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etrated by the long horn; so that this species of rhinoceros must appear really like a unicorn when running in the field. Thę head resembled in size a nine-gallon cask, and measured three feet from the mouth to the ear, and being much larger than that of the one with the crooked horn, and which measured eleven feet in length, the animal itself must have been still larger and more formidable. From its weight, and the position of the horn, it appears capable of overcoming any creature hitherto known. Hardly any of the natives took the smallest 00tice of the head, but treated it as a thing familiar to them. As the entire horn is perfectly solid, the natives, I afterwards heard, made from one hors four handles for their battle-axes. Our people wounded another, which they reported to be much larger.*
It has been further stated in No. XV. of the Missionary Sketches, that “the head measured from the ears to the nose three feet : the length of the horn, which is nearly black, is also three feet, projecting from the forehead, about ten inches above the nose. There is a small horny projection, of a conical shape, measuring about eight inches, immediately behind the great hora, apparently designed for keeping fast or
steady whatever is penetrated by the great THE UNICORN.
horn. This projection is scarcely observed Mr. Campbell has brought with him from at a very little distance. The animal is not Mashow, in Africa, the head of an animal carnivorous, but chiefly feeds on grass and which is believed hy many, and it is endeav. bushes. oured to prove, to be the Unicorn of Holy " Mr. Campbell was very desirous to obWrit.
tain as adequate an idea as possible of the When shot it was called a rhinoceros, bulk of the animal killed near Masbow but the head being brought in, it was found and with this view questioned his Hottento be different from all the others that had tots, who described it as being much larger been killed. The common African rhinoce- than the rhinoceros, and equal in size to ros, continues Campbell, has a crooked three oxen or four horses. horn resembling a cock's spur, which rises “ The skull and horn excited great curiabout nine or tea inches above the nose and osity at Cape Town, most scientific persons inclines backwards ; immediately behind there being of opinion that it was all that this is a short thick horn; but the head they we should have for the Unicorn. An ani. brought had a straiglat horn projecting three mal of the size af a horse, which the fancied feet from the forehead, about ten inches above Unicorn is supposed to be, would not answer the tip of the nose. The projection of this the description of the Unicorn given in the great horn very much resembles that of the Sacred Scriptures, where it is described as a fanciful Unicorn in the British arms. It has very large, ferocious, and untameable creaa small thick horny substance, eight inches ture ; but the animal in question exactly long, immediately behind it, which can enswers to it in every respect. hardly be observed on the animal at the dis « The Hebrew name by which it is called tance of a hundred yards, and seems to be is Reem, which signifies Might or Strength. designed for keeping fast that which is pen- The translators of the Old Testament into
* The head being so weighty; and the distance to the Cape so great, it appeared necessary to cut off the under jaw and leave it behind ; (the Mashow who cut off the flesh from it had ten cuts on his back, which were marks for ten men he had killed in his lifetime.) The animal is considered by naturalists, since the arrival of the skull in London, to be the Unicorn of the ancients, and the same as that which is described in the 39th chapter of the book of Job. The part of the head brought to London, may be seen at the Missionary Museum; and, for such as may not have the opportunity of seeing the head itself, the nextnexed drawing of it has been made.
Greek called it Monoceros; in the Latin (or ed one metre.
Thus the total of the steamVulgate) translation it is Únicornis. In va engines in England represents a power of rious countries it bears a name of similar 320,000 horses. These engines moved for import. In Geez it is called Arwe Harich, twenty-four hours would raise 862,800,000 and in the Amharic, Auraris, both signify- tons one metre high, and consequently, ing “ the large wild beast with the horn.” 547,100,000 tons in 13 hours, which surIn Nubia, it is called Girnamgirn, or “horn passes the produce of the labour spent in upon horn." This
ctly applies to the raising the materials of the great pyramid. skull in the Society's Museum, which has
WASHINGTON'S STATUE. a small conical horn behind the long one.
Canova's Statue of Washington repreFrom the latter we presume this animal has sents him as writing his farewell address. been denominated the Voicorn, it being the He is seated in an ancient Roman chair, with principal, and by far the most prominent his right leg drawn up and his left carelesshorn, the other, as before intimated, being ly extended ; holding in one hand a pen scarcely distinguishable at a short distance, and in the other a scroll ; at his feet lie the The writer of the article “Unicorn,” in the baton of a field marshal, and a sword like Supplement to the Encyclopedia Britannica, that of the ancient Roman. The costume is observes, (defining the term,) "the Scrip- also Roman, the head and neck bare, a close tural name of an animal, which was un- vest and braceæ, with a girdle round the doubtedly the one-horned Rhinoceros.” waist, upon which are displayed Medusa's
“Some authors, both ancient and modern, head and other classical emblems. The have described an animal, which they call statue is of white marble of the finest kind, the Unicorn, said to resemble a horse, or as is likewise the pedestal ; upon the four deer, with
a long horn, represented in sides of which are four bas-reliefs, comEnglish heraldry as one of the supporters memorating important circumstances in the of the royal arms; but there is reason to life of the hero. doubt the existence of any such quadruped.
GREECE. It is probable that the long horn ascribed
A pamphlet of considerable interest has to such an animal is that of a fish, or, as just been published, under the title of War termed by some, a Sea Unicorn, called the in Greece, in which the writer draws the folMonodon, or Narwhol, confounding the lowing picture of the respective forces, &c. land and sea animal together. The horn of of the Turks and Greeks :-“Greece at this the fish here alluded to, was formerly im- moment is full of men highly endowed, and a posed on the world as the horn of the Uni- powerful and general thirst for knowledge corn, at an immense price. On the whole, has filled the universities of Europe with it appears highly probable that the Rhino- Greek students, supported by the patriotic ceros, having one long horn projecting from aid of their countrymen. I do not say that its face, is the only Unicorn existing, and the Greeks are pre-eminently industrious, although it has a kind of stump of another brave, learned, patriotic, or religious ; but I hord behind the long projecting one, yet do say, that to possess these qualities at all, is that it has been denominated Unicorn, (or a strong proof of their force of character, to one horn,) from that which is so obvious those who know what the Turkish sway has and prominent; and certainly its great bulk been, and that it still is, with regard to civiland strength ren der it such a formidable ization, an exterminatiog principle. It is and powerful animal as is described in the said that the Greeks lie that they stealSacred Scriptures."
that they assassinate-be it so; but let it be STEAM ENGINES OF ENGLAND. asked what can men do that have no proA French writer, M. Dupin, give the fol- tection against conquerors, who at pleasure lowing illustration of the labour of these take from them their wives, their children, machines. The great pyramid of Egypt re their fortunes, and their lives? They willi quired for its erection above 100,000 men lie, whose destruction follows the truth ; for 20 years: but if it were required again they will steal, from whom all has been stoto raise the stones from the quarries, and len; they will assassinate, who have no place them at their present height, the ac other protection against murderers. There tion of the steam-engines of England, which was but one reproach against the Greeks : are at most managed by 36,000 men, would Why do you not rise upon your tyrants ?' be sufficient to produce the effect in 18 and this reproach they have wiped away ; hours. If it were required to know how let it not be said that a great people, struglong a time they would take to cat the stones, gling sword in hand for freedom, are a deand move them from the quarries to the based people; say, rather, that those surpyramid, a very few days would be found rounding nations who withhold their aid arc sufficient. The volume of the great pyramid debased.". is 4,000,000 cubic metres, its weight is The writer gives the following estimate of about 10,400,000 tons,or 10,400,000,000 kil- the advantages possessed by each of the ogrammes. The centre of gravity of the contending parties :- What is then the pyramid is elevated 49 metres from the state of the Greeks? 1st. They are far base, and taking 11 metres as the main more numerous than their enemies. 2d. depth oi the quarries, the total height of They possess equal courage. 3d. They poselevation is 10 metres, which, multiplied by sess the greatest part of the country, and 10,400,000 tons, gives 624,000,000 tons rais
many large tracts, and some islands where
Intelligence. the Turk, even in the day of his strength, The revived art of Engraving on Wood, is never could penetrate ; and these form so about to be extensively and effectually apmany impregnable fortresses from which to plied to the illustration of Bibles, Testadraw supplies. 4th. The Greeks have sail- ments, and Common Prayer Books. ors; the Turks have none. 6th. The ma. February was published, in all the usual chine of Turkish government has, in all its sizes, and varied bindings, at an advance subordinate parts, been worked by Greeks, of only four, five, or six shillings each, on and will go on badly without them. 6th different sized editions, the Holy BIBLE, The Greeks are better informed on all sub- with Three Hundred Engravings, copied by jects than the Turks. 7th. They fight not W. M. Craig, Esq. from the designs of the for civil and religious freedom alone, but great masters in the different schools of for existence; extirpation is certain, if they painting, and engraved in a style of superior are defeated; whereas the Turks have Asia effect and beauty. Whatever may have Minor to retreat into, and only fight for a been the attempts hitherto made to illus. province belonging to their sovereign. 8th. trate Bibles in a pleasing and popular manThe best troops the Sultan had in his army ner, this undertaking will unquestionably are amongst those Greeks now in arms be the cheapest, most comprehensive, and against him; and 9th. The Turkish army complete that has ever been submitted to may have courage and arms, but nothing the world. For Pocket Bibles, impressions else, and is not entitled to the name of an of one hundred and fifty, or upwards, of the army; it is a numerous banditti, so bad, best subjects will be taken on India Paper that the last Emperor lost his life by an at as proofs, and this edition, at the same ex. tempt to restore discipline and introduce tra cost of five Shillings, will form the most the European system among theJanizaries." exquisitively beautiful edition of the Bible
Against these nine advantages may be ever offered to the world. Ornamented Tes. placed these on the side of the Turks : taments of all sizes may in like mapper be “ Ist. They have an established govern- had, each illustrated by one hundred en. ment. 2d. They hold most of the fortresses. gravings, at two shillings above the usual 3d. The Sultan may have great command price; and the cheapest School Testaments of money if he acts wisely. 4th. He has will be prepared at one shilling extra. Oro greater means of forging arms and making namented Common Prayer Books will also gunpowder. A total ignorance of the art of be prepared of every size, from the large war, and a complete want of discipline, is a octavo to the small 32mo, illustrated with disadvantage common to both Greeks and sixty engravings, and may be had at one Turks, but the former have the advantage of shilling and sixpence, or one shilling extra being aware of their ignorance, and eager in every variety. By changing the inscripto remedy the deficit. This feeling is a host tions the engravings will be adapted to Biof strength on their side."
bles and Testaments in all languages. For With respect to the manner of arming eign booksellers and Missionary Societies, the Greeks, he proposes the pike as the best may be supplied with sets of the engravings weapon they can adopt. It can be made by with inscriptions in any language for the every peasant; it is cheaper than any oth- ornament and illustration of Bibles and er; it needs no ammunition but courage ; it Testaments, whatever be the language in is used without any instruction; it is terri. which they are printed. The English edi. ble in attack, and offensive war is the game tions into which the engravings will be in: for Greece to play : It is termed by Monte- troduced, will be the best that are produced cuculi the queen of weapons. He does not at the authorized presses of the United King
that it is superior to the musket and dom; and the Bibles, Testaments, and Combayonet generally, but it is superior to the mon Prayer Books, thus offered to the Turkish musket that has no bayonet. In world, will, in consequence, unite every retreating, a musket is a superior weapon, point of perfection. and he proposes that one-fourth of the army Miss SPENCE will shortly publish a new should carry them. The cavalry should be work, entitled Old Stories, in 3 vols. armed with swords and lances ; and pistols, The Works of Doctor JAMES ARMINIUS, which abound in Greece, might be given tó formerly of Leyden, are in the press. both services.
Sir Heraud of Arden: a Tale.
Tale of England's Troubles, 3 vols.
That delightful writer, Miss Opie, has in Feathers, Education and no Éducation, &c. the press Madeline, a tale, in two vols. De Renzy; or, the Man of Sorrow, 3 vols.
We have been assured that the sale of May you like it. Scottish novels has been unduly exaggerated, The Scottish Orphans : a Moral Tale, and that not more than 12,000 of one novel founded on an Historical Fact; by Mrs. has ever been sold. The profits, therefore, Blackford. are not more than a third of our late esti Guilty or not Guilty ? or, a Lesson for mate.
Husbands ; by Ann of Swansea, 5 vols.
BOSTON, MAY 15, 1822.
(Monthly Magazine, Jan.)
À VISIT TO MOUNT ETNA.
supply the wants of such idle mendiE set out at three o'clock, P. M. cants, who languish on a land, the fruit
from this city, and proceeding ful soil of which affords all that is necesslowly on my mule, I ruminated on the sary for subsistence. Some miles furdescription which I am about to give ther we perceived, and afterwards pas. you of the most celebrated of volcanoes, sed through, another village called of which you have already heard só Masca-Luscia : it contains two churchmuch, that I have decided simply to re- es; one of which, nearly destroyed by late to you what came under my own an earthquake, was never very remarkobservation. We began our march in able, and the other is only rendered so, frightful roads, amidst rocks of lava by a steeple fantastically decorated with which cover the first part of the route.stones of various colours. We arrived, Our mules, habituated to these rough in fine, at the last village, that of Nicopasses, never once stumbled; but an losi, which appeared poorer than all the accident happening to mine embarrass- rest ; this was surely in former times, ed me greatly. I felt my foot wet, and the Town of Etna, where the inhabione side of my pantaloons was covered tants of Catania took refuge, on the arwith blood : 1 alighted and perceived rival of the Greeks : the environs that
my mule had been recently hurt. abound in olive trees and vineyards, With a bandkerchief and thong we which produce excellent wine. All this bound up the wound, and continued our part was covered with ashes by the journey in a road covered with lava, eruption of Monte Rosso, a secondary but bordered with superb Indian fig volcano which formed itself at the time trees, (this fruit which is despised in of the last eruption. Monte Rosso is America is an article of great consump- one of those mountains by which Etna tion in Sicily,) ordinary fig trees, and is surrounded. It appears that when enormous olives : every where else this an eruption takes place, the lava matree appeared to me paltry, and of a king its way on the flanks of the moundifficult vegetation ; but here it grows tains, pierces the ground in the place to admiration. After proceeding five which offers the least resistance, and or six miles, we passed through the vil- there forms a swelling, which it afterlage of Gravelina; where I was assail- wards consolidates by flowing from ed by nearly the whole population de- above. In this village we found the manding charity. The number of poor guide, or, as he is called, the Pilot of which you meet with in Sicily and Italy, Etņa. After some conversation, he is sufficient to harden the heart of the engaged to ascend for three piastres, traveller, who cannot be expected to about 12s.6d. From thence to the
17 ATHENEUM VOL. 11.
convent, where we were to rest our can we reconcile the evident primitivebeasts, we had no more than a mile to ness of Etna with what Moses intorms go, which we performed in coasting us of the creation of the world ? It is along Monte Rosso, whose summit was true, he does not say that God created gilded by the sun, and behind which it the world in infancy; and if He made had already set when we arrived. This Adam at the age of 30 years, He might mountain is several miles in circumfe- also well create Etna with an open crarence. I profited by the last light of ter, and its flanks covered with lava. the sky, in order to sketch a view of the While journeying along, I asked my convent, which althor of the common guide if it was true, as I had read, that extent, is nevortheless very picturesque. the mountain subsisted all kinds of game Built against a small hill, long since be- and wild beasts: he begged me not to be cume cold, and covered with woods, it afraid : I repeated the question to him, seems sheltered from the destructive ef- and received the same reply, he being sects of the volcano ; from the other still persuaded that the fear of encounside, between superb fir trees, you per- tering ferocious animals caused me to ceive the sea, the plains of Catania and speak in that manner. I should, notSyracuse. You are received into the withstanding, be led to believe, that the convent nearly in the same manner as mountain, considering its extent and you would be at an inn ; the best situ- gradual temperature, might well supated room for the view is reserved for port them ; but it seems to me that Mr. strangers. We were twelve hours in Brydone gave too wide a scope to his coming from Catania, which is notwith- imagination, when he described Etna as standing, only a distance of 12 miles. a general botanic garden, an almost Being provided with a fowl, &c. I sup- universal menagerie. As for the rest, I ped pretty well, slept in my cloak, and had not the pleasure of seeing any of we set out at half past nine by moon- these animals, and we arrived without light, the guide, servant, and myself
, on molestation, at the extremity of their our mules, the mule-driver always on domain, the forest, which may be about foot. We first entered into an immense six miles in width. We then entered torrent of lava ; the uncertain glimmer- into the most fantastical lavas ; they ings of the moon gave an extraordinary have more of a slope, and the crevices aspect to the huge masses by which I which form there, as soon as they bewas surrounded. I forgot to tell you, come cold, acquire more extent, and that in this convent, which is very con- present a more rent appearance.
It venient for the traveller visiting Etna, was one o'clock, and already the wind as he there dines and rests himself, you blew piercingly cold. also put on winter clothing ; in fact,
I was sorry not to have brought a that season was drawing near when we thermometer, but I had not been able quitted the monastery. You might to find one for sale, either at Messina or have seen me then on the 21st of Au- at Catania. As for a barometer, it gust, dressed nearly in the same manner would have been almost useless to me; as in England in the month of Decem- the custom of calculating the elevation ber. Soon after, long shadows scatter with this instrument,is extremely blameed here and there, and a trembling of able. Some have found the elevation the leaves, announced the approach to of Etna to be 12,000 feet, and others the forest of oaks, which formerly en- 24,000. Cassini reckons ten fathoms circled Etna to the height of several for the falling line of the mercury, by miles ; but which an immense torrent adding one to the first ten, two to the of lava had cruelly ravaged. The second, &c., but he has never surely light of the moon, the huge and broken made the experiment of his method on rocks, the great oaks, whose vegetation very high mountains, where the air is surprises the beholder, in the midst of rarefied in a much more rapid progreslavas, the silence of my guides, inter- sion. Etna might be measured trigorupted only by the rustling of the leaves, nometrically, for it descends as far as and by the trampling of our mules, the sea, the shore being taken for the every thing led me to reflection. How base. We may even have an approach