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people, it does not therefore follow that the same actions should always receive the same names; and it is by no means just to give to any action a different name from that which it commonly received at that particular time and in that particular people.”

It was at a period of social anarchy, of exactly similar character, that the Decretals of Isidore made their appearance in the ninth century; and the cases are strictly parallel, as these Decretals were expressly designed to give authority and support to the papacy. In both instances the temper of the times was favourable, and, even had it been otherwise, an imposition of the kind could have been scarcely suspected among the Israelites of that day, if their king and priests had been in concert; inasmuch as it is evident from the attempt itself, and from the success which attended it, that even at that time all knowledge of literature was confined to a small circle of learned Levites!.

This restriction of learning to the Levites has also heen noticed by Hüllmann, p. 89.




The correctness of the origin which we have assigned in the last chapter to the books of the law is confirmed by a series of the most convincing arguments. We shall here commence with one to which we have previously adverted,—the number, namely, of words, favourite terms of expression, and peculiar phrases which are common to Jeremiah and Deuteronomy, and some of which are not to be found in any other writings. To this class belong the image of the “iron furnace?,” the constant phrase " to scatter among the people,” or “ among the heathen," in speaking of the Babylonish exile3; and again, “to cir

i See Gesenius, Geschichte der Heb. Spr. (History of the Hebrew Language) p. 32.

2 « But the Lord hath taken you, and brought you forth out of the iron furnace, even out of Egypt, to be unto him a people of inheritance, as ye are this day.Deut. iv. 20.

“Which I commanded your fathers in the day that I brought them forth out of the land of Egypt, from the iron furnace, saying, Obey my voice, and do them, according to all which I command you : so shall ye be my people, and I will be your God.”Jerem. xi. 4.

And in no other passage does this occur except the following :

“For they be thy people, and thine inheritance, which thou hroughtest forth out of Egypt, from the midst of the furnace of iron.”—1 Kings viii. 51.

3 “And the Lord shall scatter you among the nations, and ye shall



cumcise the heart,” or “the foreskin of the heart?,"_“to pollute the land,” in speaking of divorce?;—"cursed be he that fulfilleth not all the words of this law3;"_" thou shalt become a proverb and a byword among all nations where Jehovah has driven thee4;" and here it must

be left few in number among the heathen, whither the Lord shall lead you.”Deut. iv. 27.

“I will scatter them also among the heathen, whom neither they nor their fathers have known: and I will send a sword after them, till I have consumed them.”-Jerem. ix. 16.

I“ Circumcise therefore the foreskin of your heart, and be no more stiff-necked.”Deut. x. 16.

“And the Lord thy God will circumcise thine heart, and the heart of thy seed, to love the Lord thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, that thou mayest live.Deut. xxx. 6.

“ Circumcise yourselves to the Lord, and take away the foreskins of your heart, ye men of Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem : lest my fury come forth like fire, and burn that none can quench it, because of the evil of your doings.”—Jerem. iv. 4.

“ Egypt, and Judah, and Edom, and the children of Ammon, and Moab, and all that are in the utmost corners, that dwell in the wilderness : for all these nations are uncircumcised, and all the house of Israel are uncircumcised in the heart."--Jerem. ix. 26.

2 “ Her former husband, which sent her away, may not take her again to be his wife, after that she is defiled; for that is abomination before the Lord : and thou shalt not cause the land to sin, which the Lord thy God giveth thee for an inheritance."--Deut. xxiv. 4.

“They say, If a man put away his wife, and she go from him, and become another man's, shall he return unto her again ? shall not that land be greatly polluted ?Jerem. iii. 1.

3 “ Cursed be he that confirmeth not all the words of this law to do them."'-- Deut. xxvii. 26.

“And say thou unto them, Thus saith the Lord God of Israel ; Cursed be the man that obeyeth not the words of this covenant.”Jerem. xi. 3.

4." And thou shalt become an astonishment, a proverb, and a by. word, among all nations whither the Lord shall lead thee.-Deut. xxviii. 37.

“And I will deliver them to be removed into all the kingdoms of 272


be observed that the Prophet refers this threat to the future;—“a nation from afar whose tongue thou shalt not understand 1,"_“ horses swifter than eagles ?." Both works employ the fearful threat “thou shalt eat the flesh of thy sons and daughters," which is not found in any other book 3 ;—“the Lord will turn thy captivity (shub shebuth] and gather thee together again4;"" hear, O earth, the

the earth for their hurt, to be a reproach and a proverb, a taunt and a curse, in all places whither I shall drive them.Jerem. xxiv. 9.

1 “The Lord shall bring a nation against thee from afar, from the end of the earth, as swift as the eagle flieth ; a nation whose tongue thou shalt not understand.”—Deut. xxviii. 49.

“Lo, I will bring a nation upon you from afar, O house of Israel, saith the Lord : it is a mighty nation, it is an ancient nation, a nation whose language thou knowest not, neither understandest what they say." --Jerem. v. 15.

“Thus saith the Lord, Behold, a people cometh from the north country, and a great nation shall be raised from the sides of the earth.” Jerem. vi. 22.

2 Deut. xxviii. 49. See last note.

“Behold, he shall come up as clouds, and his chariots shall be as a whirlwind : his horses are swifter than eagles.”Jerem. iv. 13.

3“ And thou shalt eat the fruit of thine own body, the flesh of thy sons and of thy daughters, which the Lord thy God hath given thee, in the siege, and in the straitness, wherewith thine enemies shall distress thee.”Deut. xxviii. 53.

“And I will cause them to eat the flesh of their sons and the flesh of their daughters, and they shall eat every one the flesh of his friend in the siege and straitness, wherewith their enemies, and they that seek their lives, shall straiten them.”—Jerem. xix. 9.

4 That then the Lord thy God will turn thy captivity, and have compassion upon thee, and will return and gather thee from all the nations whither the Lord thy God hath scattered thee.”-Deut. xxx. 3.

“And I will be found of you, saith the Lord : and I will turn away your captivity, and I will gather you from all the nations, and from all the places whither I have driven you, saith the Lord : and I will bring you again into the place whence I caused you to be carried away captive.”-Jerem. xxix. 14.



words of my mouth?,”—“ A fire is kindled in mine anger?," _“ Israel shall dwell in safety 3.”

Both books denounce, and almost exclusively, the worship of the Sun and Moon4, both give warnings against false prophets, and Leviticus is the only other book which condemns the practice of cutting the body as a sign of

1 “ Give ear, O ye heavens, and I will speak; and hear, O earth, the words of my mouth.”Deut.xxxii. l.

“Hear, 0 earth : behold, I will bring evil upon this people, even the fruit of their thoughts, because they have not hearkened unto my words, nor to my law, but rejected it."-Jerem. vi. 19.

3 “For a fire is kindled in mine anger, and shall burn unto the lowest hell, and shall consume the earth with her increase, and set on fire the foundations of the mountains.Deut. xxxii. 22.

“For a fire is kindled in mine anger, which shall burn upon you.”— Jerem. xv. 14.

“For ye have kindled a fire in mine anger, which shall burn for ever.”—Jerem. xvii. 4.

3 “ Israel then shall dwell in safety alone.”Deut. xxxiii. 28.

In his days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely.”— Jerem. xxiii. 6.

“In those days shall Judah be saved, and Jerusalem shall dwell safely.”Jerem. xxxiii. 16.

4 And hath gone and served other gods, and worshipped them, either the sun, or moon, or any of the host of heaven, which I have not commanded.”—Deut. xvii. 3.

And they shall spread them (the bones] before the sun and the moon, and all the host of heaven, whom they have loved, and whom they have served, and after whom they have walked, and whom they have sought, and whom they have worshipped.”Jerem. viii, 2.

5 “ If there arise among you a prophet or a dreamer of dreams, and giveth thee a sign or a wonder.”Deut. xiii. 1.

“But the prophet which shall presume to speak a word in my name which I have not commanded him to speak, or that shall speak in the name of other gods, even that prophet shall die.”Deut. xviii. 20.

Then said I, Ah, Lord God! behold, the prophets say unto them, Ye shall not see the sword, neither shall ye have famine; but I will give you assured peace in this place.-Jer. xiv. 13.

“ Thus saith the Lord of hosts, Hearken not unto the words of the prophets that prophesy unto you : they make you vain : they speak a


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