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ram, and seven lambs for a burnt offering, and one kid for a sin offering. The like sacrifices, without the monthly ones, were to be offered on the solemn day of atonement; and to them was to be added another ram for a burnt offering, and another goac, the most eminent of all the sacrifices, for a sin offering, whose blood was to be carried by the high priest into the inner sanctuary; which was not done with the blood of any other victim, except the bullock, which was offered the same day as a sin offering for the family of Aaron. On the first day of the feast of tabernacles, thirteen young bullocks, two rams, and fourteen lambs were to be offered as a burnt offering, and one kid for a sin offering. The like number of victims was to be offered on each of the next six days, except that the number of bullocks was to be one less on every successive day. The sacrifices for the eighth day of this festival were to be one bullock, one ram, and seven lambs for a burnt offering, and one goat for a sin offering.' p. 170.
The sacrificial rites varied according to the sacrifices. Of these, the offering of the victim by the offerer's bringing it to the altar and putting his hands on its head—the sprinkling of the blood of the victims, in some cases in the tabernacle, in others, on the horns and at the sides of the great altar—and the burning of the carcases of some of the victims without the camp, are the most curious and instructive.
The circumstance, however, of the greatest interest in the ancient sacrifices, is the typical relation which they had to the sacrifice of Christ. A type our Author defines, ' as a symbol 'of something future, or an example prepared and evidently 'designed by God to pre-figure that future thing, viz. the anti'type.' All the Jewish sacrifices appear to have been typical, in this sense, of the Christian sacrifice, since, by the offering of himself, Jesus Christ superseded them all: the perfection required in the victims, represented his consummate virtues, and their death his dying. But the sacrifice ef Christ was eminently the antitype of those victims whose carcases were burned without the camp, and whose blood was carried into the inner sanctuary. The most important respect in which the Jewish sacrifices typified the availing sacrifice, is this, that the efficacy of all of them was directed towards God. That the efficacy of the ancient sacrifices was directed towards God and not towards man, is a position vehemently impugned by those who reject the doctrine of atonement through the death of Christ. This main point Dr. Outram has taken great pains to establish. The arguments in favour of it, are drawn from the place at which sacrifice was offered, viz. the abode of the Divine presence—from the sacerdotal function which consisted in ministering to God, in transacting the affairs of men with God—from the circumstance that sacrifice partook of the nature of worship—from the sacrificial ''Hex, viz. the imposition of hands upon the victim and dev«ling it to Go,d, the putting the parts of it on the altar and sprinkling its blood toward the vail or the mercy-seat—and from the pray en used with the offerings; arguments which appear to us very cogent and satisfactory. While all the sacrifices of the Jews, by having respect to God, typified the perfect sacrifice, this was more especially typified by the piacular victims ; they suffered a vicarious punishment. The piacular victim having the guilt of the sinner symbolically transferred upon it, became, on being put to death, the means of forgiveness to the offender ; the transaction being designed to afford an apt representation of the Divine abhorrence of sin, and to impress a salutary reverence of the Divine authority. Nothing can be clearer than the vicarious nature of the piacular victims. Sin is uniformly represented in Scripture, as a taint which dreadfully denied the sinner; but •when by imposition of hands, accompanied with confession of sins, the guilt was transferred to the animal, while that sustained the pollution the offerer was purified. This transfer of guilt from the offerer to the victim, was most conspicuous in the animals whose blood was offered in the sanctuary, aud whose carcases were burned without the camp; but the principle of all piacular victims being the same, they must all be considered as of vicarious import. In corroboration of the arguments adduced to prove that the efficacy of the sacrifices was directed to Cod, and that the piacular victims were of a vicarious nature, Dr. Outram has accumulated authorities illustrative of the concordant opinions held by both Jews and Heathen on their respective sacrifices, and by the ancient Christian writers concerning both.
The second Dissertation treats of the Sacrifice of Christ. The Author, first insists upon his priesthood, as consisting in managing the cause of men with God, and thus differing from tin- prophetic and regal functions of Christ, which consisted in conducting the affairs of God with men; and as being of a different order from that which was constituted by the Law, inasmuch as he sprung not from the family to which the Law confined the priesthood, and inasmuch as he will exercise his office tor ever. That Christ's priesthood is real and not figurative, is proved by numerous citations from Scripture, which bestow upon him that appellation, as well as by others, in which be is expressly said to perform the parts of the sacerdotal function. Christ was consecrated to the office of priest, not in the way ot the Aaronic priests, but by those things which qualified him to exercise it effectually. In consequence of his divinely consummate excellence, of the sanctity of his life, of his obedience in voluntarily submitting to death, he unites with immortal life, the greatest influence with God and the most intense affection tom,ep.
, Though the sacrifice which Christ, as a priest, offered up to God, collected in itself the reality of the shadowy virtues of all , the ancient sacrifices, it seems to belong more particularly to i the piacular class. Christ made the great sacrifice, in the view . of our Author. ' by his voluntary oblation of himself to a bloody , ' death—by his death itself—and by his entering into heaven 'as a victim that had been slain.' Dr. Outram has attempted to explain how each of these branches of the sacrificial work of Christ, contributes to our salvation. By the first, in which Christ sustained the part of the offerer, being our representative, as well as that of the victim, while he confirmed the truth of his doctrine, and afforded an example of obedience to God and charity to men, he obtained sovereign dominion from the Divine Father, and with Him supreme influence, which influence constitutes the efficacy of his priesthood. The second—the death which he endured as a piacular victim, was a vicarious punishment, by which be procured remission for the sins of men. Its vicarious design is proved from the Scriptures. The Author's reasoning under both these heads, is supported by much judicious criticism, and appears to us solid and conclusive; but he has indulged in some rather crude and we think unwarrantable speculation on the remission of sins effected by the sacrifice of Christ. The inaccuracies into which he has fallen on this point, (-and they are almost the only objectionable passages that occur in this accurate treatise,) arose, apparently, from his not sufficiently considering the propitiatory sacrifice of Christ, in the light of a grand and extraordinary expedient to reconcile the exercise of justice and mercy—to maintain the authority of the Divine administration, while sinful creatures are raised to the fruition of immortality. The third thing by which Christ accomplished his sacrifice, was his entering into the celestial sanctuary, and presenting himself as a slain victim to God, with the design of commending us and our services to the Father. In this way, he became the reality of what was pre-figured by the entrance on the day of annual expiation of the high priest under the Law, into the inner sanctuary, where he sprinkled the blood of the piacular victims and commended the people to God. The arguments adduced in this concluding chaper, to prove that Christ presented himself in heaven as a piacutar victim, previously slain, will be found to be stated with great precision and force.
An Index of the principal matters, an Index of Texts, and a List of Notes added by the Translator, are judiciously given at the end of the volume.
Art. V. 1. A Letter to Sir Samuel Romitty, M.P. From Henn Brougham, Esq. M.P. F.R.S. Upon the Abuse of Charities. Fourth Edition, 8vo. pp. 68. Price 2s. 6(1. 1818.
2. An Appendix to the above, pp. 10$. Price 3s. 1818.
lylJE know not what effect this cool but keen remonslranee 'v may have upon the minds of certain right honourable personages ; probably none. That courageous defiance of public opinion, that inflexible adherence to the blindest measures, that magnanimous subordination of moral to financial considerations, which have been repeatedly manifested by the dominant party of statesmen, leave us no room to anticipate any good result from the disclosures made by this publication, except so far as the public voice shall compel some ungracious and reluctant concession. On this account it does 'seem material,' how Mmparliamentary soever be the mode adopted by Mr. Brougham,
* that the subject should be fairly laid before the Country, 'without waiting for the meeting of Parliament.'
The Writer of this Letter is somewhat too prominently and avowedly perhaps a party man; too much so to gain implicit credit for the unsophisticated patriotism of his motives, or the disinterestedness of his resentment. We must say, however, that nothing can seem more fair and upright, and honourable and conciliatory, than the whole of his conduct as a member of the Education Committee of the House of Commons. We believe him when he declares that he was ' peculiarly solicitous to
* avoid every thing which might seem to proceed from party 'attachments or dislikes.' He confidently appeals for the truth of this assertion to His Majesty's ministers, with whom from time to time he had occasion to communicate on the subject. The Education Committee, whose organ he was in bringing the Bill for a Parliamentary Commission before the House, was composed of above forty members, taken indiscriminately from all parts of the House, and a real and complete unanimity attended all their proceedings. The Bill was itself submitted to the highest legal authority in the House of Lords, as well us to the Secretary of State for the Home Department, and the most important alterations were submitted to, with the hope of rendering it palatable to the Minister. So material were these alterations, that if the framers of the Bill are liable to any charge, it is, as Mr. Brougham remarks, 'to « the imputation of having surrendered too many of the pro< visions originally made in it.?
. 'As the Bill at first stood, the Commissioners were to be named ii it. The Ministers proposed that the appointment should be vested in the Crown; that is in themselves. To this important alteration the Committee with extreme reluctance submitted rather than astented. We were aware that upon the fitness of the persons selected to carry on the inquiry its success mainly depended. We had before us the examples of the Commissions of Public Accounts, and of Naval and Military Inquiry, from which the country had derived the most signal benefits, chiefly, as we conceived, because the acts establishing those Boards had nominated the members who were to form them. No private selection of Commissioners, how conscientiously soever it might be performed, could give the same security against improper or inefficient appointm nts. Without accusing the Minister to whose department it belonged, of so foul a crime, as a wilful prostitution of patronage in this most delicate matter, we felt that all' men in high office, are beset by applicants; that they must frequently trust to others for their information as to individual merit; and that private friendships often blind very respectable persons in the reports which they make or the suits which they prefer. We could not indeed believe that the Secretary of State was capable of chusing men whom the place might suit, rather than those suited to the place; that he could shut his eyes to the claims of acknowledged merit, and prefer unknown persons backed by powerful supporters; or that, instead of regarding their fitness for the new office, he should bestow the salary as the wages of former service. Least of all did a suspicion ever enter our minds that care might knowingly and wilfully be taken to avoid those men, whose zeal for the cause, and whose habits of investigation, gave a certain pledge that all abuses would be sittcii to the bottom, and that the guilty would in no station be spared. Yet we were afraid that a certain degree of carelessness or easy good-nature, the almost necessary attendant upon official habits, might be shewn in the selection; and that he whom we were willing to believe incapable of voluntarily converting into a job the most sacred part of his patronage, or of taking precautions to screen the enormous delinquency of robbing the poor, might from imperfect information, and in the hurry of a busy department, chusc Commissioners far Jess adapted to the objects of the Act, than those upon whose fitness a public decision by the voice of Parliament should be pronounced. To assist the Legislature in making this selection, we had applied ourselves with much attention in the Committee, canvassing with perfect freedom the qualifications of many gentlemen who were at different times offered to our notice. And we were prepared to propose a list, in which was to be found the name of no one connected, however rftnotely, with any of ourselves. I may add, as far as regards myself, that all but one were of political connexions adverse to my own; that I was upon a footing of intimacy with none of them; and that one gentleman, of undeniable qualifications having been iroposed, I desired his name might be no more mentioned, as he isppi ned to be a near relation of mine. Some persons, whose opinions I highly respect, deemed that we acted unwisely in abandoning this main point of the nomination. But we only gave it up when we found the ministers determined to oppose the Bill, unless they were allowed to name the Commissioners. We still trusted that the power would not be abused; and we looked to the wholesome