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a work, it is impossible not to take an When he retired to bed, he could not interest, and a lively interest, whatever sleep unless the most perfect state of may be our opinion of him who forms darkness was obtained, by the closure its subject : besides, all political ani- of every cranny through which a ray of mosity is, or ought to be, buried with light might pass, although I have somehim in the grave; he has become a times seen him fall asleep on the sofa, portion of the past ; the fires, that he and remain so for a few minutes in once lit up, are now burnt out, or are broad daylight. When ill, Marchand only faintly glimmering in their em- occasionally read to him until he fell bers; they are not to be rekindled by asleep. At times he rose at seven, and any political discussions; and, were it wrote or dictated until breakfast time, not that many of the actors in the scene or, if the morning was very fine, he vith him are still alive, his story might went out to ride. When he breakfasted be told with the same freedom as that in his own room, it was generally served of any other conqueror, who, like him, on a little round table, at between nine may for bis little day have been the and ten; when along with the rest of scourge and wonder of the world. As his suite, at eleven ; in either case a la it is, we shall as much as possible avoid fourchette. After breakfast, he geneall coniment on the work, merely giv- rally dictated to some of his suite for a ing a brief epitome of some of its prin- few hours, and at two or three o'clock cipal facts.

received such visitors as by previous The author sets out with a minute appointment had been directed to prestory of the voyage to St. Helena, from sent themselves. Between four and the moment when the sails were first five, when the weather permitted, he unfurled, till the landing at James rode out on horseback or in the carTown, a period of ten weeks, during riage, accompanied by all his suite, for which, he seems to have gained the an hour or two; then returned and dicconfidence of the exile ; if, indeed, tated or read until eight, or occasionally Buonaparte can ever be said to have played a game at chess, at which time made a confident of any. Enough, dinner was announced, which rarely however, transpires in the course of exceeded twenty minutes or half an this volume, to prove that he was as hour in duration. He ate heartily and solitary in bis sufferings as in his great- fast, and did not appear to be partial to ness; his mind wanted no support from high seasoned, or rich food. One of communication, and therefore he was his most favourite dishes was a roasted little likely to make a show of his feel- leg of mutton, of which I have seen ings, as is the case with most men in him sometimes pare the outside brown the hour of affliction. It is weakness part off; he was also partial to mutton only that makes sorrow communica- chops. He rarely drank as much as a tive, and Napoleon's sorrow had no pint of claret at his dinner, which was weakness, except it were that of anger; generally much diluted with water. but all this, and much more important After dinner, when the servants had matter, we must leave untouched from withdrawn, and when there were no want of space to do it justice, and pro- visitors, he sometimes played at chess ceed to the detail of his habits at St. or at whist, but more frequently sent Helena.

for a volume of Corneille, or of some “ Napoleon's hours of rest were un- other esteemed author, and read aloud certain, much depending upon the for an hour, or chatted with the ladies quantum of rest he had enjoyed during and the rest of his suite. He usually the night. He was in general a bad retired to his bed-room at ten or eleven, sleeper, and frequently got up at three and to rest immediately afterwards. or four o'clock, in which case he read When he breakfasted or dined in his or wrote until six or seven, at which own apartment (dans l'interieur,) he time, when the weather was fine, he sometimes sent for one of his suite to sometimes went out to ride, attended converse with him during the repast. by some of his generals, or laid down. He never ate more than two meals a again to rest for a couple of hours. day, nor, since I knew him, had he

ever taken more than a very small cup Hudson Lowe could not help; but of coffee after each repast, and at no whether he or the English government other time. I have also been informed, might not have been milder keepers, by those who have been in his service is a question not so easily decided. But for fifteen years, that he had never ex- this is a subjcct which we do not wish ceeded that quantity since they first to dwell upon, and having first given knew him."

our author's account of Napoleon's For the first weeks, Rear Admiral bed-room, as a specimen of his lodging, Sir George Cockburn had the charge we shall go on to other matters less of the fallen exile; upon the whole, he liable to discussion. and his captive seem to have agreed " It was about fourteen feet by twelve, tolerably well, but he was soon to be and ten or eleven feet in height. The superseded by Sir Hudson Lowe, and walls were lined with brown nankeen, ir Buonaparte was not altogether satis- bordered and edged with common green fied with his first guardian, he was ut- bordering paper, and destitute of surterly discontented with bis second. In base. Two small windows, without a litile time, in the usual order of things, pullies, looked towards the camp of the they came to open war, Napoleon 53d regiment, one of which was thrown growing more and more fretful, and the up and fastened by a piece of notched governor more and more rigorous, the wood. Window-curtains of white long severity of public duty taking a deeper cloth, a small fire-place, a shabby grate

, tinge from the feelings of the individual. and fire-irons to match, with a paltry Buonaparte's temper may be pretty mantel-piece of wood, painted white, well ascertained from his private ex- upon wbich stood a small marble bust pressions in regard to Sir Hudson ; of his son. Above the mantel-piece & bugiardo,” “ sbirro," “ Siciliano, hung the portrait of Marie Louise, and “ imbecile," " bavard,” “ capo di four or five of young Napoleon, one of spioni,” were not his worst terms of which was embroidered by the hands reproach, yet at the same time there of the mother. A little more to the appears to have been some cause for right hung also a miniature picture of this violent irritation in the irksome the Empress Josephine, and to the left restraints imposed upon him, and in was suspended the alarm chamberthe natural evils of Longwood, made watch of Frederic the Great, obtained doubly vexatious by the want of fit ac. by Napoleon at Potsdam ; while on the commodations, supposing always our right, the consular watch, engraved with author's statement to be literally cor- the cypher B, hung by a chain of the rect. The whole island seems to be plaited hair of Marie Louise, from a particularly unpleasant, and Longwood pin stuck in the nankeen lining. The to be the most unpleasant part of it: floor was covered with a second-hand sometimes for want of water Napoleon carpet, which had once decorated the could not have a bath, which to his dining-room of a lieutenant of the St. babits was an essential luxury, and if Helena artillery. In the right-hand he attempted to move out he was either corner was placed the little plain iron scorched up by the sun or blighted by camp bedstead, with green silk curtains, the fogs; “ here,” he was wont to say, upon which its master had reposed on “it either blows a furious wind, loaded the fields of Marengo and Austerlitz. with rain and fog, che mi taglia l'anima, Between the windows there was a palor, if that is wanting, il sole mi brucia il try second-hand chest of drawers; and cervello, through the want of shade." an old book-case with green blinds Nor do these complaints appear to stood on the left of the door leading to have been without some reason, for he the next apartment. Four or five canewas constantly annoyed by head-ache, bottomed chairs, painted green, were by swellings of the gums and cheeks, standing here and there about the room. and by pains in the side, which last, we Before the back-door, there was a should suppose, were indicative of a screen covered with nankeen, and bediseased liver. All this, however, aris- tween that and the fire-place, an old ing from the nature of the clinjate, Şir fashioned sofa covered with white long

cloth, upon which reclined Napoleon, ed us with sand. We sunk into the clothed in his white morning gown, hole formed by its bursting; one of white loose trowsers and stockings all them was wounded. I made them both in one. A chequered red madras upon officers. One has since lost a leg at his head, and his shirt collar open Moscow, and commanded at Vincennes, without a cravat. His air was melan- when I left Paris. When he was sumcholy and troubled. Before him stood moned by the Russians, he replied, that a little round table, with some books, as soon as they sent him back the leg at the foot of which lay, in confusion he had lost at Moscow, he would surupon the carpet, a heap of those which render the fortress. Many times in my he had already perused, and at the foot life,” continued he,“ have I been saved of the sofa facing him was suspended a by soldiers and officers throwing themportrait of the Empress Maria Louise, selves before me when I was in the with her son in her arms. In front of most imminent danger. At Arcola, the fire-place stood Las Cases, with his when I was advancing, Colonel Mueron, arms folded over his breast, and some my aid-de-camp, threw himself before papers in one of his hands. Of all the me, covered me with his body, and reformer magnificence of the once mighty ceived the wound which was destined emperor of France, nothing was present for me. He fell at my feet, and his except a superb wash-stand, containing blood spouted up in my face. He gave a silver basin and water-jug of the his life to preserve mine. Never yet, same metal, in the left hand corner.” I believe, has there been such devotion

In this country it has been generally shown by soldiers as mine have manisupposed that Buonaparte had no other fested for me. In all my misfortunes, influence with the French than that of never has the soldier, even when exfear, but it appears that we judged of piring, been wanting to me-never has our neighbours by ourselves, and it is man been served more faithfully by certain that we feared him as much as

his troops.

With the last drop of we hated him. We had good reason blood gushing out of their veins, they for it; they, however, had not, or at exclaimed, Vive l'Empereur !least, Bonaparte thought they had not; The account of Moreau's death, as he fancied that the French people coming from Buonaparte, is well worloved him, and he tells some anecdotes, thy of quotation. which, if true, would go far to prove it: « In the battle before Dresden, I oras these are given in his own language, dered an attack to be made upon the or nearly so, we cannot do better than allies by both flanks of my army. quote one of them :

While the manquvres for this purpose “ Napoleon showed me the marks were executing, the centre remained of two wounds, one a very deep cica- motionless. At the distance of about trice ajove the left knee, which he said from this to the outer gate, I observed he had received in his first campaign of a group of persons collected together Italy, and it was of so serious a nature, on horseback. Concluding that they that the surgeons were in doubt wheth- were endeavouring to observe my maer it might not be ultimately necessary næuvres, I resolved to disturb ihem, to amputate. He observed, that when and called to a captain of artillery, who he was wounded, it was always kept commanded a field battery of eighteeu a secret, in order not to discourage the or twenty pieces : “Jettez une douzaine soldiers. The other was on the toe, de boulets a la fois dans ce groupe la, and had been received at Eckmubl. peutetre il y en a quelques petits gene“ At the siege of Acre,” continued he, raux." (Throw a dozen of bullets at “ a shell thrown by Sidney Smith fell once into that group; perhaps there at my feet. Two soldiers, who were are some little generals in it.)

It was close by, seized, and closely embraced done instantly. One of the balls strue's me, one in front and the other on one Moreau, carried ofi' both his legs side, and made a rampart of their and went through his horse. Many' bodies for me against the effect of the more, I believe, who were near hini, shell, which exploded, and overwhelm were killed and wounded. A moment

before Alexander had been speaking sight. Under the actual circumstances, to him. Moreau's legs were amputated the attack was little better than murnot far from the spot. One of his feet, der, but if they had fired a dozen guns with the boot upon it, which the sur: at once they must have killed us.” geon had thrown upon the ground, was We now come to a subject more pe brought by a peasant to the king of culiarly interesting to the English readSaxony, with information that some er—the battle of Waterloo-a battle, officer of great distinction had been which, whether for the severity of its struck by a cannon shot. The king, action, or the importance of its results, conceiving ibat the name of the person has not been equalled since the day of might perhaps be discovered by the Marathon. Every Englishman will be boot, sent it to me. It was examined naturally anxious to hear Napoleon's at my head-quarters, but all that could opinion of his great rival, but we fear be ascertained was, that the boot was that he will be little satisfied when he neither of English nor of French manu-, has heard it, for it is not very favourafacture. The next day we were in- ble to the glory of our general. Napoformed that it was the leg of Moreau. leon asserts, that the duke committed It is not a little extraordinary," con- two capital blunders; first, in suffering tinued Napoleon, “ that in an action a himself to be surprised ; and, secondly, short time afterwards, I ordered the in giving battle, for, if defeated, he must same artillery officer, with the same have been utterly ruined, as he could guns, and under nearly similar circum- not retreat, there being a wood in his stances, to throw eighteen or twenty rear, and only one road by which it bullets at once into a concourse of offi- could be gained. On the other hand, cers collected together, by which Gene- had he retired to Antwerp, Buonaparte ral St. Priest, another Frenchman, a must have been overwhelmed by the traitor and a man of talent, who had a armies of three or four hundred thousand command in the Russian army, was men that were marching up against killed, along with many others. Noth- him. How far this judgment may be ing,” continued the Emperor,“ is more correct we are not military enough to destructive than the discharge of a decide ; but we have sufficient philosodozen or more guns at once amongst a phy to know, that the event proves group of persons. From one or two nothing, either one way or the other

. they may escape; but from a number At the same time, it must in candour discharged at a time, it is almost im- be observed, that Buonaparte seenis to possible. After Esling, when I had be rather a partial judge in these matcaused my army to go over to the isle ters; he affirms that the English are of Lebau, there was for some weeks, not calculated to make such good-solby common and tacit consent on both diers as the French; but if the general sides between the soldiers, not by any was wrong in giving battle, and his agreement between the generals, a ces- soldiers were inferior, how did he hapsation of firing, which indeed had pro- pen to gain the victory? And what duced no benefit, and only killed a few does he say for himself in baving been unfortunate sentinels. I rode out eve- beaten by such enemies, to whom in all ry day in different directions. No per- respects he was so superior? He is, son was molested on either side. One perhaps, more correct in stating that day, however, riding along with Oudi- the strength of this country is in its not, I stopped for a moment on the navy, and no less correct in his account edge of the island, which was about of our smugglers, who are the most eighty toises distant from the opposite desperate beings that have ever existed bank, where the enemy was. They since the days of Blackbeard. We perceived us, and knowing me by the know something of these wild advenlittle hat and grey coat, they pointed a turers, whose deeds, and speech, and tbree pounder at us.

The ball passed manners, have all a romantic horror between Oudinot and me, and was very about them that does not belong to the close to both of us. We put spurs to present day; and many a tale could our horses, and speedily got out of we fashion of them for our readers

that would blanch their cheeks more ships, that Buonaparte gained his inthan the wildest improbabilities of fic- telligence during the war, and their tion. The people of this country are fidelity was always found equal to their little acquainted with their babits, or courage. But intelligence, it seems, with the scenes that have been lately was not the only contraband comacted on the coast, in the attempt to modity that they dealt in; they often put them down ; an attempt which can contrived to smuggle over the French never succeed with all the vigilance of prisoners from this country, and the our seamen. There is a romance in manner of the traffic was thus : any their doings as in their sufferings : dis- Frenchman, who wished to rescue his guised in the dress of the peasantry, friend or his relation from English they traverse the wildest parts of the captivity, would make a bargain with country in the dead of night, to meet the smugglers to bring him over, for a the expected boat, though the secret of certain sum proportioned to the circumits landing is known to one only, whom stances; and it was seldom that they they follow in blind obedience. If the failed in their purpose; all that they boat is discovered by our seamen, a

wanted for the business was the name light is flung into the air, or a pistol and age of the prisoner to be rescued, flashed off, as they term it, and she is together with some token to ensure his instantly pushed off, and lost again in confidence. At first Dunkirk was the the darkness. If brought to close place allotted to them, but these genti quarters they often fight desperately, terribili,” as Buonaparte terms them, though their subsequent sufferings,when grew so outrageous at last, and played wounded, are such as to beggar all such wild pranks, that he was forced description ; the necessity of secrecy is to make some order for their better beparamount to all other considerations, haviour. A little camp was in conse and surgeons cannot always be trusted. quence prepared for them at Gravelines, We actually knew one instance of a and certain limits assigned, within which poor wounded wretch festering for weeks their wanderings were restrained. Here on a mattress, with nothing else between they were often assembled to the numhim and the ground, till the straw was ber of five hundred. thoroughly soaked through by the im Between this detail and the burning pure flowings from the wound, and of Moscow, are many curious anecfungi sprang up from the dampness. dotes that we are for the present comBut nothing will tame them, nor can pelled to leave untouched. Napoleon's you convince them that there is any delineations of contemporary character moral turpitude in their calling ; a are admirable : Alexander, the King of strong instance of which we saw in an Prussia, Moreau, Soult, Pozzo di Borgo, old smuggler, whose son had been shot Fouche, Talleyrand, Carnot, Robein a fray with our seamen. The Lieu- spierre, Josephine, and a hundred tenant, as noble a being as ever served names familiar to history, are sketched his country, begged, prayed, nay im- with a strong, though rapid hand, and plored the old man, while the body lay the stamp of truth is on most of them. stretched before him, to desist from The murders of El Arish, and the such courses, or at least, not to bring poisoning at Jaffa are fully treated ; but up his remaining son to a life so peri- these and many things of more importlous, but it was all in vain ; he replied, ance we must pass over, and close our that if he had twenty sons they should notice of this first volume with Buonado the same, and the reply was clench- parte's account of the Russian conflaed with an oath too horrid for repetition. gration. We speak of facts with which we are “ I was in the midst of a fine city, well acquainted, and have only soften- provisioned for a year, for in Russia ed them in our recital.

they always lay in provisions for seveIt was from these men, who in their ral months before the frost sets in. little cock-boats bade defiance to all Stores of all kinds were in plenty. the vigilance of our seventy-four gun- The houses of the inhabitants were

44 ATHENEUM VOL. 11.

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