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of Commons : almost every lawyer of will the same be said of the English any eminence had a seat in Parliament; court ?) a single case in arrear. Nor the scene was a strange one. Not is this strange, when it is considered merely all interests, but all the varieties that, for a country so greatly inferior of human character had their suitable in wealth and size, the same number of representations. In the British House courts and judges is constituted.of Commons the active men are all en. Strictly, this is not the case as to Chandowed with much the same qualities : cery, there being in Ireland no vicethere is some small distinction between chancellor ; but when the business of the great orators and the men of busi- appeals in the House of Lords, and ness ; every man is expected, however, the duty of the Chancellor there as to exhibit good sense and information. speaker, are considered, the position In the Irish parliament it was not so. may be made with safety. The courts Business was carried on there in every are all held in the same building, lo possible diversity of means. There which also are attached the various law were the fighting members, ready to offices. It is a very handsome edifice. take off an obnoxious man if he did In the centre stands a fine circular hall but “ bite his thumb ;" there were the with a dome, and the passages to the jokers, who prostrated a foe with a bon courts open around. It is the custom mot, or a sneer at his expense; there for all barristers, whether having any were the vehement declaimers, whose business or not, to attend each day du weapon was invective, and who level- ring term a few hours in this hall, led abuse at him whose views and rea- around which they walk, intermixed sonings they could not impugn. Let with attorneys and suitors. Here cirany one look to the Irish debates, and culates, speaking without a metaphor, he will find ample fund for astonish- all the tattle and news of the city. ment. The entire city used to be per- There can be no more agreeable vaded with anxiety upon the subject lounge. The late Mr. Curran was in under discussion in the house. Múlti- the habit of passing some time in the tudes used to throng its avenues and hall of the Four Courts, as it is called, cheer the popular members. All this each day ; and here, after playing off is now past, and the scene is compara- his puns and saying his good things, he tively dull; but there is yet much in used to make up his occasional dinnerDublin to repay enquiry skilfully di- parties, to which he invited the cleverrected, and to excite interest. The est of the young men he met, and great proprietors no longer residing in among whom, till his latest hour, he Dublin, the first place in society has was the youngest of all. To them be naturally devolved to the Bar, which, gave abundance of wine, in the use of generally speaking, is held in higher which he was himself sparing. Kind estimation in Ireland than in this coun- and benevolent to each, every guest try. The profession is by no means felt at ease, and the incomparable host so much detached as here, and a coun- himself without ceremony abandoned sellor, as he is termed, is expected to and resumed bis seat, walked about be not merely acquainted with law, but discoursing delicious eloquence, or took to be well-informed on every subject, up his violoncello as he felt inclined. and he is accordingly regarded as an in the habits of the profession there is, authority upon all points. An English perhaps, nothing to remark beyond practitioner would be much surprised the general character, which partakes at the course of an Irish barrister's more of pleasure and (may we say life. The courts do not sit till near so ?) genteel life than does that of our eleven o'clock, and no business is done denizens of the Temple and Lincoln's after dinner. There are no inns of Inn. court, and each individual lives in that The traders of Dublin are divided part of the city he chooses. The into three descriptions, which are judges lead an easy life; there is sel- strongly distinguished. There is the dom any press of business, and in Corporation class, which is, perhaps, Chancery we believe there is not (when the least reputable'; the great Catholic

body, and the Presbyterian, which last is well tried. The good old days are is chiefly engaged in the linen and gone when the door was used to be American trade. It is among the sec- locked, and the guests kept in durance ond that the stranger will find most till they became quite drunk : but a matter for observation. Their religion great deal of hard drinking yet prevails has raised a line of demarcation be- in Dublin. The middle classes are tween them and other classes of the very much disposed to the enjoyments community, and in consequence they of the table ; nor are they without a retain more traces of the old Irish cus- tendency to another modish vice, toms and mode of life. The institution They play cards for sums small and of fasting two, and often three days trivial indeed in the apprehension of a in each week, as well as in Lent, is a dowager at Bath, or a man of mettle in great prevention of social intercourse town, but not when the circumstances between Catholics and Protestants. of the parties are taken into account. The rules of the Church are observed The wife of a man not worth, root and in Dublin with the utmost strictness,— branch, as the saying is, 10,000l. pera strictness unknown elsewhere. A. haps not half that sum, will lose on ocmong themselves they live in a style of casion six or eight or ten pounds at loo; great hospitality and luxury. Indeed and her husband will be guilty of a the same may be observed of the mode more masculine indiscretion, and perof life of all classes in Dublin. The haps double that amount. Supper is, market is very fine; the supply of fish, in Dublin, a meal of great enjoyment. that prime article in an epicure's cata- At supper it was that often during the, logue of the goods of life, ample and latter years of the last century the regular in all its species, shell, white, whole company used to stand up, join red, &c. The common beverage, that hands, and sing all together the bold most used, and though cheapest, most national anthem of Erin go bragh. prized, is whisky-punch. Though cal. The effect of this was wonderful. It led punch, it would, however, as most was enough to have animated the verifrequently drunk, be more properly de- est slave and coward. Old and young, nominated toddy'; the essential differ- the aged sire, and the youthful beauty, ence being, as we apprehend, that all united their voices and hands. We punch contains lemon and that toddy apprehend that many a democrat must does not. Whisky is of two kinds — thus have been created. Stubborn, inmalt, and corn, that is, made from bar- deed, must have been the heart that ley or from oats, the first of which is could thus resist the example of age most esteemed. But there is another and the influence of enthusiastic beauty. distinction, and that is between parlia- This meal continues to be the chosen ment whisky, and poteen, or whisky one. During the course of the prevmade in defiance of parliament and all ious evening, the members of the party its ordinances, in a small still or pot. have become acquainted with each othThis last acquires, from the use of turf er; restraint has worn off-little friendor peat in the process, a smoked taste, ships have grown up-people have atas to the agreeableness of which there tached themselves to each other—the is a great diversity of sentiment, the belles have selected their admirers, and strong preponderance of authorities be- all sit down with fresh zest for enjoying in favour of the smoke. The spir- ment, and with the anticipation of sepit is an excellent spirit, “ a dainty spir- arating to impart its sweet melancholy. it," as Shakspeare says. It is not very Tó dinner belong your discussions of palatable to one who has revelled on politics, and sombre dissertations on claret and hock, and Burgundy, but it the weather. More jocund themes atis sweet and delicious to those habitua- tend supper. There is mirth and song ted to drink it, and it is extremely in- and laughter; and the maid who has nocent. It may be safely said that an been coy and reserved during the preexcess in quantity of alcohol can be ta- ceding hours, at length smiles favour. ken in no shape less injurious; and It may, perhaps, be affirmed that litassuredly the potency of its malignity erature has made less progress among

the Catholic gentry, than any descrip- less coldness and reserve and hauteur tion of individuals in these countries. than in England. Let us here be unThey are, however, in their manners derstood to speak of the middle classes; easy and cheerful, and endowed with among which in every country, the nathat natural courtesy which is the great tional character and peculiarities are characteristic of the Irish people. In most visible. The upper ranks in Ire England we are too much a people of land,the great proprietors and nobles, business—a “nation of shopkeepers,” are much the same as individuals holdas we are somewhat severely called. ing the same station amongst us. On Our gravity does tend to produce entering society in Dublin, a stranger somewhat of moroseness. In Ireland will be much struck by the animation every man seems to be more or less a of the party; the absence of —we were man of pleasure. We see few persons going to write, mauvais-honte ; the wedded to and delighting in one occu- haste which individuals make to compation as with us at home. There is a mit themselves, as it is termed ; the large body, the Presbyterian settlers in freedom with which every man gives the north, to whom these observations his sentiments; and, to speak the apply with less force; but there is no truth, the real ability and powers of question that the original Scottish char- elocution with which he defends and acter has been much mellowed by explains them. transplanting into the Irish soil. We The politics of the inhabitants of are too apt to confound the various Dublin are very much provincial ; indescriptions of Irish, but the distinc- deed questions immediately affecting tions are worth remarking. In Dublin the country are sufficiently numerous a judicious cicerone may point out the and important to occupy attention. dissipated and refined southern, the But what may be called imperial policy primitive Milesian of the west, and the is as little heeded or thought of as the morę sober and stern inhabitant of the approximation of two planets; an - nofth, all strongly contrasted to an ob- event probably affecting os, but in a deserving eye, and the brogue of each va. gree so minute, and so remote as to rying in character and richness. In occasion us scarce a passing thought. England many a wealthy manufacturer There does not prevail in Dublin that or factor would prefer to hear himself general acquaintance with the charactermed tradesman to gentleman ; but ters of public men, or with the state of on the other side of the water it is not parties, which we find in this city. The so. Every man is there a gentleman. press of Dublin is a subject too deliWe cannot better illustrate this fact cate and too much open to controversy, than by 'mentioning that the term es- for us to enlarge upon; but we will re quire is almost universally applied. mark, that the sweeping, slapdash, disThere is no middle class in Ireland; cursive, colloquial style common in the there are no individuals who can be newspapers, is very characteristic

. content with being well fed and clothed, The writing is, in point of literary and remaining in their original grade merit, greatly inferior to that of the Lonin society. As soon as an Irish trader don journals. Though newspapers are inakes a little money, he extends his cheaper in Ireland than here, they have domestic, not his mercantile establish- small circulation among the lower clasment.. He applies the surplus 'not to ses in Dublin ; nor have we remarked augmentation of his capital, but to in- in any of the alehouses any newspaper crease of his pleasures. There is a "taken in here, as is frequent in Longreat want of proper pride, and a great don. These people have certainly, as prevalence of vanity. People retire their superiors seem to think they too from trade in Ireland with such means have, lost all political weight and colas in England they would begin upon. sideration. The mechanics and trades

This however all tends to make the men all unite, however else they may people, if not respectable, at least pleas- differ, in bewailing the Union, which ant, which the Irish may be said em- they deem to have been fatal to Ireland, phatically to be. In society there is because injurious to them immediately,

T. and to their city. It is certain, howev- and reserve of the character is objected

er that since that measure, Dublin has to. There is no doubt that the Irish been most considerably enlarged and are emulous of our virtues; and it would improved. It is not easy to explain be well did we resolve to adopt the exa

the cause of this enlargement and im- cellencies of their temper and good nama provement ; there is no question that ture. There is one article, the im

the trade of this cityj has declined. provement in respect of which we may Belfast and Cork have possessed them- condescend to notice, as (see Lord selves of a part of what did once be- Londonderry's speech on the State of long to the capital ; and minor sea- the Nation) one of his Majesty's Minports now correspond directly with isters vouchsafed to make it the subject London and Liverpool, and the for- of grave congratulation to the legislaeign ports, with all of which they used ture. With such an authority, we run

to have nothing to do, but to get com- no risk of derogating from our dignity ti! modities from the Dublin merchant. by adverting to it. We have the hap

This is not a consequence of the Union, piness of stating, that within the last but of the progress of trade, and gene- fifty years the habits of the Irish people ral advancement of the country. There have improved, in point of cleanliness, are in Dublin no houses vacant-none in a degree almost inconceivable. They of the mansions of the nobility have are still far from that martinet purity gone to ruin ; some have fallen into which we boast ; but except in minor the plebeian hands of opulent lawyers and trivial particulars, the inhabitants and merchants; and many are convert- of Dublin are little less cleanly than ed into public institutions and schools, those of London. Most of the hotels and a great proportion into hotels. By are kept in as good order as any here. this transition the inhabitants of Dublin It is true we do not see outer steps and are naturally much affected, and with window-stones of that dazzling and many a bitter expression of sorrow they Cretan whiteness they exhibit in Engpoint out to the stranger the former res- land ; but it will be found, that whereidence of the various noble families, ever comfort demands that the brushi The Irish are a vain people, and im- and the scrubbing-block should be, pressed with a reverence for lords and they have been. In the north of Ireladies of high degree, very different land, strange as it will sound to Engfrom honest blunt John Bull's senti- lish ears, may be found a perfect patments on that score ; and it may be tern of cleanliness : the houses of the fairly presumed that the loss of so much people engaged in the linen manufacgood company is felt a considerable ag- ture, are many of them as scrupulously gravation of the solid and substantial and fastidiously neat and pure as possiinjury which the Union occasioned the ble. These remarks, however, must citizens of the Irish metropolis.

be confined to the more comfortable The number of hotels in Dublin is and happy classes of the community. prodigious. All the members of par. We will not speak of the peasantry; liament, going and returning, pass a but directing ourselves alone to the few days in Dublin : it was formerly a population of Dublin, we must say great capital, the seat of legislation; it that it contains a large mass of human is now a great place of passage. Dub- beings in the most squalid and wretchlin is now as great as it was at the Un- ed condition. An establishment for ion ; but not as great as it would have the relief and reception of mendicants been, bad that Union not taken place. does exist in Dublin : it is maintained The aversion to the Union, as a meas- by voluntary subscriptions, there being, ure of policy, has augmented and main- as our readers are aware, no poor-laws tained that dislike of England, which in Ireland. But we mean to refer to a was once so strong in Ireland, but description of individuals who do not whiclt is rapidly vanishing. The high- fall properly under the description of est sense of the value and merit of Eng- paupers, or constitute a fit object for lish sobriety, prudence, industry, and alms,- we speak of the inferior orders exactness, is general; but the coldness of tradespeople and mechanics. There

is a part of Dublin called the Liberty, It was surrounded

by a series of portealmost wholly inhabited by these per. cos, the apt resort of Eloquence and sons. St.Giles's, or the most wretched the Muses; but the worthy Directors lane of London, is splendid compared have erected in the interstices between with it. We were informed that the the columns, a stout rampart of stone Earl of Meath, whose property it is, and mortar, thus adding to the security actually gets no rent; and that the of their coffers and the spaciousness of old law doctrine of General Occupan- the building, however, they may have cy prevails. The houses are most of detracted from the beauty of the archithem ruinous, but having been origin- tecture. The Exchange is a handally well built and of good materials, some building, but unbappily stands at they hold together. The languishing the head of a street of which it does state of the woollen and silk trades in not occupy the centre. A precisely Ireland, has had its effect, but the evil similar fault in the site, it may be reis mainly attributable to the great mis- marked, injures the effect of the Exchief under which that country suffers, change at Liverpool. Dublin Castle, the smallness of the recompence of la- the town residence of the Viceroy, is bour. In London, too there is much situated upon an bill : it is well built, squalid misery, but it is more out of chiefly of stone, and has a very lordly sight and out of the way than in Dub- and imposing appearance. The serlin. Keeping to the west end of the vant is better lodged than his master at town here, nothing but opulence pre- St.James's. There are two large and sents itself: penury hides itself in re- handsome quadrangles, in the upper mote retreats. But in Dublin he must of which a stand of colours is always step warily who desires to avoid the displayed. The entire of the building view of wretchedness. It is not possi- is not appropriated to the use of the ble to walk in any direction half an Lord Lieutenant; much of it is occuhour without getting among the loath- pied by the Public Offices, the Treassome habitations of the poor. In tra- ury, the Ordnance Office, the Chief versing Dublin, the stranger will feel Secretary's Office, the Council Chamwith peculiar force the poet's emotion, ber, &c. &c. The apartments are when, contrasting a rural retreat with handsome, and the audience and presthe city, he says of the former ence chambers sufficiently spacious. “ Here was not mingled in the city's pomp

The whole is surrounded by a wall of Of life's extremes the grandeur and the gloom!" great height and strength. Some parts

of the edifice are old. The BirmingThe first view of Dublin is prepos- ham Tower, where the records are sessing ; Sackville-street, by which the kept, derives its name from Sir Wiltraveller from Howth enters, is one of liam de Birmingham, one of the early the finest streets in Europe ; and as he settlers and deputies. passes through it, and over Carlisle The neighbourhood of Dublin is bridge, the Post-office and the Custom- very delightful. Both sides of the house are seen, a glimpse of the Courts Bay are crowded with handsome villas. is obtained, and the Bank and college The mountains occupy the south : the lie immediately in the way. But these Phænix Park lies to the west, and be are almost all that are to be seen ; and yond it opens the rich county of Kilthe consequence is, that the first emo- dare. The Glen of the Downs, the tion of a stranger arriving in Dublin, Dargle, the Devil's Glen, the vale of is admiration; and that disappoint- Obrea, Luggelaw, all the most charmment succeeds. The Bank was form- ing scenery of Wicklow, is within a erly the House of Parliament. It is of morning's drive of Dublin : on the Grecian architecture, and for purity other side, beyond the park, only a and elegance, stands, we believe unri- few miles from town, lies Lucan and valled in these isles. Its beauty has Celbridge. Their vicinity to all these been somewhat impaired since it fell places leads the inhabitants of Dublin into the hands of the monied gentry. to make frequent country excursions ;

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