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the poppy is the well known and valua- Travels to abound with the most beauble opium of the shops, the soother of tiful rose-trees; he there saw 2 plants all our aches and pains. The Turks, it full fourteen feet high, laden with is well known, are in the habit of chew- thousands of flowers, in every degree ing opium as a luxury, and to induce a of expansion, and of a bloom and del state of indolence and apathy, which icacy of scent, that imbued the whole they regard as the summit of human atmosphere with the most exquisite happiness. It is often taken in large perfume. The gardens and courts of and repeated doses ; and in the pro- the Persians are crowded with its plants, fessed opium-eaters, it produces a sin- their rooms ornamented with vases fillgular species of intoxication. The ed with its gathered bunches, and every higher orders frequently amuse them- bath strewn with the full-blown flowers, selves in observing the strange effects plucked from the ever-replenished produced on one of those persons by stems : the full and intoxicating doses. The And as the parent-rose decays and dies, mind is elevated to madness; the man The infant buds with brighter colours rise, fancies himself a sultan, orders the ser
And with fresh sweets the mother's scent supplies. vants to be whipped, dismisses one Even the humblest individual, who minister, beheads another and comports pays a piece of copper money for a few himself with all the dignity and arro- whifs of a kalioun, feels a double engance of a king : while at the highest joyment when he finds it stuck with a pitch of frenzy, a slave is ordered to bud from his dear native tree ! make a sudden and loud noise ; in a But in this delicious garden of Nemoment the horror-struck opium-eater gauristan, the eye and the smell are not stands abashed, prays for forgiveness, the only senses regaled by the presence and becomes perfectly sober. Such is of the rose. The ear is enchanted by the very extraordinary effect of a sud- the wild and beautiful notes of multiden noise upon a person who has taken tudes of nightingales, whose warblings sufficient opium to procure intoxication. seem to increase in melody and softness
The rose, the type of love and beau- with the unfolding of their favourite ty, now holds a conspicuous place in flowers ; verifying the song of their pothe flower-garden :
et, who says :
When the roses fade,
when the charms of the bower are passAh! see, deep-blushing in her green recess, ed away, the fond tale of the nightinThe bashful virgin-rose, that half-revealing,
gale no longer animates the scene. And half, within herself, herself concealing,
The general character of this bower Is lovelier for her hidden loveliness. Lo! soon her glorious beauty she discovers : of faëry land, this garden of beauty, is, Soon druops ;-and sheds her leaves of faded hue : (according to Sir R. K. Porter) laid out Can this be she,-the flower,-erewhile that drew
in parallel walks, planted with luxuriThe heart of thousand maids, of thousand longing
ant willows, and fruit-trees of various lovers?
kinds, besides rose-trees in profusion. So fleeteth in the fleeting of a day,
In Negauristan, narrow, secluded walks, or mortal life the green leaf and the flower,
shaded above and enamelled with flowAnd not, though Spring return to every bower, Bods forth again soft leaf or blossom gay.
ers below, with cuts of clear and sparkGather the rose ! beneath the beauteous morning ling water, silvering the ground, and of this bright day that soon will over-cast; cooling the air, are charmingly contrastO gather the sweet rose, that yet doth last !
ed with other parts which the hand of
neglect (or taste assunzing graceful negIn no country of the world does the ligence) has left in a state of romantic rose grow in such perfection as in Per- wilderness. The trees are all full-grown sia ; and in no country is it so cultiva- and luxuriant in foliage ; while their ted and prized by the natives. It is lofty stems, nearly covered with a rich often alluded to by Hafez in his odes. underwood of roses, lilacs, and other
The garden of Negauristan, a palace fragrant and aromatic shrubs, form the belonging to the King of Persia, is de- finest natural tapestry of leaves and scribed by Sir R.K.Porter in his recent flowers.
Where'er the eye could reach,
The following singular custom was a Fair structures rainbow-hued arose ; And rich pavilions through the opening woods
few years ago observed in Yorkshire. Gleamed from their wavy curtains sunny gold;
On Midsummer eve, every housekeeper And winding through the verdant vale, who, during the preceding 12 months, Flowed streams of liquid light ;
had changed his residence into a new And flated cypresses reared high
neighbourhood (there being certain Their living obelisks.
limited districts called neighbourhoods) And broad-leaved plane-trees in long colonnades O'erarched delightful walks,
spreads a table before his door in the Where round their trunks the thousand-tendrilled street with bread, cheese, and ale, as vinc
refreshments for all who chose to acWound up, and hung the boughs with greener
cept it. If the master of the house be wreaths, And clusters not their own.
in tolerable circumstances, the party, Wearied with endless beauty did his eyes
after regaling themselves for a short Return for rest? Beside him teems the earth time, are invited to supper, and the With tulips, like the ruddy evening streaked;
evening is concluded in mirth and good And here the lily hangs her head of snow ; And here, amid her sable cup,
humour. The origin of this custom is Shines the red eye-spot, like one brightest star,
not known, but it is said to have been The solitary twinkler of the night ;
instituted for the purpose of introduAnd here the rose expands
cing strangers to an early and friendly Her paradise of leaves.
acquaintance with their neighbours; And oh! what odours the voluptuous vale others think that it was established for Scatters from jasmine bowers
the laudable purpose of settling differFrom yon rose wilderness, From clustered Henna, and from orange groves,
ences by the meeting and mediation of That with such perfumes filled the brecze,
friends. As Peris to their sister bear,
In Cornwall, Midsummer-day is When from the summit of some lofty tree
considered as a high holiday, on which She hangs, encaged, the captive of the Dives. They from their pinions shake
either a pole is erected, decorated with The sweetness of celestial flowers,
garlands, or some flag is displayed to And, as her enemies impure,
denote the sanctity of the time. The From that impervious poison far away
fires kindled in different parts of the Fly groaning with the torment, she the while Inhales her fragrant food.
country on the eve of Midsummer-day, Such odours flowed upon the world,
and other festivals, may probably be When at Mohammed's nuptials, ord
reckoned among the relics of Druidical Went forth in heaven, to roll
superstition. We are informed by TolThe everlasting gate of Paradise
land, in his History of the Druids, that Back on its living hinges, that its gales Might visit ali below : the general bliss
two fires were kindled by them near Thrilled every bosom ; and the family
one another, on May-eve, in every vilOf man, for once, partook one general joy. lage through the nation, and that it ex
tended to Gaul, to Ireland, and the Mackerel (scomber, scomber) are Isles. One fire was on the karne, taken in abundance in this month. The (that is, a stone barrow) the other on success of the fishery in 1821 was be- the ground adjoining; the men and yond all precedent. The amount of beasts to be sacrificed, were to pass bethe catch of 16 boats, from Lowestoft, tween the two fires. The Druids were on the 30th (June) amounted to accustomed to carry lighted torches in £5,252. 15s. 14d., being an average of their hands on certain occasions in a $328, 5s. 11 d. for each boat.
peculiar manner, in order to drive boats not in the above calculation, and away evil spirits. In the Island of those which went out to the westward, Lewis, one of the Scottish Isles, it was were also successful; and it is suppo- an antient custom to make a fiery cirsed that there was no Jess a sum than cle, round the houses, corn, and cattle,
£14,000 altogether realized by the belonging to each particular family ; owners and men concerned in the fish- this was done by a man who carried a ery on the Suffolk coast.
brand or torch in his hand, and travelMIDSUMMER DAY, the nativity of led round the things which were to be St. John the Baptist, is celebrated on inclosed. The same ceremony by the the 24th of June.
carrying of fire was performed about
women after childbearing, and round the following barbarous instance (narshildren before they were initiated, as rated by Mr. Hitchins, to whom we an effectual means of preserving the are indebied for much curious informamother and her offspring from the pow. tion) the perpetrator of the deed could er of evil spirits.
assign no other reason, than that it was In Cornwall, at present, although necessary to procure good luck. An the bonfires remain, the marching from ignorant old farmer in Cornwall havvillage to village with lighted torches, ing met with some severe losses in his exists only in the fading recollection of cattle about the year 1800, was much the aged, and in those pages which afflicted with his misfortunes. To marked the prevailing customs of de- stop the growing evil he applied to the parted days.
farriers in his neighbourhood, but unAbout the time of the summer sol- fortunately he applied in vain. The stice, the Druids lighted up a fire in malady still continuing, and all remhonour of Bel or Belus ; and, at this edies failing, he thought it necessary to season of the year, it is still a custom have recourse to some extraordinary in some parts of Ireland for the people measure. Accordingly, on consulting to light up fires some elevated pla- with some of his neighbours, equally ces,* and to bring their families togeth- ignorant with himself, and evidently er, to dance round, to pass through, not less barbarous, they recalled to and to jump over them, in order that their recollections a tale which tradisuccess may attend them in all their fu- tion had handed down from remote anture enterprises. In some places, even tiquity, that the calamity would not their cattle are compelled to submit to cease until he had actually burned this ordeal, of passing through the fire, alive the finest calf which he had upthat good luck may attend their dairies on his farm; but that, when this sacand that neither blight nor mildew may rifice was made, the murrain would afdestroy their ensuing crops. The bon- fict bis cattle no more. The old farmfires in Cornwall are evidently of the er, influenced by this counsel, resolved same original, although they are unat- immediately on reducing it to practice; tended with these ordeals, and are des- that, by making the detestable expertitute at present of all ominous power. iment, he might secure an advantage, We can only view them as the contin- which the whispers of tradition, and ued emblems of those flames in which the advice of his neighbours, had conthe Druid sacrifices were once consum- spired to assure him would follow. He ed. The victims have disappeared, accordingly called several of his friends but the fire still continues occasionally together, on an appointed day, and to glow; though the reason for which having lighted a large fire, brought it was originally lighted is nearly lost. forth his best calf; and, without cerYet even at the present day, when the emony or remorse, pushed it into the bonfires are lighted up in Cornwall, flames. The innocent victim, on feeland the spectators have for some time ing the intolerable heat, endeavoured been assembled round them, it is cus to escape; but this was in vain. The tomary for the youths of both sexes to barbarians that surrounded the fire display their agility, either in running were armed with pitchforks, or pikes, through the fire, or in jumping over as in Cornwall they are generally calthe glowing brands, as the flames de- led : and, as the burning victim encline. In these practices they awaken deavoured to escape from death, with a spirit of emulation in each other; these instruments of cruelty the wretchand that person is thought to be thé es pushed back the tortured animal inmost fortunate or lucky, who can brave to the flames. In this state, ansidst the the fiercest fire, and pass through it wounds of the pitchforks, the shouts of with the least inconvenience.
un feeling ignorance and cruelty, and or the sacrificing of beasts, some the corrision of flames, the dying vicsolitary memorials still remain ; and in tim poured out its expiring groan, and
• Chiefly on the mountains which lie to the south of Dublin. A line of country-cars is drawn across the roads, and something towards the bonfire' is exacted from the traveller.
was consumed to ashes. It is scarcely present year (1821). A farmer findpossible to reflect on this instance of ing himself and his family infested superstitious barbarity, without tracing with vermin, and his cows giving no a kind of resemblance between it and milk, attributed these misfortunes to the ancient sacrifices of the Druids. the influence of sorcery, and was adThis calf was sacrificed to fortune, vised to throw salt in the fire, and bran or good luck, to avert impending ca- in the stable where the cows were kept. lamity, and to ensure future prosperity, But this plan failing, he consulted one and was selected by the farmer as the of the wise men' of the village, who, finest among his herd.'—(History of after looking in a book threatened the Cornwall.)
farmer with new calamities, and told But besides the sacrifice of beasts, him that his wife and children would which was common to the Druids, they die in a few days; that the only remalso offered human victims at the pol- edy was to force the sorcerer to undo luted shrines of their imaginary gods. the work of fate ;' and, in order to efAt these shrines their enemies were
fect this, that he must be put in the sacrificed, and their friends were offer- fire, and held there, till it was accomed.
Sometimes the vigorous youth plished. The man pointed at, an honand graceful virgin were immolated on est mechanic of the village, was accorthese sanguinary altars; and sometimes dingly seized, and held in the fire for the smiling infant was carried from a considerable time, and would have the bosom of its mother, to the flames been burnt alive, had not his piercing which terminated its life :
cries alarmed some neighbouring rus
tics, who arrived just in time to save Like Moloch, horrid king, besmeared with blood him from the diabolical ferocity of the of human sacrifice, and parents' tears,
farmer and his companion. Another Though for the noise of drums and timbrels loud, Their children's cries unheard, that passed thro’ fire department of the Sarthe, where a
similar instance lately occurred in the To his grim idol.
man who was accused of having given Some remains of this dreadful su- the small-pox to the infant of another, perstition have appeared in one of the and caused the death of his sheep,western departments of France in the was murdered as a sorcerer.
FALLS OF NIAGARA.
(From Howison's recent Travels in Canada.)
[Howison (like Humboldt) seems to write of the forests, the rivers, the cataracts, the bound
less and majestic wildernesses of the New World, as if his spirit were quite penetrated with the mighty and mysterious influences of elemental nature ; nor have we met, for a long wbile, with any thing more charming in our literature, than the unstudied contrast continually presented by his quiet and temperate views of men and manners on the one hand, and his most rich and imaginative descriptions of external nature on the other. Neither Chateaubriand nor Humboldt has written any thing more truly beautiful and impressive, than his sketch of the voyage up the St. Lawrence in batteaux-Some of his descriptioos of walks and rides through the primeval forests, which still skirt the shores of Ontario and Erie-His rich panorama of the thousand islands—or, above all, his visit to the cataracts of Niagara. We venture to quote a considerable part of the last description, and challenge any one to point out any thing more powerful, or more
chastely and tastefully powerful, in all the prose that has been written in our time.] THE THE Table Rock, from which the the cliffs that support it, like the leaf of
Falls of Niagara may be contem- a table. To gain this position, it is plated in grandeur, lies on an exact lev- necessary to descend a steep bank, and el with the edge of the cataract, on the to follow a path that winds among Canada side, and, indeed, forms a part shrubbery and trees, which entirely conof the precipice over which the water ceal from the eye the scene that a waits gushes. It derives its name from the him who traverses it. When near the circumstance of its projecting beyond termination of this road, a few steps
carried me beyond all these obstruc- thirds of the space without being ruftions, and a magnificent amphitheatre fled or broken, and the solemn calmness of cataracts burst upon my view with with which it rolls over the edge of the appalling suddenness and majesty. precipice, is finely contrasted with the However, in a moment the scene was perturbed appearance it assumes after concealed from my eyes by a dense having reached the gulf below. But cloud of spray, which involved me so the water towards each side of the completely, that I did not dare to ex- Fall is shattered the moment it drops tricate myself. A mingled rushing and over the rocks, and loses as it descends, thundering filled my ears. I could see in a great measure, the character of a nothing except when the wind made a fluid, being divided into pyramidalchasm in the spray, and then tremen- shaped fragments, the bases of which dous cataracts seemed to encompass me are turned upwards. The surface of on every side, while below, a raging the gulf below the cataract presents a and foamy gulf of undiscoverable ex- very singular aspect; seeming, as it tent lashed the rocks with its hissing were, filled with an immense quantity waves, and swallowed, under a horrible of hoar frost, which is agitated by small obscurity, the smoking floods that were and rapid undulations. The particles precipitated into its bosom.
of water are dazzlingly white, and do At first, the sky was obscured by not apparently unite together, as might clouds, but after a few minutes the sun be supposed, but seem to continue for burst forth, and the breeze subsiding at a time in a state of distinct comminuthe same time, permitted the spray to tion, and to repel each other with a ascend perpendicularly. A host of py- thrilling and shivering motion which ramidal clouds rose majestically, one cannot easily be described. after another, from the abyss at the bot The noise made by the Horse-shoe tom of the Fall; and each, when it Fall, though very great, is infinitely had ascended a little above the edge of less than might be expected, and varies the cataract, displayed a beautiful rain- in loudness according to the state of bow, which in a few moments was grad- the atmosphere. When the weather is ually transferred into the bosom of the clear and frosty, it may be distinctly cloud that immediately succeeded. The heard at the distance of ten or twelve spray of the Great Fall had extended miles ; nay much further when there itself through a wide space directly is a steady breeze ; but I have freover me, and, receiving the full influ- quently stood upon the declivity of the ence of the sun, exhibited a luminous high bank that overlooks the Table and magnificent rainbow, which con- Rock, and distinguished a low thundertinued to over-arch and irradiate the ing only, which at times was altogether spot on which I stood, while I enthusi- drowned amidst the roaring of the rapastically contemplated the indescribable ids above the cataract. In my opinion, scene.
the concave shape of the Great Fall exAny person, who has nerve enough, plains the circumstance. The noise (as I had,) may plunge his hand into vibrates from one side of the rocky rethe water of the Great Fall, after it is cess to the other, and a little only esprojected over the precipice, merely capes from its confinement, and this is by lying down flat, with his face be less distinctly heard than it would othyond the edge of the Table Rock, and erwise be, as the profusion of spray stretching out his arm to its utmost ex- renders the air near the cataract a very tent. The experiment is truly a hor- indifferent conductor of sound. rible one, and such as I would not wish The road to the bottom of the Fall to repeat; for, even to this day, I feel presents many more difficulties than a shuddering and recoiling sensation that which leads to the Table Rock. when I recollect being in the posture After leaving the Table Rock, the travabove described.
eller must proceed down the river nearThe body of water which composes ly half a mile, where he will come to a the middle part of the Great Fall is so small chasm in the bank, in which there immense, that it descends nearly two- is a spiral staircase enclosed in a wood