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nature! Two black cakes, like those already alluded to, and thrown down, as if intended lor dogs, is their principal daily sustenance, and had it not been for the charity of a rich Moor, who left a legacy for that purpose, Friday, the only day they are exempted from work, would have seen them without any allowance whatever. Shut up at night in the prison, like so many malefactors, they are obliged to sleep in the open corridor, exposed to all the inclemency of the seasons. In the country they are frequently forced to lay in the open air; or, like the Troglodite of old, shelter themselves in caverns. Awoke at day-light, they are sent to work with the most abusive threats, and, thus employed, become shortly exhausted under the weight and severity of their keepers' whips. Those destined to sink wells, and clear sewers, are for whole weeks obliged to be up to their middle in water, respiring a mephitic atmosphere: others employed in quarries, are threatened with constant destruction, which often comes to their relief. Some attached to the harness in which beasts of the field are also yoked, are obliged to draw nearly all the load, and never fail to receive more blows than their favoured companion, the ass, or mule. Some are crushed under the (ailing of buildings, whilst others perish in the pits into which they are sent to be got rid of. It is usual for one and two hundred slaves to drop off, in the year, for want of food, medical attendance, and other necessaries; and woe to those who remain, if they attempt to heave a sigh, or complain in the hearing of their inexorable master. The slightest offence or indiscretion is punished with two hundred blows on the soles of the feet, or over the back; and resistance to this shocking treatment is often punished with death.
'When in marching, a poor slave is exhausted by sickness, fatigue, and the cruelty of his usage, he is inhumanly abandoned on the highroad to be insulted by the natives, and trod under foot by the passengers They frequently return from the mountains, with the blood trickling from their limbs, which are, with their whole body, covered with scars and bruises. One evening, towards dark, I was called to by a hoarse voice: On drawing nearer I beheld an unhappy being stretched on the ground, foaming at the mouth, and with the blood bursting from his nose and eyes. I had scarcely stopt, struck with horror and apprehension,' when, in a faint voice, the word " Christian! Christian!" was repeated. "For Heaven's sake have pity on my sufferings, and terminate an existence which I can no longer support!" '* Who are you I" was my replyt "I am a slave," said the poor creature, "and we are all badly treated! An Oldak of the militia, who was passing this way, and happening to be near me at the time, exclaimed, in an angry tone, 'Dog of a Christian, how dare you stop the road, when one of the faithful passes V This was followed by a blow and a kick, which threw me down a height of several feet, and has left me in this condition.' " p. 90.
The number of the victims of different nations who were captured on the same cruise as that in which our Author and his companions were made prisoners, amounted to two hundred. This was about two years before Lord Extuoutli's attack upou Algiers, but by the successful issue of that enterprise, our readers will be glad to hear that our Author's friends, as well as several hundred other captives, were set at liberty. We believe that there are none who will not be better pleased that this blessing should be insisted upon as a right, than that it should bo purchased, as it had been before, by way of favour; for surely it is equally impolitic and servile for Britain to pay tribute to these merciless pirates, in the form of ransom, thus acknowledging their right to traffic in human flesh, and to break with impunity the most solemn leagues, for the observance of which, morecivilized nations think themselves bound to stand hostages to each other. • That the States of Barbary know (he advantage of good faith, * where their own interests are concerned, may be pretty clearly seen by the readiness with which, in spite of their natural distrust and hatred of each other, they can enter into such arrangements as they think necessary to enable them to cnrry on their detestable system of piracy, without fear of incurring the chastisement which outraged justice and humanity call so loudly for, and which we would hope will be determined upon, by the Sovereigns who meet together professedly for the advantage of Europe, unless they adopt the opinion communicated, by way of consolation to our Author, by the Guardian Baxha, that
* slavery is the natural state of man, that all depends on the
* law of the strongest; on circumstances and necessity." It is well for what remains of the liberty and happiness of Europe, that this Guardian Basha hnd not the honour to be born of any of the race who haven legitimate right to give their opinions on the government of their fellow-creatures, and to enforce them, by dint of arms, where they may not happen to be deemed sufficiently palatable without.
Si:>nor Pananti has given as minute an account. of the present state of Algiers, as his own observations, and the best information he could procure, enabled him to. form; and though from the extreme jealousy of the Moors with respect to their interior, and the absolute nature of their government, which renders any appearance of minute inqoiry into its organization a very dangerous exercise of curiosity, not much new matter can be expected; yet the smallest addition is valuable concerning the internal situation of a country which is, as it at present stands, of far more' consequence to Europe, than all the unexplored regions of Africa, which by, , i!iul . principle so common in human ffatnre, of overlooking^ . .h-. present for a distant and uncertain good, have excited so. much greater, and so disproportionate an interest. The inost^ valuable of our Author's remarks are those which are more im-nujliately his own, on the agriculture, tra-te, and productiiins of*„ Algiers. His account also of its military force will be found in
Vol. X. N.S. 2 Q
teresting, and his reflections upon the nature of its government, and the importance of establishing colonies, to check its lawless and imperious spirit, are well worthy attention. Signor Psnanti writes with a vivacity which sometimes detracts from the weight of what he would enforce. With a stock of anecdotes, witticisms, and puns, as inexhaustible as that of Sir John Carr, a brothertourist, though under more agreeable circumstances, and occasionally as injudiciously introduced, he flies in a moment from a sense of his own misfortunes, or of the magnitude of his topic, to a repartee, a story, or a ludicious illustration. The Editor takes credit to himself for having considerably retrenched these digressions. Were all to be curtailed that are irrelevant to the main work, and derogatory to the interest it would otherwise inspire, the volume would be reduced to half of its present size. Still we are not disposed to quarrel with, but rather to admire, that elasticity of spirit which can spring up again, as soon as the immediate pressure of affliction is removed; nor can we think that mind has been stored in vain, which is enabled to furnish topics for cheerfulness, in the hour when no outward inducement to it is presented. Signor Pananti has likewise a claim upon our better feelings, for the warmth with which he speaks of this country, for the refuge which it afforded him from the troubles of bis native land; and this acknowledgement ought not to go unnoticed, when we recollect how many thousands have been equally indebted to England, and among them how few speak of her with even common gratitude.
Some remarks, on the present state of Italy, are appended to this work by the Editor, and will be found to possess all the sound reasoning, and correct information by which his" Letters "from the Mediterranean" are distinguished.
Art. IX. Reformation from Popery: Two Sermons, preached in the Chapel of Ease to the Parish Church of Clapham, Surrey, on Sunday, January 4, 1818. By the Rev. Wm. Borrows, A. M. of St. Edmund Hall, Oxford; Minister of that Chapel; and Sunday Evening Lecturer of St. Luke's Church, Middlesex. 8vo. 1818.
rT,HESE Sermons relate by continual allusion to the subject -*• of the Reformation, rather than treat upon its leading circumstances or principles. They are founded ou the following scriptures: 1 Thess. v. 17, "Pray without ceasing;" and Colos. ii. 10, " And ye are complete in him." In the first discourse, the Object of Divine worship, the acceptable munner of worship, the proper subjects of prayer, and ' the continual spirit 'of prayer, to which the true worshippers must watch, whom 'the Father of mercies seeketh to worship him,' are severally dilated upon. The subject of the second discourse leads the preacher more directly to advert to ' the corruptions of the mys'tical-Babylon,' in reference to the ground of a sinner's hope. Both discourses are plain, judicious, and impressive, and afford good specimens of that evangelical style of preaching which we rejoice to hear within the walls of the Episcopal church.
Mr. Borrows combats the reasons sometimes assigned for indifference to the increase of Popish influence, by references to the language and spirit of the recent Papal Bulls, and he ttius concludes:
• Another reason, however, for security on our part is assigned to be—the impossibility of persecution ever acquiring any very serious character, on account of the general liberality of sentiment in these times ; and the universal abhorrence which is expressed, when any thing like bigotry is apparent;—but the reasoning on this topic appears to be altogether fallacious, and two considerations present themselves to our notice on this head relative to the subjects, and the nature of persecution.
'As to the subjects of persecution—one thing is certain—that the general multitude of professing Protestants will suffer nothing for religion, whether the Pope of Rome, or the false Prophet of Mecca, or the Brahmins of Hindustan, or the Lama of Thibet, should have the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the country: it is not to be expected that persons, who will not relinquish a single worldly connexion, or a slight convenience of any kind; that persons in the higher ranks of life, who will not abstain from their pleasure on the Lord's day, or persons in inferior circumstances, who will not sacrifice a few shillings by entirely closing their shops on that day, for the sake of living godly in Christ Jesus, would ever expose themselves to grent trials for any profession of religion. If in the land of peace, wherein they trusted, they have been overcome; they will hardly pass through the swellings of Jordan They will float with the tide of custom, whenever it may lead them; and follow that which is generally deemed respectable, whatever it may be.—!f any be found to endure persecution, they will be only among those spiritually-r.iinded persons, that peculiar people, whose character is as obnoxious to carnal Protestants, when it comes immediately under their inspection, as to any other false religionists in the world.
'Relative to the nature of persecution, it is certain that even Satan him-uli would scarcely regard its value for his own purpose, so far as its sanguinary tendency is concerned, but chiefly in reference to its efficiency in supporting his empire of darkness. It perhaps would be difficult to enumerate the m;my steps that might be taken to obstruct the progress of Divine truth, before any direct attack were made upon the lives of the followers of Jesus. But respecting a more violent attempt upon the persons of" the excellent of the earth," or at least upon those among them whose activity would render them more conspicuous, and more obnoxious to the enemies of God, there seem* to be much more cause for fear than is generally apprehended; and particularly when we advert to the length to which persecution is even now sometimes carried in private families), when one of their members lias been converted to God, and the other individuals of the household remain " carnal, sold under sin." The great object of persecution, if persecution should arise from Papal, or any Antielm,-tim influence, would certainly be to perpetuate the reign of spiritual darkness; and the means employed would be both specious, and at the same time, as effectual to the end proposed as possible; and if the interposition of worldly liberality is to be the only check upon the accomplishment of that object, what may be expected from such a Protector, when " the carnal mind is enmity against God, and is not "subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be I" or what reason have we to suppose that the same principle which prompted the murder of the first martyrs of the Old and New Testaments, Abel and Stephen, namely, the hatred of vital godliness, is not still in operation, and equally capable of producing the same deadly fruits?
* Finally, brethren in Jesus, I conclude by drawing your attention to the watchword of encouragement before us—" Ye are complete in "Christ."—Here is thy beautiful garment, O Zion ;—here thy sun, and thy shield, thy light and defence, who giveth thee grace and glory, O city of the living God,—Ever exalt the Lord Jesus Christ. —Know that whatever exhortations to holiness itself, or whatever semblance of holiness there may be in any Chun h, there cannot be the reality of this distinction of the people of God, unless they be in Christ: .—if Christ be in any way degraded, if he occupy a minor position in the scheme of salvation, or be made in any degree less than the great foundation and corner stone of the whole system, all must be wrong, entirely and radically wrong.—He must be exalted as the King ui Zion :—he must be honoured far above all, for he has.'' a name which "is above every name;" and ye, believers, are " complete in Him," who is "far above all principality, and power, and might, and domi"nion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also "in that which is to come."—Now, &c.' pp. 58—62.
Art. X. Foliage; or Poems, Original and Translated: By Leigh . Hunt. fcap. 8vo. pp. 288. London, 1818.
T^"E have borne our repeated testimony to Mr. Hunt's poetical * * talents, for the sake of which we have wished to think well of him. It has been our endeavour to do him justice, and to forget in our estimate of his character as a poet, all that we could not but know respecting his opinions. And this is no more than the reader of poetry is glad to do in too great a proportion of instances, when he wishes to surrender himself to the full imaginative enjoyment of his author. Rarely would the distinct recollection of the poet's real character, assist the effect or harmonise with the feelings, which the verse and the sentiment have produced. Nothing therefore can, for the most part, be mow impolitic in the writer of poetry, than for him to obtrude upon his readers those points in his individual character, which relate to differences of religious creed or political opinion, thereby tending to awaken a class of associations opposite to those which it is the business of the poet to excite.