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their captivity, the Author and his companions were diverted in some measure from dwelling on their own misfortunes, by sympathy in the fate of others who were attacked and captured by the ferocious Algerines, who shewed their merciless nature, in striking off the head of the commander of a Tunisian Corvette, who Jiad made a gallant resistance. The Author's reflections in this part of his narrative, arc in the true spirit of philosophy; a cheerful determination to make the best of every thing, appears to have actuated him; and under this enviable frame of mind, which is in itself a shield against calamity, he is enabled to see things in so impartial a light, as to acknowledge, that even among the Algerines, there are to be found some honourable exceptions to their general character, and that the treatment of the prisoners on board the vessel, was not only free from insult or inhumanity, but that the females in particular were treated with the* utmost deference. On landing at Algiers, the prisoners were brought, in long and pompous procession, with the Bait at their head, to the palace, where the captivesare examined, and prizes condemned. The party consisted, besides the captain and his crew, of our Author, the Chevalier Rossi, his wife, and children, who were returning to their native country, after a long residence in England, a Mr. Terreni, of Leghorn, who was taking out merchandize from this country^ bis- brother Antonio, an artist of distinguished merit, who was going to make a picturesque tour in Sicily, a Calabrese, who had served many years in our navy, a lady, who was going to join her husband on his return from the East Indies, and a yonngfemale, whose romantic history inspires a sentimeutof deep regret at its melancholy termination. After achieving the laudable
Surpose for which she came to England, and hastening back to er lover, in Sicily, with the competence the want of which had been the only bar to their union, having cheerfully endured every hardship of the voyage, she fell a victim to her grief, during her detention in Algiers from the object of her choice. Our readers may now have some idea of the following scene.
'A large awning being extended in front of the house, the scene shortly opened, exhibiting the members of the Regency in barbarous peniji, and horrid majesty, seated before us, accompanied by the Vlcmas, or expounders of the law, and principal agas of the divan. We were then, without further ceremony or preamble, asked for our papers, which were duly examined; nor was that, canting gravity wanting on this occasion, which is usually assumed to justify acts of rapine and plunder. They were then presented to the English Con- • sul, whose presence is always required on these examinations to verify •my claims he may have to make. This gentleman soon saw the insufficiency of our documents; but stimulated by the goodness of his heart, •,<ud sentiments of pity for persons in our unhappy condition, he made • every possible exertion to extricate us from the appalling dilemma with which we were now threatened. The circumstance of some of the party being natives of a country, united to the dominion of France, did not restrain the Consul's generous efforts. We were unfortunate, and that was sufficient to ensure the protection of an Englishman. But Rais Hamida boldly sustained the remorseless laws of piracy; drawing the finest distinction imaginable between domiciliation and nationality, he proved himself a most able juriconsult, according, at least, to the African code of public laws.
'" A good prize! prisoners! slaves !" was now murmured through the council, and soon communicated to the crowd assembled without; which by its cries and vociferation seemed to demand such a decision. The British Consul then formally demanded the English lady, and her children; upon this being accorded, the Chevalier Rossi, her husband, advanced a few steps, and with dignified courage, supported his claim to liberation, on the principle of having married an English woman, and of also being the father of two British subjects, his children: this application being successful, he soon rejoined his anxious wife and children. Another attempt was made in favour of us all, br the Consul, but without effect: this was followed by a cry in the hall of Schiavi! Schiavi!" Slaves, Slaves;" which horrible word was echoed by the multitude. The members of the council then rose, and on the assembly's being dissolved, the consul and his attendants, together with the Chevalier Rossi and family departed, leaving us the devoted victims of slavery, in a state of immoveable insensibility, at one who scarcely hears the thunder when he is enveloped by the lurid glare of its lightning.
. 'Before we had recovered from our stupor, we were led off under the Grande Scrivano and Guardian Basha, who conducted us over a considerable part of the city, accompanied by a great number of spectators. It being Friday, the Moorish sabbath, hundreds of the infidels, in coming from the mosque, were soon attracted in every direction to enjoy this new spectacle of degraded Christianity.
4 Arrived at Pascialick, or palace of the Pasha, inhabited at present by the Dey, the first object that struck our eyes were six bleeding heads ranged along before the entrance I!! And, as if this dreadful sight was not sufficient of itself to harrow up the soul, it was still farther aggravated by the necessity of our stepping over them, in order to pass into the court. They were the heads of some turbulent Agas, who had dared to murmur against the Dey's authority. Our fears naturally suggested them as having been severed from the heads of Christians, and purposely placed there to terrify the new inmates of this fatal region. A dead silence prevailed within the walls of the building, in which suspicion seemed to have made her abode; while fear was depicted in every face. Being ordered to range ourselves before the Dey's window, to feast the despot's eyes, he soon approached, looking at us with a mingled smite of exultation and contempt; then making a sign with his hand, we were ordered to depart; and, after a third circuit of the town, arrived before a large dark looking building, on entering which we stumbled, as if by an involuntary impulse. It was the great Bagno, a house of reception for Christian •laves. Hence one of its pompous tides, Bafios os Esclavos, which without gilding the pill quite so much, may be plainly rendered by the simple word prison. Every fibre trembled, and our limbs tottered under us, as we traversed the horrid receptacle. The first words which escaped the keeper after our entrance were, "whoever is brought into this house, becomes a slave." He might as well have added.
Lasciate ogni speranza, voi, che* utrate !*
'In passing through the dark and filthy court yard, we were surrounded by a multitude of slaves, bearing about them all the signs of abandoned sufferers. They were ragged, lank, and haggard, with the head drooping, eyes sunk and distorted, cheeks imprinted by the furrows of protracted wretchedness, which seem to have withered the soul, and by destroying the finer impulses of their nature, left no trace of pity for the sufferings of others, so that we passed without the slightest manifestation of that sympathy so naturally expected in such a situation. Exhausted by long confinement, and wrapt up in a sense of their own melancholy fate, our appearance was viewed with a stupid indifference, unaccompanied by any fellow feeling. During the few intervals unoccupied in the public works they remained shut up, wandering about, like pallid spectres, in this house of darkness, and sorrow.
4 Our ascent up the prison staircase, was not unlike that of a malefactor, when mounting the scaffold; but as some' indulgence is generally granted to condemned criminals, the keeper treated us during the first day, with particular attention and regpect; inviting us into his own apartment, and insisting that we should partake of his dinner, thus making up for the anxiety and fasting of the preceding day. There were at the table, besides myself and fellow passengers, three slaves, who had been many years in captivity, and were persons of birth and education. Amongst the rest was Signor Artemate of Trieste, who possessed a mind adorned by education, and a character formed by long reflection, and adversity, with the truest ingredients. of friendship. In reciprocal misfortune the consoling voice was not long silent. Like Attilius Regulus, we also were in servitude,'on that very shore which saw the Roman hero perish for his country; happi y if like him, we could evince the same intrepidity of soul, and firmness of character.'—p. 69.
It is impossible to read such details as the preceding, and those which immediately follow it, without a feeling1 of the deepest commiseration for the numbers of unfortunate beings who have languished away their existence under circumstances such as our Author describes, wherein personal sufferings have been aggravated by mental refinement, and resignation to the will of heaven iuihi tiered by reflections on the cruelty of countrymen and. relations, who could suffer them thus to pass their days in sla
Ye heirs of hell .
▼cry, not only without making even an effort in their behalf, but often, it is to be feared, in the actual enjoyment of the very property, which, If properly applied, would effect the liberation of its rightful owners. Of this description is the following instance.
'On another occasion the situation of a still more unfortunate slave, was equally calculated to excite my indignation and sympathv. He was sorrowfully seated under an old wall: at his feet there lay an immense load, under which he seemed to have sunk; his visage was pallid and meagre; with looks full of wildness, and eyes fixed on the ground, all expressing strong signs of premature age, brought on by grief and sufferings; raising his head he seemed to become more agitated, and striking his breast and forehead several times, deep sighs seemed to relieve his mind from some internal paroxysm of despair. "What can be the matter my friend," said I, addressing myself to this unfortunate wretch. "Why all these signs of misery and distress?" "Poor Christians," he replied "there is no help for them in this world! and their groans are not heard in heaven. I was born in Njples, but what coantry have I! Nobody assists me; I am forgotten by all. I was noble, rich, and illustrious, in the place of my birth; see how wretchedness arid slavery can change the face of man. It is now eleven years since my sufferings began^ during which time I have in vain solicited the assistance of relatives and fellow-creatures, but all to no purpose, there being no longer any one on whom I can place hope or reliance. To whom therefore can I turn my eyes for support? What have I done to deserve so much oppression and sufferings ?'" p. 91.
The inducement of such a frame of mind as this, is one effect of the power of affliction, which, more than any other, ought to be deprecated, and guarded against. Unfortunate indeed is he, . whom sorrows irritate rather than correct, and pitiable above all others, the hapless being who, at once, finds himself forsaken by roan, and in his despair estranges himself from God! Fortunately for Signor Pananti, he was not doomed to experience, personally, the evils of which he was sufficiently agonized by witnessing the effects in others. By the indefatigable exertions of his friends, the Chevalier Rossi and his wife, and the benevolent co-operation of Mr. Macdonnel, the English Consul, whose character appears to be an epitome of all that is desirable in so important an official character, as the Representative of a Nation ought to be considered, the delightful words, 'Ti sta franco." ** You are free!" were pronounced to him, just after he had worn the badge of slavery long enough to allow him to form some estimate of its degrading and paralyzing powers over all the best energies of man. The circumstance of a slave's liberation, without ransom, so immediately after bis captivity, was almost unique in the annals of Algiers, and Signor Pananti's account of his feelings on the occasion, is marked with ail the vi•»acity and eloquence of the country which gave him birth. The first check to his transports arose from his being obliged to leave his companions under circumstances so different from his own; the next, from finding that though restored to liberty, he was deprived of every tiling else, except what he immediately inherited from nature. His clothes, money, books, and merchandize, were all gone, past recal; and even his manuscripts, those precious treasures of the learned and ingenious, who so seldom possess any more negotiable kind of wealth, were likewise spoiled by the hands of (he barbarians, and he mourns over them with the fondness ot a parent, or a lover, calling upon all who have, like him, placed their chief enjoyment in the luxury of intellectual refinement, to lament with him in his loss. Still, however, like Fenelon. who, when told that his books were destroyed by fire, replied, "1 should have derived no profit from them if they had not "taught mi- patiently to bear with their loss," he evinces in his •very mode of grieving for them, how much lie retains, in retaining the cheerful spirits under which they had-probably been composed. He finds out that every thing in this world is liable to he lost, and he makes out a humorous catalogue, among which he gives no undue importance to his own effusions: he is •well known as an author in his native country, and his Editor, •who has proved himself an adequate judge, bears testimony to the ingenuity and merit of his performances. Mr. Blaquiere likewise confirms the truth of our Author's statements respecting the condition of the slaves in Algiers, saying indeed that instead of being overcharged, they present only a small part of the evils to which these ill-fated beings are subjected ;Syet what additional miseries can be thought of in such a picture as the following!
'No sooner is any one declared a slave, than he is instantly stripped of his clothes, ami covered with a species of sack-cloth: he is also generally left without shoes or stockings, and often obliged to work bare-headed, in the scorching rays of an African sun. Many suili'r their beard to grow as a sign of mourning and desolation, .while their general state of filth is not to be conceived. Some of these wretched beings are destined to make ropes and sails for the squadron: these are constantly superintended by keepers who carry whips, and frequently extort money from their victims, as the price of somewhat less rigour in the execution of their duty; others belong • to the Dey's household; and many are employed by the rich Moors, who may have bought them at market, in the lowest drudgery of domestic employment. Some, like the beasts of burthen, are employed in carrying stones and wood, for any public buildings that may be going on: these are usually in chains, and justly considered as the worst among their oppressed brethren. What a perpetuity of terrors, series of anguish, and monotonous days must not -theirs be! without a bed to lie on, raiment to cover them, or food to support