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up. He was never let out into the open Schlusselburg, and have an interview air, and no ray of heaven ever visited with Ivan, without acquainting him his eyes. In the subterranean vault with his rank, attended only by his which had been thus appropriated for grand ecuzer, one of his aides de camp, his prison, it was necessary to keep a Baron Korff, master of the police at lamp always burning ; and as no clock Petersburg, and the Counsellor of State was to be seen or heard, Ivan knew Volkeff. Desirous to remain incognito, no difference between day and night. he furnished himself with an order The persons employed to guard him, a signed by his own hand, in which he captain and lieutenant in the Russian enjoined the commandant to give the army, were prohibited, under the se- bearers free leave to walk about the verest penalties from speaking to him, whole fortress, without even excepting or answering him the simplest ques- the place where Ivan was confined, and
to leave them to converse with that About two years after his confine- prince alone. ment in the tower of Schlusselburg, Taking care to conceal the ensigns Elizabeth expressed a desire to have of his dignity, Peter entered the cell of a personal interview with the noble Ivan, who, after contemplating him for youth. Ivan was accordingly convey- some time, threw himself all at once at ed in a covered cart to Petersburg, the feet of the Czar. “ Czar said the where, in the house of Peter Shu- unbappy youth), you are the master valoff, the Empress had a long conver- here." I shall not trouble you with a sation with him, but without making long petition, but let me entreat you to herself known. He was then about mitigate the severity of my lot. I have eighteen years of age, of a graceful been languishing for a number of years figure, and commanding deportment. in this gloomy dungeon. The only faHis countenance is represented as hav- vour I implore is, that I may occasioning been particularly expressive, and ally be permitted to breathe a purer his voice sweet and harmonious. These air.” Peter was moved at these words. graces, however, availed him but little. « Rise, Prince," said he to Ivan, tapSome of the Historians of her time have ping him upon the shoulder, “ be untalked of the tears she shed on this oc- der no uneasiness for the future, I will casion!
employ all the means in my power to However this may have been, her render your situation more tolerable. sympathy was not of long duration. But tell me, have you any remembrance The unfortunate youth was once more of the misfortunes you have experienced led back to his dungeon at Schlussel- from your earlier youth ?” “ I have burg, where he remained until the death scarcely any idea of those that befel of Elizabeth, and the accession of Peter my infancy (rejoined Ivan), but from the Third.
the moment that I began to fiel my The brief reign and sudden death of misery, the unhappiness of my parents that unfortunate Emperor, are well has been my first cause of concern ; and known. No longer able to endure the my principal and greatest distress arose conduct of his consort Catherine, he out of the treatment they received as determined to repudiate her. Accord- we were transported from one place of ingly, in the year 1762, le looked security to another.” The Czar exaround him for a successor to the pressed a wish to know who the parthrone, and at length determined to ties were. 66 The officers who conadopt Ivan, and constitute him his ducted us,” said Ivan, “ who were alsuccessor. Still further, to promote ways the most inhuman of their kind." this view, he resolved 'to marry the “ Do you recollect the names of those captive to the young princess of Hol- persons ?” said Peter.
66 Alas !" restein Beck, who was then at Peters. plied the young Prince, “ we were not burg, and whom he cherished as a very curious to learn them. We were daughter. Having arranged his plans, content to return thanks to Heaven. on Peter resolved to visit, in as private a on our bended knees, when these monmanner as possible, the fortress of sters were relieved by one of a more
gentle disposition, one whose generous house of a person of consequence, and attentions have given me good cause to visited, during the night, once more by remember his name, he was called Peter, whose plan for the restoration of Korff.” It was the very man who Ivan to the throne was now ripe, and was then in the presence of the Empe- about to be carried into execution, when ror, and who seemed much affected by another revolution suddenly broke out, this ingenuous recital. Peter was no which removed Peter from his empire less so, and turning to Korff, remarked and the world, and exalted Catherine to in a voice choked with emotion, “ you the throne of Russia. see, Baron, that a good action is never As a still further security, until Peter lost !”
should be presented with an opportuniOn leaving Ivan's dungeon, Peter ty of finally accomplishing his design made the circuit of the tower for the against the jealousy of Catherine or her purpose of fixing upon a spot to erect adherents, Ivan was kept in great sea a new and more commodious prison crecy and retirement during his stay at for Ivan; after which, he gave orders Petersburg. His presence in that city to that effect.
“When the building is nevertheless began to be bruited abroad, finished,” remarked the Czar, “I will and a great deal of sympathy was excome myself and put the prince in pos- cited for him, when the circumstances session.” It seems probable, that this coming to the ears of the Empress, she order was given as a blind, to prevent had him taken back to his former pristhe commandant of Schlusselburg from on. Fearing, however, lest he should surmising his real intention. He had be recalled and crowned, she lodged no need of a prison who was about to him in a monastery at Kalmogor, near be elevated to a throne.
Archangel, whence he was a third time The Czar's visit to Ivan did not carried back to Schlusselburg, where long remain a secret. To avoid giving he remained in close confinement until rise to suspicions which might have the year 1764, about which time the proved dangerous to Peter, his uncle, crisis of his fate approached. the Prince of Holstein, advised him to Anxious to preserve popular opinion, remove Ivan into Germany, together Catherine, after the death of her huswith Duke Anthony his father, and the band, was desirous of removing Ivan ; rest of the family. This recommenda- but, until the means offered to effect tion was not attended to, but suggested this with some semblance of expediento the Czar the propriety of placing cy, she resolved to prejudice the RusIvan in the fortress of Kezholm, on the sian people against him, and
persuade lake of Ladoga ; a situation much them, if possible, of his total incapacinearer the Russian metropolis than ty ever to reign over them. Soon after Schlusselburg, In his way thither the the commencement of her reign, therehapless youth had a narrow escape fore, she published a manifesto of a from death. The frequency and sud- conversation supposed to have been denness of tempests on this lake, from held with the captive prince, in which its peculiar situation, is proverbial.— she describes him as utterly deficient The boat in which the prince was row- both in talents and understanding. ed, to get on board the galleot, capsiz- This statement was, however, received ed amid this fathomless abyss of wa- with the credulity it deserved. From ters, and it was with great difficulty he this period the wrongs of the Prince was saved. Happy would it have been formed the pivot upon which continual for this glorious youth, had his miseries conspiracies against Catherine revolvmet wit
an easy termination beneath ed. His just title to the crown, his the mountainous waves of the stormy long and cruel sufferings, his youth and Ladoga. But he was reserved for se- his innocence, afforded abundant mateverer trials.
rials for working upon the minds of the On his arrival at Kezholm, the Czar populace. The grossest calumnies were caused him to be secretly conveyed to circulated, with respect to Ivan. Some Petersburg, where he was put in the described him as an idiot, others as a
drunkard, and not a few as a ferocious house, at the gate of the castle, and at savage thirsting for the blood of his fel- their proper stations. The detachment low-creatures.
had for its commander an officer who, Of course the
Prince's oppor- himself, was under the orders of the tunities of acquiring intellectual know- governor. ledge were very confined.
Some time before the execution of taught to read by a German officer his project, Merovitch had opened himwho had the custody of him, and this self to a Lieutenant of the regiment of formed the sum total of his attainments. Veliki Luke, named Uschakoff, who But his mind was of a very superior or- bound himself by an oath which he der, and susceptible of the most refined took at the altar of the church of St. polish, had the means occurred. Mary of Kuson, in Petersburg, to aid
An instrument was soon found to him in the enterprize to the best of his release the Empress Catherine from power. this clog upon her future prospects. Already had he performed a week's The regiment of Smolensko was in gar- duty at the fortress without venturing rison in the town of Schlusselburg, and an attempt; but tormented by the anxa company of about a hundred men ieties arising from suspense, and conguarded the fortress in which Prince demning his own irresolution, he asked Ivan was confined. In this regiment, permission to be continued on guard a as second lieutenant, was an officer week longer. This step does not seem named Vassily Merovitch, whose grand- to have excited any surprize ; the refather had been implicated in the rebel- quest was granted, and Merovitch havlion of the Cossack Maseppa, and had ing admitted to his confidence a man fought under Charles XII. against Pe- named Jacob Pislikoff, they took the ter the Great. The estates of the fam- earliest opportunity of tampering with ily of Merovitch had accordingly been the soldiers who guarded the fortress. forfeited to the crown. This young But why need we prolong the melanman, whose ambition was considerable, choly tale? After he had collected preferred with warmth his pretensions about fifty soldiers, who had promised to have them restored ; and this it was to obey his orders, he marched straight that introduced him to the court. The to the door of Ivan's prison, where a family estates were not restored; but desperate struggle took place, during he was continually flattered with the which the unfortunate Ivan was most hopes of their recovery, if he would barbarously murdered within. show himself active in securing the Hearing the noise without, and extranquillity of the empire.
pecting every instant that the prisonThe inner guard over the imperial door would have been broken open, the prisoner consisted at this time of two two officers resolved to destroy their officers, who slept with him in his cell. prisoner, and accordingly attacked him These persons had a discretionary or with the most murderous ferocity.der by which they were instructed to He defended himself for some time, put Ivan to death, on any insurrection having his right band pierced through, that might be made in his favour, on and his body covered with wounds ; the presumption that it could not other- he seized the sword of one of these wise be quelled.
wretches and broke it, but whilst he The entrance to Ivan's prison open- was attempting to wrench the piece out ed under a sort of low arcade, which, of his hands, the other stabbed bim in together with it, formed the thickness the back and threw him down. He of the castle wall, within the ramparts; was, before he could rise from the in this arcade or corridor eight soldiers ground, stabbed several times with a usually kept guard, as well on his ac- bayonet, and thus released from life and count, as because the several vaults on captivity together. a line with his, contained stores of va It was at this moment that Merorious kinds for the use of the fortress. vitch entered the prison, and cut to The other soldiers were in the guard- pieces the two rufians by whom the
young prince had been slain. He was doomed to linger out his existence in a not in time to prevent his death, but he gloomy dungeon ; and thus doomed to was soon enough to avenge it.
atone for a few fleeting months of imThus perished a prince who was posed authority, by long years of im raised to the Imperial throne without prisonment and a cruel death, the his own knowledge and consent, and crown of his persecution.—Gent. Jan.
LETTER TO THE MOHAWK CHIEF AHYONWAEGHS, COMMONLY CALLED JOHN
BRANT, ESQ. OF THE GRAND RIVER, UPPER CANADA.
FROM THOMAS CAMPBELL.
London, January 20, 1822. appeal to me, smile with the same surTEN days ago I was not aware that prise which I experienced on first re
such a person existed as the son ceiving it. With regard to your fathof the Indian leader Brant,* who is er's character I took it as I found it in mentioned in my poem “ Gertrude of popular history. Among the docuWyoming.” Last week, however, Mr. ments in his favour I own that you have s. Bannister of Lincoln's Inn, called shewn me one which I regret that I to inform me of your being in London, never saw before, though I might have and of your having documents in your seen it, viz. the Duke of Rochefoupossession which he believed would cault's honourable mention of the chief change my opinion of your father's in his travels.t Without meaning, memory, and induce me to do it jus- however, in the least to invalidate that tice. Mr. Bannister distinctly assured nobleman's respectable authority, I me that no declaration of my senti- must say, that even if I had met with ments on the subject was desired but it, it would have still offered only a gensuch as should spontaneously flow eral and presumptive vindication of from my own judgment of the papers your father, and not such a specific one that were to be submitted to me. as I now recognize.
On the other I could not be deaf to such an ap- hand, judge how naturally I adopted peal. It was my duty to inspect the accusations against him which had justification of a man whose memory stood in the Annual Register of 1779, I had reprobated, and I felt a satisfac- as far as I knew, uncontradicted for tion at the prospect of his character thirty years. A number of authors being redressed, which was not likely had repeated them with a confidence to have been felt by one who had which beguiled at last my suspicion, wilfully wronged it. As far as any in- and I believe that of the public at tention to wound the feelings of the large. Among those authors were Gorliving was concerned, I really knew don, Ramsay, Marshall, Belsham, and not, when I wrote my poem, that the Weld. The most of them, you may son and daughter of an Indian chief tell me perhaps, wrote with zeal against were ever likely to peruse it, or be af- the American war. Well, but Mr. fected by its contents. And I have John Adolphus was never suspected of observed most persons to whom I have any such zeal, and yet he has said in his mentioned the circumstance of your History of England, &c. (vol. iii. p.
* The name has been almost always inaccurately spelt Brandt in English Books.
+ The following testimony is borne to his fair name by Rochefoucault, whose ability and means of forming a correct judgment will not be denied. 6 Colonel Brandt is an Indian by birth. In the American war he fought under the English banner, and he has since been in England, where he was most graciously received by the king, and met with a kind reception from all classes of people. His manners are semi-European. He is attended by two negroes ; has established himself in the English way; has a garden and a farm; dresses after the European fashion ; and nevertheless possesses much influence over the Indians. He assists at present (1795) at the Miami Treaty, which the United States are concluding with the Western Indians. He is also much respected by the Americans; and in general bears so excellent a name, that I regret that I could not see and become acquainted with him."-Rochefoucault's Travels in North America.
110) “ that a force of sixteen hundred tirely, he had been struck by the naivete savages and Americans in disguise, and eloquence of his conversation. headed by an Indian Col. Butler, and They had talked of music, and Brant a half Indian of extraordinary feroc- said, " I like the harpsicord well, and ity named Brandt, lulling the fears of the organ still better ; but I like the the inhabitants (of Wyoming) by drum and trumpet best of all, for they treachery, suddenly possessed them- make my heart beat quick.” This selves of two forts, and massacred gentleman also described to me the enthe garrisons." He says farther, thusiasm with which he spoke of writ" that all were involved in unsparing ten records. Brant projected at that slaughter, and that even the devices of time to have written a History of the torment were exhausted.” He pos. Six Nations. The genius of history sessed, if I possessed them, the means should be rather partial to such a man. of consulting better authorities; yet he I find that when he came to England, has never to my knowledge made any after the peace of 1783, the most disatonement to your father's memory. guished individuals of all parties and When
your Canadian friends, therefore professions treated him with the utmost call me to trial for having defamed the kindness. Among these were the late warrior Brant, I beg that Mr. John Bishop of London, the late Duke of Adolphus may be also included in the Northumberland, and Charles Fox. summons. And after his own defence Lord Rawdon, now Marquess of Hasand acquittal, I think he is bound, hav- tings, gave him his picture. This ciring been one of my historical mislead- cumstance argues recommendations ers, to stand up as my gratuitous coun- from America founded in personal sel, and say,
“Gentlemen, you must friendship. In Canada the memorials acquit my client, for he has only fal- of his moral character represent it as len into an error, which even my judg- naturally ingenuous and generous. The ment could not escape.”
evidence afforded induces me to believe In short, I imbibed my conception that he often strove to mitigate the cruof your father from accounts of him elty of Indian warfare. Lastly, you that were published when I was scarce- affirm that he was not within many ly out of my cradle.—And if there miles of the spot when the batile which were any public, direct and specific decided the fate of Wyoming took challenges to those accounts in England place, and from your offer of reference ten years ago, I am yet to learn where to living witnesses I cannot but admit they existed.
the assertion. Had I learnt all this of I rose from perusing the papers you your father when I was writing my posubmitted to me certainly with an al- em, he should not have figured in it as tered impression of his character. I the hero of mischief. I cannot, infind that the unfavourable accounts of deed, answer by anticipation what the him were erroneous, even on points not writers who have either to retract or immediately connected with his repu- defend what they may have said about tation. It turns out for instance, that him, may have to allege; I can only he was a Mohawk Indian of unmixed say that my own opinion about him is parentage. This circumstance, howev- changed. I am now inclined exceeder, ought not to be overlooked in esti- ingly to doubt Mr. Weld's anecdote, mating the merits of his attainments. and for this reason : Brant was not onHe spoke and wrote our language with ly trusted, consulted, and distinguished force and facility, and had enlarged by several eminent British officers in views of the union and policy of the America, but personally beloved by Indian tribes. A gentleman who had them. Now I could conceive men in been in America, and from whom I power, for defensible reasons of state sought information respecting him in politics, to have officially trusted and consequence of your interesting mes even publicly distinguished at courts or sage, told me that though he could not levees an active and sagacious Indian pretend to appreciate his character en. chief, of whose private character they
9 ATHENEUM VOL. 11.*