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rocks, is so violent, that many are lost. About two months since, a boat with four men perished: by these means, who went out to fish near the Island of St. Agnes. Some have said, Why do not the inhabitants go to sea, when such wages are given in the merchant service? It ought to be considered though all tlie men are used to the sea, few are brought up to the duty of a merchant ship. In times of peace seamen are wanted, now the greater part of the men at Scilly are only accustomed to boats; they are useful for their own rocky shores;—but in general would not be suitable to take the station of able seamen for foreign voyages -, and as to the coasting trade, plenty of men are to be found along the shore for those ships that need them.
• It has been said by persons at a distance, could not the men of Scilly be employed in the mines of Cornwall? Independent or their un&tness for the work, it is sufficient to add, that hundreds of real miners are now out of employ in this county, and anxious to obtain bread by any kind of work.' pp. 8, 9*
During (lie winter, hundreds of ships are driven about the Scilly Islands, and exposed to the most imminent danger. The value of the pilots, who, in such cases, tempted by the prospect cf remuneration, launch out in the worst of weather to their assistance, must be, as regards the commercial interests of our country, incalculable. Though almost all the men are pilots, the number of those who have a license from the Trinity house, by virtue of which their widows are allowed £ 10. per annum, is very small.
'About four years since, four men perished, only one a licensed pilot:—Two years since, eight men were drowned; and last Christmas four others perished: all these were going out to vessels in distress, and left no provision for their families. Exertions were made for the above eight drowned near St. Mary's, and some moneyobtained for them; but with the greater part who are drowned their families are left unprovided, save what the neighbours in their Island, or the respectable families at St. Mary's, may contribute immediately on the first paroxysm of grief into which the family is thrown. It is very remarkable that such is the healthy state of the Islands, that there are but few men die natural deaths until old age. The greater part of the widows therefore, have lost their husbands by drowning. The distress produced La the families by the deaths of those poor men is most dreadful; with very few exceptions, the wife and children lose all their stay, and all their dependence for temporal support; and until the children grow up to work for bread, the family lead a wretched life. But now those children who have become able to work, have not work to do. The distress, therefore, of the widow at present is doubly aggravated.' p. 12.
What has, however, produced the extreme misery now described as general in the Islands, is the severity with which 'the preventive system' has been recently enforced. This has entirely destroyed the trade by barter, by which many obtained
a precarious subsistence. Before this was established, men ■were always on the look-out for homeward bound ■vessels, and as soon as one was descried, every man and boy was alert in making off to it with fish, eggs, fowls, potatoes, and other articles of barter. The captain seldom paid them in money, but usually was glad to give in exchange a bottle of rum, some coffee, or wipe sugar, which obtained at St. Mary's a ready sale. 'Now, one pound of sugar would expose the boat to 'seizure, and the men to imprisonment;' of which several most distressing instances have occurred. 'Some of the best boats 'are now lying on the beach, ruining with the sun, and some 'men have been sent to the Fleet prison.'
* It seems, it was conjectured that some persons must fall a sacrifice to the extreme severity of the preventive system, and the inhabitants of the Off-Islands of Scilly appear to be the victims To some, however, has appeared, that the great expense attached to building a large boat and watch houses on the Islands, providing for so many men, and supporting officers, must be greater than what the revenue would gain by the measure; but this is a business with which we presume not to interfere, as it has now become an established law, and therefore must be obeyed.' p. 22.
Yet, 'if Government knew the miseries,1 it is remarked, 'to
* which the people have been reduced by these things, they
* would surely be disposed to relax a little, iu favour of a rega'lated mode of barter, if some plan could be struck out, with
* out injuring the revenue.' Five hundred pounds had been voted by Government for the relief of the Islands, but fears were entertained that this would be employed chiefly in the building of --.oa-banks, while nothing short of immediate relief wil 1 save the wretched people from perishing. Of this, a specimen or two will give sufficient proof.
* Old Grimsby.—F. J. nine in family, very poor.—H. J. three in family, have lived very hard, chiefly on limpets; poverty is visible in their countenances.—F. J. aged 74, wife 73, very poor; the wife has of late been down every morning to the sea side cutting sea weed, and carrying it on her back to obtain a little bread; she complained of this as a great hardship at her time of life, and declared she was hardly able to do it, yet at the same time felt thankful that God had disposed any one to speculate in Kelp, as it obtained bread for many families, who would otherwise at this moment be starving.—J. J. nine
^in family, very poor, suffered greatly last winter, lived chiefly on limpets and barley corn, burnt, as a substitute for coffee, wife just lain in, no prospect of support for the next winter; every thine about this hut, as well as the appearance of the family, indicated grief, despondency, and poverty.-*-S. J. eight in family, sold almost every thing they had, last winter, to obtain bread; lived for three weeks almost wholly on limpets; when they had bread, obliged U> limit the family to one or two pounds a day, for the wbole eight; mother arid children ver\r ttiuch distressed for clothes, having scartefely a change to put on: this was a very distressing case, and impressed us deeply with the miseries to which these poor people must have been reduced, particularly during the last winter.' p. 3t 4.
'k» P. seven in family, no potatoes, very little bread.—P. P. five in family, in the greatest distress, no potatoes, and only a little bread, lately obtained. The mother of this family, unfolded a most distressing scene of misery, stating with the most poignant grief, through ber sufferings at the cries of the poor children around her Tor bread; her story was confirmed by the neighbours, and having no means of support, it was evident to us all, that she must have suffered the verf extremes of poverty; often putting her children to bed, as she declared, crying to her for a bit of bread, or a cold potatoe. We tvere deeply affected with this scene also, and bitterly lamented over the" state of the poor children.—1\ E. five in family, very poor; this1 family has been for months without potatoes, and frequently no bread, lived chiefly on limpets, and forced to sell every thing to prevent the children starving.—D. P. seven in family, much in the same state, every thing sold for bread.'—M. J. seven in family, extremely poor. —W. W. five in family, greatly distressed.no land, no boat, and no prospect whatever of future support,—J. J. eigbt in family, In the same condition; two lads of the family ask the neighbours who have a boat, to let them go in her when the weather |is fair, to obtain a little fish to prevent the whole from perishing.—T. E. a po&r cripple, in the deepest distress.
'Eight families more follow, whose poverty has been equally great; several widows wanting bread and every other necessary, some very old. No poor rates can be obtained on the Off-Islands, and therefore they receive no help but what may be obtained by ih occasional visit to St. Mary's, where the applications for bread Mid potatoes have been so numerous, as almost to exhaust the liberality of such as were able to give.
'P. E. nine in family, sold almost every thing saleable to obtain bread. One circumstance struck us as very remarkable; a cow where there are many children, is a great support, and we should imagine would be the last thing parted with, but most families who had a cow were forced to sell her for bread.--D. P. eight in family; the most indubitable marks of distress appeared in this house, and with all the family; the man had been obliged to leave Work About the Kelp, and throw himself on the bed from Weakness, for want of food; the woman seemed equally weak; on asking how the children lived for the last few months, She replied, I can't tell, I'm sure the Lord himself must have nourished them, for it cannot be the food they have had; marry times we have been for days without a potatoe for them, and often without a crust of bread, and sometimes we have gone for days without either; limpets have then been our only support, excepting when the children get a bit of bread, a cold potatoe, nor a piece of fish, from any neighbour who knew we had neither land nor boat. Mr. JefFery, a minister on the Island, confirmed this sad statement,—T. J. six in family, in the greatest dis>
Vol. X. N.S. 2 S
tress, sold all their clothes but what they had on, for bread ami potatoes.—C. O. three in family, a most wretched habitation, the mother an object of the greatest misery; but what affected us most, was the sight of a little girl three years old, a sweet child, with a pale countenance, hollow eyes, and a soft expression of melancholy, that filled spectators with tears; the mother extremely weak, aid greatly depressed in spirits from want.—S. £. seven in family, all is distress.'
'S. B. three in family, two were old people, the woman 76, and barefooted, no bread or potatoes ;—a case of real misery, sufficient to melt the hardest heart;—it is wonderful how these people hart struggled on so far, without shoes, or bread, or any comfort, but what a few limpets afforded. M. A. a poor widow with six children no potatoes or bread, when they had any they put themselves on an allowance of one pound and a half for the whole family ;—the mother moved every heart by her affecting account of the children's tears for bread—H. A. three in family, very poor, lately broke his thigh, and suffered much by his confinement; lie has served thirteen yean and half in the navy, and showed us a letter from the Admiralty Office,"dated 12th February, 1818, which says, " As you have not served fourteen years in the royal navy, you are not entitled to any pension." The poor man declared, he would gladly serve the other six months when his thigh was well, in any ship the Lords of the Admiralty thought fit to appoint, as it was rather hard to lose the pension after serving so long We were much pleased with the very mild manner in which be spoke of the circumstance, saying he only wanted a little bread and potatoes for his wife and child. A promise was made him that a letter should be sent to the society for distressed seamen on his account. The letter addressed to him from the Ad- J miralty Office is now before the writer. T. W. five in family, often for days without bread, and suffered much distress; no clothes but - what they had on, and no boat. It appears that if many poor families had a small boat, they would consider it essentially useful tt them.—S. VV. six in family, husband sick, all in the greatest datress.—As we'entered, many of those families were boiling the limpets as their chief food, and immense piles of limpet shells lay before each door: striking proofs of their extreme poverty and misery. It became a common remark with some of our company, addressed to those of us from Penzance, when we approached a door, " see! yon may tell the state of the people here by the piles of lhrrpet shelli before their houses.''
Here we must close our extracts. Could any measure be adopted, to establish fisheries on the Islands, the place, it it said, would become a scene of business and energy. Now, owing to the particular circumstances of the tenure of these Islands on lease from the Prince Regent, as Duke of Conwall, there is no encouragement, because the people can bare no security. We trust that this plain and simple-hearted appeal to the Legislature and the public, will not be fruitless.
Art. XH. SELECT LITERARY INFORMATION.
Gentlemen and Publishers who have works in the press, will oblige the Conductors of the Eclectic Review, by sending Information (port paid) of the subject, extent, and probable price of such works } which they may depend upon being communicated to the Public, if consistent with its Plan.
Early in December, will be published in 3 vols. 1'Jin.i, by the Rt-v. Richard Warner, Rector of Great Chesterfield, Wilts, dedicated by permission to the J. ,n1 Bishop of Salisbury: Old Church of England Principles: opposed to the New Light, in a (cries of plain, doctrinal, and practical Sermons, M in number, on the first Lesson in the Morn
• ing Serrice of tbe different Sundays, and great Festivals throughout the year; shewing the connexion between the Old and New Testaments: illustrating the histories, characters, types, nnd prophecies of the former, by the events, personage*, realities, and fulfilments of the latter: explaining the popular difficulties in both Testaments; refuting the objectioDBof theiondel or sceptic to particu* lar parts of the Old Testament: and proving the conformity of the tenets, rites and •services of the Church of England, to the teaching of Scriptures, and the practice of tiic primitive Church: adapted to the use of private families, young per
=ons, and country congregations: to which are added, prayers tor private families, and young persons.
The Rev. Dr. Chalmers of Glasgow will shortly publish a volume of Sermons preached by him in the Tron Church, Glasgow.
Mr. G. H. Totilmin will publish in December, a poem entitled "Beauties of Affection."
In the press, the Eighth Edition of •the Poetical Monitor, consisting of pieces select and original, for the improvement of the young in virtue and piety.
A new and corrected edition of Wilson's Hebrew Grammar it nearly ready
• for publication, from the press of the Society for tbe propagation of Christianity among tbe Jews.
A new poem entitled " The Widow of tbe City of Nain" will ipeedily be pub
lished by a Member of the University of Cambridge; to which will be subjoined "The Song of a Captive Jew in Babylon," and other smaller pieces.
Shortly will he published, a Graphic and Historical Description of the City of Edinburgh, comprising a series of views of its most interesting remains of antiquity, public bu Idmgs, and picturesque scenery; the drawings are made and engraved by Messrs. Storer.
In the press. Remarks on the present state of Musical Instruction, with ti.« Prospectus of an improved plan, in which the great need of a new order of musical designation, and the important advantages resulting therefrom are explicitly stated, with an illustration of tbe same in the way of practical application. By John Relfe, Musician in Ordinary to His Majesty, Professor and Teacher of Music. Mr. Caulfield, of Bath, is preparing for the press, a volume which will contain notices of every important transaction of the Regency, from the year 1811 to the Dissolution of the late Parliament.
In November will be published, Time's Telescope for 1819: to which will be prefixed, an Introduction containing the Elements of Chemistry.
Mr. Westall has in a considerable state of forwardness, a series of Illustrations to Mr. Campbell's Pleasures of Hope, and Gertrude of Wyoming, which will be engraved by Mr. Charles Heath. A new weekly paper, is to appear in November, under the title of the Caledonian Mercury, at the cheap rate of 4il. each number: it is intended to diffuse more extensively a knowledge of tbe progress of science, literature, manners, and political opinions in Scotland.
Dr. J. Carey has in the press a new Edition of " Dryden's Virgil," with Remarks on the text, as corrected from Dryden's own two folio edition*.