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separate alphabet is used for each class. The various kinds of adjectives, prepositions, adverbs, and conjunctions, are separately arranged in the same manner. This sort of classification we consider as altogether unnecessary in a Lexicon, which is not intended to supply the place of a grammar. The plan of the Port Royal Greek Primitives, is perspicuous and easy, and has not been advantageously exchanged for that adopted in the present work. Mr. Booth's Lexicon, it may be remarked, so far corresponds to the Primitives of Messieurs De Port Royal, as to be rather a dictionary of leading words, than an etymological classification of radicals, which is the correct meaning of primitive applied to words.

The definitions included in this Lexicon, are given, both in Latin and English, with copiousness, and generally, but not always, with exactness. We shall extract a specimen or two of its execution in this respect.

* 'oftrn, G. pi. Dor. 'aptTM, Virtus, fortitudo, industria, navitas— Virtue, moral goodness and excellence, courage, valour, fortitude, industry, activity, enterprise, q. "Ap>i5, Mars.'

These several meanings are not arranged in their natural order, the primary import of the word not being, as is here intimated by the leading English explanation, moral goodness. The senses of fertility, goodness as applied to land, and praise or glory, might have been, added on the authority of Plato and Thucydides.

4 'o3oj, r!. Dl. Att. Tu 'oW, via, iter; ratio, rnethodus; auxflium viae; insidiac qua? juxta viam struuntur—a voay, path, road, journey; manner, method, way of proceeding, provisions for a journey, a viaticum, relief upon the road; an ambuscade, way-laying, ambush.'

* y*<*Jxo;, Glaucus, caeruleus, ccesius—blue, of sky colour, azure, cerulean, sea-greeti.'

'V«» venio, accedo, pervenio, adsum; attineo, pertineo—to come, approach, draw near, arrive, be present; appertain, belong, extend to* concern, im. & /3. "r.xov, 1. r|f *, a. Vfa, subj. »'{<», ».;, n, pf. ind. ■)*&, «f, i. obs. The present tense of this verb is not unfrequently used for the preterperfect j e. g. Wo j*axp»&E» rTxouo-t, procul veuerunt, they cams fromjar'.'

Mr. Booth's remark scarcely defiues the use of the verb in the sense intended: it is more correctly rendered as a present, »">u>, f am come. Hecuba, in initio. So in lieb. x. 7, i'*-> / am come.

Art. "VII. Principia Uelraica, comprising a Grammatical Analysis of Five Hundred and Sixty-four Verses, selected from the Hebrew Psalms: in which are found nearly all the Radical Words in common Use, occurring in the Hebrew Scriptures. To which is prefixed, a concise Hebrew Grammar, adapted to the Analysis, and so arranged as to illustrate the principles of the language, both with, and without Points. By T. K. and D. J. 8vo. pp. 360. Price 15s. 1818.

aim of the Authors of this work is, ' to smooth the path • to an acquaintance with the Hebrew Scriptures;' ana we must do them the justice to express an opinion decidedly and greatly in favour of their attempt. They have unitedly produced an Introduction to the reading of the Hebrew Bible, of distinguished excellence and utility. Nothing so complete of the kind was ever before put into the hands of the English scholar, who is here provided with a guide to Hebrew reading, worthy of his confidence. lu awarding the high praise to which the Authors have an unquestionable claim, we cannot omit the commendation due to their unassuming manner. There i» here no dogmatism, no presumption, no affectation; but a plain, sedate, straight-forwardness of manner, quite suitable to their office as instructers, with the business of Which they are thoroughly acquainted, and the duties of which they conscientiously and ably discharge. Theirlearning is never used for thepurposeof display, but is invariably employed to promote the solid improvement of those persons who may choose to avail themselves of the means here provided for their correct instruction in the knowledge of Hebrew. They are too wise to publish a new and easy method of learning the language, or to deceive the inexperienced, by encouraging the notion that a few days are sufficient for its attainment. But, while the respectable Authors deal fairly by the student, in exhibiting the extent to which his attention must be given to Hebrew, if he would learn it to purpose, it is due to them to .state, that they have furnished him with every admissible facility for his initiation and progress in it.

The Authors have very judiciously constructed their work, for the use of the two different classes of Hebrew readers, the Punctists, and the Anti-punctists : it is, however, particularly adapted for the latter.

The Analysis is' distributed into six parts. Through the whole of the first of these divisions, every change, addition, and omission, both of letters and points, is explained. In the remaining parts, the marks of reference which have most frequently occurred, are omitted, except in the ca^ of difficult and unusual forms, which are constantly elucidated. A careful >md repeated perusal of the first part of the Analysis, cannot fail of initialing the student who prefers reading with poiuts, into the proper use of the language in this more complex form; and bif

EefkeVerance through the whole will be the means of furDisltjpg ins-tor tlie intelligible and easy, comprehending of any part of the Hebrew Bible. We do not perceive in this excellent work either defects or errors of importance sufficient to require particular notice, if (Suo, o<?§a.x/«t/;, x. T. x.) Matt, xviii 9. (p. 32) is not a Hebraism.

Art. VIII. Narrative of a Residence in Algiers, by Sign or Pananti, '•' with Notes and Illustrations, by Edward Blaquiere, Esq 11 N*. Author of "Letters from the Mediterranean." J,2. 2s- boards, 1 4to. pp. 467. London. 1818.

TT is justly remarked by the Editor of this interesting work, 1 * that next to the great question of South-American independence, no subject demands more serious consideration, than the ■ slate of Italy, and of the coast of Barbary. This is discussed with considei able strength of argument and force of eloquence, in the course of the Author's narrative; and when it is considered that he is a native of the country whose cause he advocates, and consequently acquainted with all the hardships undtr which it labours, and that he has been an unwilling resident in that state which he calls upon Europe to chastise, and has consequently witnessed and experienced the cruelties it is in the practice of inflicting, a double share of attention is due to statements which combine the acute reasoning of an able theorist, with the practical knowledge oi a man who has seen much of the world, and whose perceptions have been sharpened by adversity, which has been justly styled the mother of wisdom.

There is something peculiarly affecting ip the contemplation of Italy, so rich in native genius, in the finest remains of arte, and the most interesting recollections of former greatness, so favoured by nature with every requisite for power and enjoyment, yet, with all her intellectual fire damped by tyranny, her choicest productions of art distributed by ruthless invaders, and all her associations of former days only contrasting more painfully with her present degradation. In that fine country, even the choicest gifts of nature are made subservient to die sensual and immoral iudulgences which, in the absence of every great and liberal pursuit, become the sole occupation of life to her oppressed inhabitants, whose vivacity and (eeling, checked in all their most meritorious sources, produce, like neglected hot-beds, the rankest weeds, where care and encouragement would bring forth the choicest fruits. Yet, when we turn from this scene, to contemplate that which the piratical states of Barbary afford, how much more deeply must we be affected and appalled! Id them we behold, not merely the insolence of despotism, the •triumph of imposture and idolatry, hut also, crowds of unhappy wretches, most of them professedly fellow Christians, many of them our fellow countrymen, ..II of them our fellow c reatnres, loaded with chains, condemned to a toil severer than that of beasts ofburden, and holding, merely at the will of ferocious despots, the uncertain tenure of a life imhittered by every species of suffering, and too often deprived even of hope, that consolation •which appears to be peculiarly consecrated to the unhappy.

That, in the present day, whenso much philanthropy has beeu awakened throughout Europe, and such unceasing exertions made in the cause of humanity, for the emancipation of slaves in different parts of the world, so little attention should have been shewn to those who would surely on a first view appear the most nearly connected with us, in the essential similaritie* of religion and manners, is a moral phenomenon which can be accounted for only by looking more deeply into political causes, than the simply benevolent would in s,ich a case imagine to be at all necessary. There can be but little doubt, that an unpardonable degree of toleration of the insolence of the Barbary States, if not an absolute connivance at them, has too long been shewn by some of the most powerful States in Europe. England has, however, struck one forceful blow towards their demolition, and it only remains for her to follow it up, and for others no less interested in the cause, (a common one for the interests both of commerce and humanity,) to act in concert with her, and to recollect, that in making treaties with people who pride themselves on their perfidy, all half-measures are worse than nothing; tending not merely to weaken their own hands, but to strengthen those of the enemy.

Signor Paiianti, after some years passed in England, as a place of refuge from the misery of his native laud, torn by dissensions, and oppressed by a foreign yoke, began to feel that maludie du pays, to which men are subject exactly in proportion to the rest of their amiable qualities, lie accordingly took his passage on board a Sicilian brig, hound for Palermo, which was to sail from Spithead with the Mediterranean convoy. This convoy, however, was unfortunately suffered to sail without it, through the carelessness and self-sufficiency of the Captain, whose name, as well as that of his vessel, was Hero, a misuoiner which gives our hero the opportunity of consoling himself for the disappointment, with the reflection, couched in the fascinating form of a pun, that he was not ihe fir t person who had been sacrificed to the folly or ambition of persons bearing tint appellation.

This false step in the Captain, was, as is general!> the case, followed by others ol the samr mature. He not only ventured, contrary to the wish of bis passengers, and the advice of his crew, to run the most dangerous parts of his voyage, without convoy, but, even when he had, by dint of mere kindness on the part of the elements, rather than good management on his own, arrived in safety at the island of San Pietro, persisted in leaving it again, regardless of the persuasions of the inhabitants, and fearless of the Algeriue squadron which appeared in sight, almost immediately after his leaving the port. It h;is been justly remarked, that fool-hardiiipss is not courage: so far indeed do they diiler, that they are qualities which are scarcely ever united. In this Redoubtable naval Hero, they were decidedly distinct; for no sooner had the natural consequence of his rashness and obstinacy ensued, in his falling into the power of the Algerines, than he became stupified with fear, and incapable of making the slightest effort for the preservation of his vessel or crew. After some hours of agonizing suspense to the passeugers, most of whom were within a few days' sail of their homes, the decisive blow was struck; and they were called upon to give themselves up as prisoners, to a power the disgrace of modern tiroes, and more ferocious and unpitying than any whose records stain the historic page of former ages.

'On gaining the frigate we had no sooner got upon deck than the barbarians uttered a general cry of victory, usual when any captures are made. A savage joy seemed to play on their cadaverous aspects. A passage being opened for us, between the armed Turks and Moorish sailors, we were conducted into the presence of the grand Rats, supreme commander of the Algerine squadron. He was seated between the captains of the five other frigates, who had assembled in close council to deliberate on the measures necessary to be taken with us; to combine future operations, and finally to exult in their horrible celebrity. Wc were interrogated in brief and haughty terms, but neither insult nor rudeness was ottered to any of the party. The grand Mais very civilly asked us for our money, watches, rings, aud every other article of value we had about our persons; in order, as he obligingly observed, to save them from the rapacity of the people of the Black Sea, who formed a considerable part of the crew, and whom he cordially said were all ladri. He then deposited our respective property in a small box, faithfully assuring us, that all should be returned on our leaving the vessel. During the distribution in the box, he repeated, alternately looking at the captives, «• questo per ti," " this is for you;" «« questo altro per ti;" but perhaps in his heart, " and all this for me." We were then ordered to retire ; and, placed upon a mat in the Rais's outer cabin, began to reflect on our new situation.' p. 35.

It is not, as our Author justly remarks, the first shock of misfortune, that is most severely felt ; the mind is in fact then more occupied with the novelty of the situation, than with the evils of it; more intent on immediate contemplation of its peculiarities, than on calculating its future results. The first few days of

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