were to be sacrificed, as a burnt offering, and a kid for a sin offering* On each of the seven days of the paschal feast, the same sacrifices were to be offered as at the commencement of every month; with the addition, on the second day, on which the first fruits were consecrated by the wave sheaf, of another lamb for a burnt offering. On the feast of Pentecost also, the same sacrifices were to be offered as at the beginning of every month; with the addition of one young bullock, two rams, and seven lambs for a burnt offering, two other lambs as peace offerings, and one kid for a sin offering. At the feast of trumpets, which was the first day of the seventh month, were to be offered, beside the regular monthly victims, one young bullock, one